The use of microbial inoculums is a part of sustainable agricultural practices. Among various bioeffectors, the phosphorus-mobilizing bacteria are frequently used.
The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of some industrial biofertilizer inoculums, of containing P-mobilizing bacteria on the quantity and some quality para...meters of tomato fruits. Spore-forming industrial Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 (Rhizovital) as single inoculums and combinations with other Bacillus strains (Biorex) were applied on Solanum lycopersicon Mill. var. Mobil test plant. Soil microbial counts, phosphorus availability, yield and fruit quality, such as total soluble solids (TSS) content and sugars (glucose, fructose) were assessed. The results found that single industrial inoculums of FZB42 product had positive effect on P-availability and fruit quality in the pots. Fruit quality parameters, TSS content, soluble sugars were significantly improved (p<0.05). Such better fruit taste was correlated significantly by the most probable number (MPN) microbial counts. Use of such bioeffector products is supported by the positive interrelation among measured soil characteristics and inside healthy quality parameters of tomato fruits.
Some chemical and microbiological properties of the carbon cycle were investigated in three chernozem soil profiles. The soil profiles originated from a long term fertilization experiment (potato) of the University of Debrecen, Látókép, Kryvyi Rig Botanic Garden (grassland) and a large-scale farm (sunflower) of Ukraine. The results of the or...ganic C-content, total number of bacteria, microscopical fungi, cellulose decomposing bacteria, CO2-production, microbial biomass carbon and saccharase and dehydrogenase activities were compared and evaluated with the help of correlation analyses. Close correlation was found between the organic carbon content and the number of microscopical fungi,, saccharase and dehydrogenase enzymes’ activities, as well as close correlation was found between the dehydrogenase activity and microbial biomass-C and saccharase activity.
Pesticides play a key role in fighting weeds, pests and parasitic fungi. According to surveys, pests reduce the yield of agricultural crops by 35% worldwide. Pests, fungi and weeds account for 14%, 12% and 9% yield loss, respectively (Gáborjányi et al., 1995). Chemicals have contributed to increasing and maintaining the yields of crop product...ion for decades. Today, agricultural production (in spite of many efforts) is unthinkable without the use of pesticides (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides). On the other hand, these chemicals contribute to the pollution of the atmosphere, surface and underground waters, and agricultural soils, especially if they are applied improperly.
The sustainable agricultural production pays attention to environment-friendly cultivation-technologies; but at the same time it makes an effort to produce good quality and economical products. The examination of the herbicides’ secondary effects, fits into this chain of idas namely, how the herbicides affect – stimulating or inhibiting – the soil microbiological processes, prevention of soil fertility.
In the course of the experimental work the effect of herbicides on soil biological properties were examined in different maize (Zea mays) cultures. We wanted wished to know that how the herbicides affect the quantity change of soil microorganisms, the life of different physiological groups of bacteria and the activity of microorganisms. A small pot experiment was set up in 2008 with the application of two herbicides - Acenit A 880 EC and Merlin 480 SC – in the breeding house of the Department. The moisture content and nutrient supply were at optimal level in the experiment.
On the basis of results the following can be stated:
1. It can be stated that the two herbicides and all their doses affected negatively the number of total soil bacteria, the
inhibiting effects were significant. The quantity of microscopical fungi increased by the effect of Merlin 480 SC and decreased in the treatments of Acenit A 880 EC.
2. The Acenit A 880 EC had stimulating effect on the nitrate mobilization. The CO2-production was stimulated by the basic doses of herbicides; the other treatments did not influence the CO2-production significantly.
3. The quantity of microbial biomass-carbon –except for only one treatment- decreased significantly by the effect of herbicides. Besides it, the quantity of microbial biomass-nitrogen increased significantly in the treatments of Acenit A 880 EC.
4. The biomass of test plant decreased in the treatments of herbicides, their quantities were smaller than in the control. In the pots treated by Merlin 480 SC, parallel with the increase of doses decreased the quantity of plant-biomass.
