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Application of different compost doses in Pinova and Golden Delicious apple orchards
Published May 6, 2013
91-94

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Nowadays the success vegetable and fruit production are unimaginable without regular nutrient management. The animal husbandry is getting decrease, thereby there is the lack of organic fertilizer and it is suggested to find alternative nutrient supply methods. One of the ways to supply the required nutrients in an environmentally friendly way is the application of composts, which is less widespread so far, which is appropriate for the requirement of organic farming.

From the year of 2010 in each year, compost doses were applied in biological apple orchards in cooperation with the Institute of Horticultural Science. In the function of the years different changes were resulted by the compost treatments in the examined parameters in case of both apple species (Golden Delicious and Pinova). It was concluded that the dry matter, ash, total acids, sugar content and the vitamin C changed versus time and species. It is supposed that the effect of compost treatments is getting visible.

According to the data higher dry matter, total acids and sugar content, (in some cases) ash were measured in case of the apple species Pinova, while the measurements showed higher vitamin C content in case of the species Golden Delicious.

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Effects of soil compost application on the leaf surface area per running meter of apple (Malus domesticaBorkh.) leaves cultivated in organic and integrated orchard
Published March 11, 2014
111-116

The effect of different compost doses on the nutrient contents of the soil (in depth of 0–30) were measured in an (organic and integrated) apple orchards. The leaf surface area per running meter shoot for certain apple species (Golden Delicious and Pinova) were determined.

The field experiments were conducted in the Research Field of ...Debrecen-Pallag, University of Debrecen, the analysis of the soil and plant samples took place in the laboratories of the Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science.
The compost treatments increased the amount of the examined nutrients in the top 30 cm of soil originated from organic and integrated orchard. Changes in rainfall were observed in the trends of the leaf surface area of the two apple varieties. 2010 was rainy and 2012 was drier. The leaf surface area of the Pinova increased better under the precipitation/year effect, than in case of the nutrient supply treatments. The opposite was observed in case of the Golden Delicious.

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The effect of water-stress on the mineral nutrition of fruit plantations
Published October 5, 2010
187-192

Besides agro-techniques the climatic conditions play an important role in agricultural production. Weather extremes are
significant hazards to many horticultural regions all over the word. It has a profound influence on the growth, development and yields of a
crop, incidence of pests and diseases, water needs and fertilizer requirements i...n terms of differences in nutrient mobilization due to water
stresses. Nowadays, the weather extremes cause more and more problems and significant hazards to many horticultural regions in Hungary.
The aim of this study is to explore the problems of nutrient uptake followed from climatic anomalies and response it. In this study
we focus on water supply problems (water-stress).
Reviewing the effects and nutrient disorders caused by climatic anomalies, the following statements can be taken:
· Nutrient demand of trees can be supplied only under even worse conditions.
· The most effective weapon against damage of climatic anomalies is preventative action.
· Proper choice of cultivars, species and cultivation should provide further possibilities to avoid and moderate the effects of
climatic anomalies.
· Fruit growing technologies especially nutrition should be corrected and adjusted to the climatic events as modifier factors.
· The role of foliar spraying, mulching and fertigation/irrigation is increasing continuously.
· Urgent task of the near future is to correct and adjust the tested technologies of fruit growing according to these climatic events as
modifier factors.
Optimal nutrient supply of trees decreases the sensitivity for unexpected climatic events. To solve these problems supplementary, foliar
fertilization is recommended, which adjusted to phonological phases of trees. Moreover, mulching is regarded as an excellent water saving
method.

