Will there be a horticultural triangle (cluster)? Thoughts about the reconstruction of the Hungarian horticulture between two European regions
The authors of this study seek the answer to the question how to develop, in the first decade or decades of the 21st century, the university-levelhorticultural scientific training, the horticultural innovation and the scientific co-operation between companies and universities in Debrecen andin the North Great Plain Region and – in a wider sense ...– in Hungary to a standard being competitive even in European terms. With the synthesisof the prospects of past, present and future, they drew the following conclusions. The reconstruction of agriculture, horticulture and food industryis a part of reforming Hungary's countryside. Horticulture, producing high added value, will be able to decisively contribute to the plan whereasthe value presently produced in an agriculturally cultivated area of 1,000 euros/hectare can reach 2,000 to 3,000 euros in the next two decades.A necessary and indispensable precondition to achieving this is the strengthening of the innovation output of the Hungarian horticultural sector.Despite the numerous technical criticisms formulated in connection with the serious problems of Hungarian agricultural and horticulturalscientific innovation, no progress has been made in this field for the past one and a half decade. The scientific research of this topic hardlycontinued or did not continue at all, the up-to-date surveys and in-depth analyses were missing. The objective, basic principles and tasks of theAct CXXXIV of 2004 (TTI) enacted concerning research-development and technological innovation are clear and progressive. The co-operationbetween the National Research Technology Office and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the setting up of the Innovation Fund are hearteningopportunities. These – along with the new Higher Education Bill to be passed – may as well be suitable for restarting the Hungarian agriculturaland horticultural scientific innovation. In our opinion, this requires a new, well-considered national agricultural programme, which can beconceived in the framework of the "Ferenc Entz National Horticultural Plan" proposed by us for horticulture. In the most eastern Hungarianuniversity knowledge centre, at the University of Debrecen, the continuing of the horticultural scientific innovation strategy started in the lastdecade may be the focal point and generator of the development of the so-called "Hungarian Horticultural Triangle”, or "HungarianHorticultural Cluster". This region comprises the Northern and Southern Great Plain Regions and the area between the Danube and TiszaRivers. Here, about 70 to 75% of the total Hungarian horticultural commodity stock is produced. The objective of the HORT-INNOTECHDEBRECEN programme planned in 2004 by the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Science is to establish the horticultural scientificresearch-development and technological innovation structure and knowledge base of the Hungarian Horticultural Triangle / HungarianHorticultural Cluster. In harmony with this, the objectives are to bring about competitive, new horticultural products, to improve the conditionsof utilising them, to enhance the competitiveness of enterprises based on technological innovation, to make use of the research-development andinnovation opportunities available in the regions in an efficient manner, to as full extent as possible, to encourage the creation of places ofemployment producing high added value in the field of horticulture, to improve the technical skills of those employed in horticultural researchdevelopment and to promote their enhanced recognition by the society.
Skin colour of fruits is an important fruit quality parameter. Fruit growers know the phenomenon that the apple colouration is very good in one year while in other years the green and red apples can be differentiated only on the basis of the morphological characteristics of the fruits. There are great differences in values of cover colour between ...years.In the first step, the relationships between day and night temperature, the difference between day and night temperature and fruit skin colour should be determined. In this study, the authors investigate and quantify this relationship.
The experiment with three different rootstock cultivars was set up in a commercial apple orchard at Nagykutas, which is situated in the western part of Hungary. The aim of our two-year-study was to determine the effect three different growing rootstock cultivars (M9, MM106 and seedling) on the flowering and productivity of 33 apple cultivars. Our ...observations included the following measurements: the date of the beginning and the end of flowering, flower density, fruit density, fruit numbers per tree and tree productivity. According to our results, it was found that the different growing rootstocks have a great determining effect on the above measurements. Our results showed that the flowering period was similar for all cultivars on the three different rootstocks. However, the flowering and the fruit setting decreased in the order M9, MM106 and seedling rootstocks. In contrast, the fruit number per tree followed, in decreasing order, MM106, seedling and M9 rootstocks.
The authors studied the effect of rootstocks with different growing vigour on fruit quality of different cultivars. Research results shows that best fruit diamter and fruit weight of all cultivars are for M9 rootstock. Similar tendency was found in skin colour, but in the case of Granny Smith, MM106 rootstock is more favourable because the green s...kin colour is necessary for the consumers’ acceptance. Seedling rootstok has some unfavourable effects on fruit quality, thus its usage is not expedient.