In the course of the research we determined selenium and dry-matter content of 35 wheat grasses and 35 wheat seeds. The selenium content of the preparation plant samples was measured by spectrofluorimetric determination (ʎexcitation=380 nm, ʎemission=519 nm) of the resulted piaz-selenol complex. It was established that b...etween the selenium content of the wheat grass and wheat seed the correlation coefficient was 0.36 at p=0.05 level which indicates a medium close correlation. Similarly, there was a medium close correlation between selenium content of the wheat grass calculated on dry-matter basis and total selenium content of the wheat, with a correlation coefficient of 0.40 at p=0.02 level.
Literature sources mention 18 fish species from the Hejő watershed. In order to learn more about the fauna, we studied the brook and its tributaries between 2003–2005. We detected a total of 32 fishspecies, 17 of which are new for the watershed. Most of these are native species (Rutilus rutilus, Leuciscus leuciscus, Leuciscus idus, Aspius as...pius, Leucaspius delineatus, Gobio albipinnatus, Abramis bjoerkna, Abramis ballerus, Lota lota, Gymnocephalus cernuus, Sander lucioperca), but there are some adventive ones (Pseudorasbora parva, Carassius gibelio, Ameiurus melas, Lepomis gibbosus, Perccottus glenii) and a spontaneously immigrated species as well (Proterorhinus marmoratus).
Specific natural values of the watershed are the isolated population of minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus) in Kulcsárvölgyi Brook and the frequently occurring mudminnow (Umbra krameri) in the lower reach of Hejő Brook.
During our research we studied the fat content and fatty acid composition during the germination and sprouting periods of the most important sprouts: wheat, lentil, alfalfa, radish and sunflower seed. In this article we present our research results during this sprouting study. The concentration of the saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid, stear...ic acid) decreased, the concentration of the unsaturated fatty acids increased during germination, but the tendency was not so high than was published in the literature.
Between 2003 and 2005 faunistic survey was completed in the sections of the low- and highland watercourses of the water-regime of the Zagyva and Tarna rivers. On the basis of bed-slope, dominance and frequency of the fish species the following sections can be divided in the examined streams:
1./ Upper-chub-zone: the bed-slope is above 15 m/k
2./ Middle-chub-zone: the bed-slope is between 5-15 m/km. The typical fishspecies–besides the Barbatula barbatula and Leuciscus cephalus – is the Gobio gobio.
3./ Down-chub-zone: in the case of larger watercourses (Zagyva and Tarna rivers) the bed-slope is 1,2-5 m/km, at smaller streamlets it is 1,7-5m/km. The typical fishspecies–besides the 3 above mentioned species–are the Cobitis elongatoides, the Alburnus alburnus and in the watersystem of Tarna the Alburnoides bipunctatus.
4./ Top-perch-zone: the bed-slope is 0,3-1,2 m/km, or at smaller streamlets it is 0,3-1,7 m/km. The typical fishspecies–besidestheCobitis elongatoides, the Alburnus alburnus and the Alburnoides bipunctatus - are the Rutilus rutilus, the Gobio albipinnatus ant the Rhodeus sericeus.
In our experiment, we studied the impact of an organic fertilizer, Bactofil® A10 (half- and full dosage applied in field practice) and an artificial fertilizer of Ca(NO3)2 content in different dosages (20-40 mg kg-1) – in addition to control treatments – on two different soils (calcareous chernozem, humus sandy soil) in 2005-2006, the expe...riment was complemented with treatments applying 250% dosage (100 mg kg-1 N, Bactofil® A10 2.5 times the field dosage) and a compost from urban sewage (25 g kg-1 compost) was also tested on these two soil types. In the
experiment, several soil microbial parameters were studied. The experiment was set up at the Department of Agrochemistry and Soil Science using 1-kg pots.