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3
Studies of the influences of different N fertilizers and Microbion UNC bacterial fertilizer on the nutrient content of soil
Published October 5, 2010
134-140

A field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different nitrogen fertilizers in combination with bacterial fertilizer on
nutrient uptake of horseradish and plant available nutrients of the soil. Three different N fertilizers, ammonium-nitrate, urea and calciumnitrate
(116 kg ha-1 N) in combination with Microbion UNC bacterial... fertilizer (2 kg ha-1) were applied as treatments in a randomized
complete block design in three replications. In this paper we presented the results of soil measurements. The soil of the experimental area
was chernozem with medium sufficiency level of N and P and poor level of K.
Our main results:
The amount of 0.01M CaCl2 soluble inorganic nitrogen fractions, NO3
--N and NH4
+-N and also the quantity of soluble organic-N were
almost the same in the soil. N fertilizers significantly increased all the soluble N fractions. The amount of NO3
--N increased to the greatest
extent and the increase of organic N was the slightest. We measured the largest CaCl2 soluble NO3
- -N and total-N contents in the plots
treated with ammonium-nitrate, the largest NH4
+-N in the plots treated with calcium-nitrate and the largest organic-N fraction in plots
treated with urea.
Bacterial inoculation also increased both soluble inorganic nitrogen forms and also total-N content of soil compared to the control. In
the case of combined (artificial and bacterial fertilizer) treatments we measured lower NO3
--N, organic-N and total-N compared to the
values of plots having only nitrogen fertilizer treatments. On the contrary in the plots with combined treatments the CaCl2 soluble NH4
+-N
content of soil in more cases were higher than that of values with artificial fertilizer treatment.
As a function of calcium-nitrate application increased AL-P2O5 and AL-K2O values were measured compared to control. Microbion
UNC supplement of calcium nitrate yielded also increase in AL-P2O5 and AL-K2O values, till then supplement of ammonium-nitrate fertilizer
yielded a decrease in these values compared to the control.
All nitrogen fertilizers resulted in a significant decrease in AL-Mg content of soil compared to the control. Nevertheless bacterial
fertilizer increased AL-Mg values in any cases.

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Changing of some parameters of the soil-plant system as an effect of different composts
Published October 5, 2010
262-266

Composting is an alternative way for practicing site-specific and environmental friendly plant nutrient supply. Our aim was to study the effect of different composts on plant and soil system. 
Pot experiment with acidic sandy soil blended with three composts in five (0%, 5%, 10%, 25% and 50%) proportion was set up. Our experimental plan...t was perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). After the harvest of ryegrass we measured the fresh and dry weight of harvested plants, the P-, K-, Mg-contents, and the pH of soils.
The three composts had different effect on dry weight production and on nutrient-supply of soil. We established that one of the compost had significantly larger effect on the dry weight of ryegrass compared to the others. In this study we proved that favourable compost/soil proportion is different in the case of different composts.

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Effect of soil-compost proportion on the abiotic and biotic parameters of soilplant system
Published December 15, 2010
99-104

The environmental awareness, coming to the front in the 21st century, motivates us to supply the plant nutrient demand (in point of the plant, the environment and the human health) with natural materials.
Composting is known since the beginning of civilization. We came to know more the processes of composting as a result of last d...ecades’ research, but numerous unexplained questions remained up to this day. The good compost is dark gray or brown, and it should not create an odor. It has aggregate structure, and it’s pH is neutral. Compost is soil-like (Fehér, 2001), nutrient-rich material, which contains valuable nutrients extracted from soil, so if we recycle this, we can decrease the chemical fertilizer and other (example: mineral energy) expenses.
The reason of that we chose the more accurate cognition of compost utilization is to do more effective the site-specific nutrient supply. This increases the average yield and the quality of yield. Besides we can decrease the harmful effects, which endanger the plant, the environment, and the human body.
During the compost utilization experiment we blended the  acid sandy soil with compost in 4 different volumetric proportions (5 treatments) than we set the pots randomized. The advantage of this method is that we can provide equal conditions for plants so we can measure the effect of  treatments correctly. Our experimental plant was ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), that grows rapidly, tolerates the glasshouse conditions, and indicates the effect of treatments well. After the harvest of ryegrass we measured the fresh and dry weight of harvested leaves and the total C-, N-, S-content of the dry matter and of the soil, we examined the pH and the salt concentration of  soil as well. 
Our aim was to study and evaluate the relations between the compost-soil proportion and the nutrient content of soil and plant. In our previous experiments we confirmed (based on variance analyses) that the compost has a beneficial effect on soil and increases the nutrient content of the soil (Szabó, 2009). But it’s important to appoint that the compound of compost is seasonally change: in winter the selective gathered municipal solid waste contains salt that were applied for non-skidding of roads, but salt has a negative effect to the plant. We proved that in our experiment the 25/75% compost/soil proportion was ideal for the plant. This content of compost effected 6 times higher green matter weight compared to the 100% sandy soil. 