The aim of the study was to find out which of the methods used to avoid damages of late frosts would be the most effective for the fruit growing practice. We tested the antifrost irrigation method in Debrecen-Pallag. For that purpose microjet sprayers are used, which are thrifty and does not need for that purpose large containers. With the aim to ...secure an even distribution of water, the sprayers are distributed on three levels: above and inside of the crown as well as on the level of trunks. On a large scale, a single microjet above the crown level would be sufficient. By means of a detailed analysis served to set the optimum intervals between spraying phases: with each 15, 10, 5 and 3 minutes during half a minute. The synchronous presence of water and ice below the freezing point, the released freezing heat plus the water used much above the freezing point(9–10 °C) altogether maintains the temperature above around 0 °C near the flowers or growing fruitlets, meanwhile, the surrounding air cools down to -8 °C. The effectiveness of the generally used antifrost would be increased substantially by the former application of cooling irrigation, which delays the blooming date.
We revealed and assessed those macroeconomic data which enabled us to identify the outstanding role of agriculture and within it that of fruit production. Based on this, it can be said that soil is the most important natural resource of Hungary. The appropriate combination of the additional resources required for production, labour and assets can ...provide a comparative advantage for the Northern Great Plain Region.The Northern Great Plain Region is one of the most underdeveloped regions in Hungary, so its development is a political objective. When analysing the economic sectors in the region, the important role of agriculture is obvious and it is also clear that the industry and the tertiary sector can only have an alternative income generating role in the future also. Therefore, it is important that the regional development funds of Hungary and the European Union are directly or indirectly aimed at improving agricultural development and competitiveness.
Vegetative shoot growing and yield productivity of different plum cultivar and rootstocks combination
We planted containers plum rootstocks and cultivar combinations for irrigation and rootstocks experiment. We planted Cacanska lepo tica, Katinka, Jojo, Topfive, Toptaste, Topper plum cultivar on Mirobalan, St Julien A, St Julien GF 655/2, Wavit, Wangenheim, and Fereley rootstocks. Before budding we measured the trunk diameter on trees, than I coun...t the trunk cross area, we measured the high of trees, the high of crown, and the wide of crown, and counted the volume of crown from these data. We conclude the vigorous from the trunk cross area and the volume of crown. In the started growing less vigorous combinations look like Topfive/Wavit, Jojo/Mirobalan and Katinka/Mirobalan grafted on the basis trunk cross area and the volume of crown. In the vegetative period we measured the shoot growing on model branch every started of months. So we could determine the growing tendency. The smallest growing was Cacanska lepotika/Mirobalan. In the flowering the grafted flowered in rich, excepted the Topfive cultivar on St Julien A, St Julien GF 655/2, and Fereley rootstocks, these didn’t flowered. The Topfive/Wavit combinations there were a richest flower. In the harvest term we could pick up plum fruits from Topfive/Wavit combinations, and Cacanska lepotica, Jojo, Toptaste cultivar. And in addition the Topper cultivar was the highest yield on their all of rootstocks.
Local strategical tasks in the Hungarian fruit production with respect to the global economic and climatic changes
After identifying the problems, we have determined the local tasks which Hungarian fruit growing has to accomplish to remain competitive despite global market pressures and global climate change.Fruit growing in the Great Plain is of determining importance in Hungary as 75% of fruit originates from the Great Plain. Therefore, the maintenance of th...e competitiveness of fruit growing on the Great Plain is an important economic interest which is a difficult task to resolve, because the global economic pressure against local resources and climate change affect the fruit growers sensitively. In Hungarian fruit production, it is necessary to select/develop with great care the appropriate location, training system and methods of emergency technology which have to be harmonised.
In the present study the authors investigated the effect of sunburn injury on fruit quality parameters (cover colour, depth of tissue damage, fruit flesh firmness, dry matter content) of apple.The symptoms of sunburn injury appeared as concentric rings, differing in colour from each other and the cover colour. This can be connected with the ratio ...of the injury. The authors observed the following colours on the fruit surface (from the epicentre of spots on the surface of the fruit) dark brown (strongly damaged), light brown (moderately damaged), pale red transition (weakly damaged), red surface cover colour (not damaged).Sunburn of apple fruits is a surface injury caused by solar radiation, heat and low relative humidity. In the initial phase, a light corky layer, golden or bronze discolouration and injuries of the epidermal tissue appear on the surface exposed to radiation. Thus, it detracts from the fruit’s appearance, but in most of the cases it would not cause serious damages in the epidermal tissue. The depth of tissue damage is not considerable, its values are between 1.5-2.0 mm in general. It is commonly known, that tissue structure of the apple fruit is not homogeneous. Accordingly, the degree of injury shows some differences under the different parts of the fruit surface.On the basis of the flesh firmness studies, it can be stated that the flesh firmness of the damaged parts increases due to the sunburn effect. This is due to the fact that the damaged plant cells die, the water content of the tissue decreases and it hardens. However, due to this reduction in the water content the dry matter content will increase.
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