Our laboratory experiments were performed at the soil microbiology laboratory of UD CAS Department of Agrochemistry and Soil Science, the total number of bacteria, microscopic fungi, nitrifying and aerob cellulose-decomposing bacteria were determined together with the CO2-production of soil, N content of the biomass and urease enzyme activity.
Statistical analysis of the data was done using the program SPSS 13.0, means of the measurements, deviation and significance values were calculated.
In 2005-2006, the effect of the different dosages of Bactofil® A10, and the Ca(NO3)2 fertilizer on the examined microbial parameters of calcareous chernozem and humus sandy soils can be summarized as follows:
• Concerning the total number of bacteria, both treatments were effective on calcareous chernozem soil, the higher (significant) increment in bacteria number was observed in the artificial fertilizer treatments, while in the humus sandy soil Bactofil treatments had a beneficial effect. The number of microscopic fungi also increased in both treatments, higher numbers were observed in the average of two years in the Bactofil treatments.
• The number of nitrifying bacteria was 2.5 times higher in both high-dosage treatments on calcareous chernozem soil, while on humus sandy soil a slight (not significant) increment was observed only int he high-dosage Bactofil treatment. The amount of aerob cellulose-decomposing bacteria significantly increased on calcareous chernozem soil in both the highdosage artificial fertilizer and the small-dosage Bactofil treatment, however, on humus sandy soil no significant increase was observed in either treatment.
• The CO2-production increased in both soil types, although it was not significant in either treatment. A higher (though not significant) soil respiration was observed in the Bactofil treatments in both soil types.
• The microbial biomass N values were significantly higher in the high-dosage Bactofil treatments, however, the high-dosage artificial fertilizer treatment also increased these values significantly on calcareous chernozem soil.
• On calcareous chernozem soil, urease activity was significantly increased and reduced by high-dosage artificial fertilizer treatments and Bactofil treatments, respectively. On humus sandy soil, urease activity was also reduced except for the high-dosage artificial fertilizer treatment. In 2007, the pot experiment with 250% dosages was complemented with the application of compost rich in organic matter, the results of these treatments are sumnmarized as follows:
• In the case of the total number of bacteria, all three treatments resulted in a significant increase on calcareous chernozem soil with the highest values in the Bactofil treatment. The Bactofil treatment was the most effective on the humus sandy soil, but the artificial fertilizer treatment also
resulted in a significant increment. In the case of the total number of fungi, Bactofil treatments resulted in the highest values on both soils, but the compost treatment also increased the number of fungi in calcareous chernozem significantly.
• The number of nitrifying bacteria was increased most (significantly) by the Bactofil and compost treatments on both soil types. The amount of cellulose-decomposing bacteria was significantly increased by he compost treatment on calcareous chernozem soil, while its effect was not significant on humus sandy soil. The number of these bacteria was increased significantly by the Bactofil treatment on humus sandy soil.
• On calcareous chernozem soil, all three treatments significantly increased CO2-production, while the compost treatments had the resulted in the largest increment in soil respiration on both soil types.
• The soil biomass N content was significantly increased in both soils by the compost treatment, while in the case of the humus sandy soil, the Bactofil treatment also resulted in a significant increment.
• Urease enzyme activity was significantly increased by the artificial fertilizer treatment on both soils. In calcareous chernozem soil, the Bactofil treatment resulted in a slight (not significant) reduction in enzyme activity. In humus sandy soil, the Bactoful treatment also resulted in a slight reduction, while the compost treatment increased (though not significantly) the urease activity.
Based on our results, it can be stated that all three treatments were effective with respect to the studied soil microbial parameters. For both the calcareous chernozem and the humus sandy soil, the organic fertilizer Bactofil and the compost with high organic matter content had a stronger effect on some soil microbial parameters than the artificial fertilizer.
