The agricultural environment is contaminated with heavy metals and other toxic elements, which means more and more threats. One of the most important toxic element is the arsenic (As).
The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of As-treatments on the element content of the different parts of the green peas (root,stem, leaf, po
According to the results the Ca content of root and pod was increased in the case of the 3 mg kg-1 As-treatment, after that decreasing tendency was observed. In the case of the 270 mg kg-1 As-treatment, the Ca content in the root was increased, because some element is able to concentrate in the lower biomass. The Ca-content of stem and leaves was reduced when the plants were treated with more than 30 mg kg-1 As. The lowest As-treatment (3 mg kg-1) increased the Na content in the root, stem and leaves, however in the case of the higher As-dose, decreasing tendency was observed. In the case of the generative plant parts the 3 mg kg-1 As-treatment also increased the Na content, nevertheless in the case of the higher As-treatments lower Na content was measured, however in the case of the highest As-treatment (270 mg kg-1) the Na content was increased in the generative plant parts, probably the Na was concentrated in the lower biomass. In the case of the 90 and 270 mg kg-1 As-treatment the Mo-content also was increased in the generative plant parts. The 270 mg kg-1 As-treatment caused a similar tendency in the case of the generative plant parts as a result of the lower biomass. In the case of the pod and leaves, the lower As-doses did not cause significant changes.
The Mo content was increased in the root and pea when the plants were treated with 3 mg kg-1 As, but in the case of the higher treatments it was decreased. In the case of the stem it was reverse, the lowest As-tretament (3 mg kg-1) decreased, nevertheless the further As-doses increased the Mo content.
Agricultural management practices – directly or indirectly – influence soil properties.
Fertilization rates and crop rotation can strongly affect soil pH, soil nutrient supply and soil organic matter content due to the changes of microbial processes. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of different fertilization d...oses in monoculture and tri-culture of maize (monoculture: only maize grown since 1983, tri-culture: it is a three-year crop rotation system: pea – winter wheat – maize) on selected soil characteristics. The long-term fertilization experiments were set up in 1983 in Eastern Hungary. These experiments are situated west of Debrecen in Hajdúság loess region, on calcareous chernozem (according to WRB: Chernozems).
The test plant was maize (Zea mays L.). One-one pilot blocks were selected from monoculture and tri-culture of the long-term experiments. The observed soil samples were taken in the 30th year of the experiment, in 2013. The doses of NPK fertilizers increased parallel together, so the effects of N-, P- and K-fertilizers cannot be separated.
With the increasing fertilizer doses, the soil pH has decreased in both crop production systems and, in parallel, the hydrolytic acidity has significantly increased. A close negative correlation was proved between the pHH2O, pHKCl and hydrolytic acidity. An increased nutrient content in soil was recorded in every NPK treatment and the available phosphorus and nitrate content increased in higher proportion than that of potassium. Of the measured parameters of C-and N-cycles, fertilization has mostly had a positive effect on the microbial activity of soils. Besides the effects of fertilizer doses, correlation were looked for between soil microbiological properties. Evaluating the ratios among the measured parameters (organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon, OC/MBC ratio; carbon-dioxide and microbial biomass carbon; CO2/MBC proportion), the fertilization rate seems to be favoured by the increase of amounts of organic compounds
Micronutrients are as important as macronutrients for crops. Each micronutrient has its own function in plant growth. Zinc is important for membrane integrity and phytochrome activities. Copper is an essential micronutrient required for the growth of wheat. Manganese is required for enzyme activation, in electron transport, and in disease resis...tance. The pot experiment was set up in greenhouse on calcareous chernozem soil Debrecen-Látókép with a spring wheat. In certain development stages (according to BBCH growth scale of wheat), at the beginning of stem elongation (29–30), at the heading (51–59), at the flowering (61–69) stage three average plants were removed from all pots for analysis. Fresh and dry weight of the plant samples were measured. Plant leaves after drying were digested by HNO3-H2O2 methods and manganese, zinc and copper contents of plant were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. At the flowering stage, when the nutrient uptake of plants is the most intensive, the weight of wheat ranged between 0.94–1.57 g plant-1. In this development stage, the NS2 treatment produced the highest weight of wheat, and compared to this the NS3 treatment decreased that value already. The results show unfavourable effect of NS3 treatment. On the basis of microelement content of wheat and the weight of a plant, nutrient uptake by plant were calculated. At the beginning of growth the starter treatment had positive effect on Cu-uptake compared to the NS1 treatment, where the same dose of fertilizer was stirred into the soil. Wheat is very sensitive to copper deficiency, so copper dissolved by starter treatment could be favourable to the early development of wheat. At flowering stage the Zn-uptake of wheat became the highest and it was between 133.7–234.6 mg plant-1. The Mn-uptake of wheat plant was higher than the Cu- and Zn-uptake of wheat.
This phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the untreated soil had higher Mn-content, than Cu- and Zn-content. To summarize the results, it can be stated, that the copper uptake of wheat was more affected by the different treatments in the stage of stem elongation, while Mn- and Zn-uptake of wheat were influenced primarily in the stage of heading and flowering.
