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  • Milestones in the development of agronomic management practices in crop production
    203-209
    Views:
    132

    From the dawn of the history of the human race, agriculture has always been a profound activity of mankind producing food and feed as well as various plant originated materials for further processing.

    Agronomy, like any other human activity, depends on the perpetual development of knowledge and technical skills, - in a modern context – science and innovation. This paper is intended to provide the reader with information regarding the main phases of the development of agricultural production from the Neolithic societies through the early Mesopotamian and Egyptian empires to the inventions of first organised learned society of Rome. The major research findings of the past two millennia including agro-chemistry, genetics and technical development are presented.

    Such a review should not lead to any scientific conclusions, but rather a philosophical postulate similar to that of Jonathan Swift written some centuries ago: “And he gave it for his opinion, that whoever could make two ears of corn, or two blades of grass, to grow upon a spot of ground, where only one grew before, would deserve better of mankind, and do more essential service to his country, than the whole race of politicians put together”.

  • Influence of temperature and variety on seed germination of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) at different germination times
    5-12
    Views:
    53

    Seed germination is an important stage in crop development that affects plant performance, crop yield, and quality. Many factors influence seed germination, and one of the most important factors is temperature. The closer the temperature is to the optimum, the faster germination will occur. Temperature affects seed germination in various plants and varies depending on the variety. Therefore, the effect of temperature on seed germination is necessary to investigate, also for soybean varieties. Soybean is one of the world's most valuable oil-seed crops. Generally, proper seedling establishment and germination of soybean seeds are crucial processes in the survival and growth cycle of the crop. Thus, a study was done to investigate the influence of temperature and variety on soybean seed germination at different times after sowing. The experiment was carried out at the Institute of Agronomy, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE), Crop Production Laboratory. Seeds of two soybean varieties were subjected to three different temperatures: 15, 25, and 35 °C, and two soybean varieties, Martina and Johanna were tested. There were four germination times based on the days after sowing: Days 3, 5, 7, and 9. This experiment was set up with a completely randomized block design and four replications. According to the findings of this study, the Martina variety showed a better germination rate as well as higher vigor and viability than the Johanna variety in the first 12 days after sowing. At temperatures of 15 °C and 25 °C, both varieties achieved comparable percentages of viability, but they were more vigorous at 25 °C due to better total seedling length. Thus, the information gained from this study will indirectly determine and confirm the proper temperature for the initial growth of the Martina and Johanna varieties.

  • Influence of nitrogen fertilisation on the technological quality of wheat
    47-55
    Views:
    27

    Wheat is one of the most grown crops around the world. Its primary use is in the production of bread, bakery, and confectionery. The provision of essential nutrients, mainly nitrogen, plays a pivotal role in the growth and development of wheat. The wheat varieties used in the experiment are Alfold and Mv. Menrot. The rates of nitrogen used in the experiment are: 0, 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 kg N ha-1. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilisation on technological quality of wheat and to find the appropriate fertiliser rate to reduce pollution. The results indicate that nitrogen fertilisation did not show a significant effect on thousand kernel weight and test weight. However, nitrogen fertilisation significantly affected protein content, gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation index, and the falling number. The higher the nitrogen fertilisation the better the technological quality parameters of the wheat. The protein content, gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation index and the falling number were the lowest at 0 kg N ha-1 followed by 200 kg N ha-1 then 400 kg N ha-1 and the highest at 600 kg N ha-1.

  • Challenges and limtations of site specific crop production applications of wheat and maize
    101-104
    Views:
    119

    The development and implementation of precision agriculture or site-specific farming has been made possible by combining the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Site specific agronomic applications are of high importance concerning the efficiency of management in crop production as well as the protection and maintenance of environment and nature. Precision crop production management techniques were applied at four locations to evaluate their impact on small plot units sown by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) in a Hungarian national case study. The results obtained suggest the applicability of the site specific management techniques, however the crops studied responded in a different way concerning the impact of applications. Maize had a stronger response regarding grain yield and weed canopy. Wheat was responding better than maize concerning plant density and protein content performance.