Nitrogen is a key element for the living organisms and influence not only for the quantity but for the quality of the yield, considerable. Availability of nitrogen from the soil is influenced by several microbiological processes of the Nitrogen-cycle. Among the intensive agricultural production the herbicide application cannot be omitted more i...nformation needs therefore about the inhibitor effect of herbicides on the different microorganisms.
An experiment was set up on calcareous chernozem soil under maize culture. Effect of four different herbicides (Acenit, Frontier, Merlin, and Wing) was investigated. The effect of herbicides was measured to four microbiological parameters of the Nitrogencycle (abundance of nitrifying bacteria, nitrate solubilisation, biomass nitrogen and urease enzyme activity). There were singledouble- and five times of recommended doses of herbicides applied for two onsecutive vegetation periods.
From the results of the different doses of herbicides, the following can be stated:
– The Acenit has a stimulating effect on nitrifying bacteria in general. The Frontier and Merlin also influenced the quantity of nitrifyers, however in certain cases decreased in another cases increased the number of bacteria.
– The double doses and five times doses of herbicides was found to be increasing the nitrate content of soil, -especially in 2006.
– The quantity of microbial biomass nitrogen increased in the 60% of treatments and decreased in the 40% of the treatments.
– Except of the result of Wing in 2006 and Merlin in 2005, the effect of simple dose herbicides was the smallest on the urease enzyme activity. According to the results the effect of Merlin was positive; the effect of Wing was negative on the soil enzyme’s activity.
Regarding the application of four different herbicides in three different doses on the microbiological parameters of soil (at two consecutive years-) in 39% of the treatments has resulted a significant inhibitory effect, 28% of the treatments, however have significant stimulating effect on the parameters measured. More than 50% of the inhibitory effect was measured in case of the Wing, at more than 50% of the Frontier the microbiological parameters have not changed.
Sustainable plant growth, considering the difficulties of weed elimination, cannot be effective without the application of herbicides. However, these chemicals have enormous ecological implications, including effects on the microbiological communities of soils. It is advisable to use herbicides that have minimal secondary effects on the environ...ment and soil-living microorganisms. In contrast, herbicides with prolonged growth stimulating or inhibiting effects are not suitable, because both types have strong influences on the number and activity of bacteria, thus causing changes in the ecological equilibrium.
Preceding small plot experiments, laboratory tests were carried out to study the effect of herbicides used in maize cultures on the number of bacteria and growth of microscopic fungi.
Substances that were observed to have stronger influences were applied in small plot experiments set up in the experimental garden of the Department of Plant Protection of the University of Debrecen. We studied the effects of four herbicides (Acenit A88EC, Frontier 900 EC, Merlin SC and Wing EC) on the microbiological properties of the soil. These herbicides were used in different concentrations in maize culture, and we investigated the effects in different soil layers.
In the laboratory experiments, we determined the total number of bacteria and microscopic fungi and examined the growth of Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma sp. and Fusarium oxysporum on peptone-glucose agar containing herbicides.
During the small plot experiments, soil samples were collected 3 times a year from 2-20 cm depth. The total numbers of bacteria and microscopic fungi were determined by plate dilution method, while the method of most probable number (Pochon method) was used to determine the numbers of nitrifying bacteria and cellulose decomposing bacteria. To evaluate the microbiological activity of the soil samples we measured carbon-dioxide release (after 10 days incubation), nitrate production (after 14 days incubation) and the concentration of C and N in the biomass.
We can summarize our results as follows:
• In laboratory experiments, herbicides caused a decrease in the number of bacteria and inhibited the growth of microscopic fungi.
• Frontier 900 EC and Acenit A 880 EC had the strongest inhibiting effect on microorganisms.
• In small plot experiments, herbicide treatment decreased the total number of bacteria and microscopic fungi.
• Herbicides caused a significant increase in the number of nitrifying and cellulose decomposing bacteria.
• Different herbicides containing the same active compound had similar influences on soil microoorganisms.
• A significant increase was observed in the physiological processes of tolerant microorganisms surviving the effects of herbicides