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The effect of different compost rates on the yield of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)
Published November 20, 2011
95-98

Protection of natural resources and sustainable natural resources management are essential for the long-term survival of humanity. This makes necessary nowadays the development of environmentally conscious living and spread of that in the future. The amount of organic waste materials, produced during human activities, could be decreased by comp...osting instead of dispose them in landfills. Applying appropriate treatment technology and additives, the compost could be used as fertilizer for horticultural crops and it could increase the easily available nutrient content of soils. Compost utilization prevents nutrient deficiencies and by using the optimal rate, we could reach significant yield increases.

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Effects of long-term K fertilization and liming on the extractable and exchangeable K contents of a Haplic Phaeosem soil
Published October 5, 2010
141-145

Effects of regular K fertilization and liming on the easily extractable K content of a Haplic phaeosem soil determined in 0.01 M CaCl2
and AL (traditional method in Hungary) were examined in the B1740 type of the National Uniformed Long-Term Fertilization Experiments
at Karcag.
Close correlation (r=0.95) was found between the 0.01 M Ca...Cl2 and ammonium lactate - acetic acid (AL) extractable K contents of
soils.
K fertilization increased the amount of 0.01 M CaCl2 and AL extractable K significantly. Liming had different effects on the amounts of
K extracted by these two methods. Liming increased the amount of AL-K and decreased the amount of CaCl2-K. CaCl2 extractable K was in
close correlation with the relative amount of exchangeable K content of the soil (K%) and the agronomic K balance. The results of regression
analysis confirmed that the CaCl2-K characterized K% and the AL-K related to the absolute amount of exchangeable K.
On the basis of the presented results it can be stated that the 0.01 M CaCl2 is able to detect not just the increase of easily extractable K
caused by fertilization and liming but the changing of the rate of the relative amount of exchangeable K.

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Compost application in integrated and organic fruit cultivation
Published July 31, 2012
135-139

Nowadays the success vegetable and fruit production are unimaginable without regular nutrient management. One of the ways to supply the required nutrients in an environmentally friendly way is the application of composts, which is less widespread so far. Compost doses were applied in biological and integrated apple orchards in cooperation with ...the Institute of Horticultural Science in the years 2010 and 2011. Different changes were resulted by the compost treatments in the examined parameters in case of both apple varieties (Golden Delicious and Pinova). There is no clear effect of compost on the changes of ash-, total acids, Vitamin C and the sugar content until now, because the improvement of the nutritional indicators takes more time. However significant differences were observed after one year between the apple varieties. Higher ash-, total acids and sugar content were measured in case of the apple variety Pinova, while the measurements showed higher Vitamin C content in case of the variety Golden Delicious.

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The effect of increasing compost rates on the yield and nutrient content of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)
Published December 16, 2012
127-134

Satisfaction of the increasing needs of humanity causes large environmental load. To provide a livable environment for future generations we have to satisfy our needs with the use of sustainable management. This is one of the biggest challenges of nowadays.
The amount of wastes emitted in increasing volume can be decreased by the recycling o...f them. The disposal of waste materials formed in the public spaces of cities and during the processing of agricultural row materials and by-products in landfills is inconceivable, so they must be recycled.
These materials mostly with organic compounds could be the primary substrates of composts. Completed with suitable additives, and applied appropriate treating technology, composts are capable to supply horticultural plants with nutrients. Composting wastes and byproducts not just decreases the amounts of deposited waste materials, but increases the nutrient (macro- and micronutrients) content of soils, so this is an  environmentally friendly and alternative way of nutrient management of plants.

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