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Preliminary studies on in vitro sensitivity of Venturia inaequalis populations to some fungicide active ingredients
Published December 16, 2012
165-168

Aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of conidia of Spilocaea pomi to main fungicide active ingredients (cyprodinil, pirimethanil, fluquinconazole, tebuconazole, difenoconazole, dodine és trifloxistrobin) at dosages of 0.5, 1 and 2 times incubated in vitro at 24 and 48 hours collected from three integrated apple orchards. Result...s showed that degree of conidial germinations at the fungicide treatnemts decreased in the order of dosages of untreated, 0.5, 1 and 2 times. Considerable conidial germination was observed at higher dosages of some fungicides (e.g. groups of strobilurines and EBI) which confirmed the possibilities of sensitivity reduction of Spilocaea pomi to some funigicides in the sampled Hungarian apple orchards.

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58
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Application of GIS, precision agriculture and unplugging cultivation in plant breeding of Karcag
Published December 15, 2019
49-56

In the last two decades, the prevailing ecological conditions and climate change have caused negative effects. Therefore, a paradigm shift is needed in the field growing of plants. The latest inventions, digital technologies, precision cultivation are not enough, the mentality of the farmers is more important. For this reason, not only big fina...ncial sacrifices, but adequate receptivity are needed on behalf of farmers. Adequate skills and continuous self-education are necessary. The yield of plant growing farms is determined by ecological conditions to a 40% extent, genetic background of the seed has a 30% share and the applied agricultural technology has a proportion of 30%. In different agroecological conditions, bred varieties of plants have bigger tolerance to unfavorable factors of the regions and significant yield stability. Farmers, who buy and sow seeds, can only contribute to the genetic potential of the seeds with cultivation technology. Plant breeding provides stable genetic background and good quality seeds. Breeding activity – choosing variety proposants, breeding them, selection work, classical breeding process for 8-10 years – must create new landraces, which can produce balance, high yield and have good quality parameters in extreme ecological conditions, yearly excursion and have higher tolerance to unfavorable factors of the region giving significant production stability for farmers. In Karcag GIS technology, precision cultivation elements and soil-friendly agrotechnical methods have been introduced which largely support the aims of breeding and can also provide optimal cultivation conditions in extreme years. Because of the specificity of breeding the main aim is not only to increase yield but to provide harmonic growing for bred materials, to decrease the number and the cost of cultivation and to be punctual. In this study, applied new methods and technologies are introduced.

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69
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Identification and biological examination of some inland Monilinia species
Published May 16, 2012
27-29

The aim of this study was to identify and biologically analyse some Monilinia species from Hungary. 146 M. fructigena and 28 M. laxa species out 174 infectious fruit from all over the country were used for the study. For further study 10 isolates were used and apple fruit was inoculated with them according to Koch postulate. 1–2 mm ochre exog...en stromas were observbed on infectious plant parts and growing signs on culture of all isolates were identical to M. fructigena. To affirm classical identification, isolates with molecular biological method were also prepared using PCR reaction. Control isolates of M. laxa, M. fructigena and M. fructicola were used. The size of PCR product showed that all isolates had a 415 bp band which was typical of  M. fructigena. Results support the previous observation that M. fructigena and M. laxa species occure all over Hungary.

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71
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The effect of reduced sprinkler programs on the main fungal pathogens of apple in environmentally sound production systems
Published December 22, 2010
13-16

Aim of our two-year study was to evaluate the possibilities of chemical use against key fungal pathogens (apple scab, apple powdery mildew and brown rot) in integrated and organic apple production. Therefore, first, disease incidence was compared in standard and reduced spray programmes and then each technological variation was evaluated from p...ractical point of view. Altogether four spray programmes were compared. Standard and reduced spray programmes were performed in the integrated production. The same pesticides were used in the reduced spray
programme compared to standard one but numbers of spray were reduced by 25% at the second half of the season. Standard and reduced spray programmes were also performed in the organic production and the numbers of spray were reduced by 40% in the reduced spray programme. Incidence of diseases was low in both standard and reduced spray programmes in integrated production. Diseases level was high in the organic production and disease increased significantly in the reduced spray programmes compared to standard programmes. Results showed that reduction in spray numbers at the second half of the season can be used practically in integrated production. Omission of sprays in organic
production resulted in serious disease management risk; therefore, it is not recommended for practical use. 

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