The effect of wheat straw ash as a fertlizizer was studied in a pot experiment with an acidic sandy loam soil (pHKCl=4.9) with weak K and P supply. The test plant was ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The treatments were the following: 1. control untreated soil, 2. NPK fertilizer, 3. small dose of ash (1.4 g kg-1), 4 large dose o...f ash (2.8 g kg-1), 5. small dose ash completed with NP fertilizers. Soil parameters (pHH2O, pHKCl, ammoinum-lactate soluble P, K, 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble PO43--P, K, Mn, Cu, Zn ) and plant parameters (yield, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn uptake) were investigated. Based on the analysis of the straw ash sample and the results of pot experiment it can be stated that the wheat straw ash is suitable for the fertilization of the studied soil. The small dose ash completed with NP resulted in the largest yield increment (43%). In order of the treatments the pHKCl changes to: 4.9, 4.8, 5.2, 5.8, 5.1. As the N : P2O5 : K2O ratio is 0 : 1: 3.5 in the wheat straw ash sample, to reach optimal yield ash should be completed with N and P.
A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to compare the effects of manure with different origin (horse, cattle), various bedding materials (straw, sawdust) and diverse doses (30 t ha-1, 60 t ha-1) and the impact of food waste compost on the plant growth and the available plant nutrient content of soil. The study was condu...cted on humic sandy soil and consisted of 9 treatments in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) was grown as the test crop. The treatments were: 1. unfertilized control; 2. horse manure with straw (30 t ha-1); 3. horse manure with sawdust (30 t ha-1); 4. cattle manure (30 t ha-1); 5 food waste compost (30 t ha-1); 6. horse manure with straw (60 t ha-1); 7. horse manure with sawdust (60 t ha-1); 8. cattle manure (60 t ha-1); 9. food waste compost (60 t ha-1). Plant growth was monitored for 4 weeks. Shoot and root weights per pot were measured, total biomass weight per pot were counted.
On the basis of the results it can be concluded, that among treatments the application of horse manure with straw enhanced spinach growth most significantly compared to other treatments and to the non-treated control, resulted the highest weights of leaves and roots of spinach. At the same time even small dose (30 t ha-1) of this fertilizer caused increased plant available nitrogen and phosphorus of soil and the higher dosage further increased these values. The horse manure with sawdust applied in lower dose did not alter the leaves and roots weights, but higher portion (60 t ha-1) caused significantly decreased plant biomass. The results proved that the bedding material may significantly alter the composition of manure and may change the plant nutrition effect of organic fertilizer. Cattle manure and food waste compost in both applied doses enhanced plant growth. Both fertilizers increased the plant available nitrogen forms and phosphorus content of soil, but cattle manure caused higher increase.
In pot experiment the effect of different bacterial fertilizers on some soil properties, and the amount of plant biomass were studied. The
experiment was set up in 2010 at the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, in a three replications in a random block design. The ryegrass (Lolium perenne, L.) was used as a test plan
The results of the study were the following:
– The bacterial fertilizers - by basic treatments NPK - had significant positive effect on the AL- soluble phosphorus content of the soil.
– The soil phosphatase enzyme activity was increased in all cases strongly by the microbial preparations used, the greatest impact was the Bactofil A bacterial fertilizer.
– The plant educed P values significantly increased by the effect of microbial products, in addition to the fund NPK. In this case, the EM-1 and Microbion UNC bacterial fertilizer were the effective.
– In case of the rye-grass biomass none of the bacterial preparations used caused any significant changes, either alone or when used them with straw treatment.
The aim of this paper was to provide further information about the nitrogen mineralization processes of soil. A modified incubation technique was applied to establish the amount of easily soluble mineral and organic N forms during the incubation period. An acidic sandy soil was used for incubation, which was sampled from the „Westsik” long-...term field experiment. The incubation was carried out on fifteen selected soil samples which were received different treatments since the experiment was set up.
From the obtained results, the amount of potentially mineralizable N and the mineralization rate constant were determined. Results of chemical analysis and biological interpretation of results are discussed.
KCl-EDTA-, CaCl2-DTPA-, CaCl2-DTPA-TEA extraction
methods were compared to determine the plant available Cu
amounts in the soil samples. In the soil extracts, the amounts of
copper were measurable. In the buffered CaCl2-DTPA-TEA
extracts, data showed the lowest values.
On the applied soils, a corr
plant removal and soil Cu using extractants mentioned above. The
closest correlation appeared in the case of sandy soils.
From the results of statistical analysis, it appears that soil
properties may play role in the efficiency of the extraction using
either CaCl2-DTPA or KCl-EDTA solutions.
To establish more reliable relations, further studies with
different types of soils are needed.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of long term NPK fertilization (considering that S containing superphosphate was supplied for 26 years of experiment, but since 9 years S has not used any longer) on sulphur- and nitrogen content and N/S ratio of winter wheat. The second objective of this work was to determine the chang...es of the amount of the different nitrogen and sulphur fraction in chernozem soil in a long term fertilization experiment. The third aim of the work was to determine if a relationship could be established between the studied parameters. Based on our results, it can be stated that the sulphur containing superphosphate supplied in the period of 1984-2010 has no longer significant effect on total sulphur content of plant in 2018. The NPK fertilization treatments had positive effect on total nitrogen content of winter wheat. In general, increasing NPK doses resulted in significantly higher nitrogen. The effect of irrigation applied in previous years has no statistically significant effect on the sulphur and nitrogen content of wheat. The wheat grain produced in our experiment, especially in fertilized treatments showed S deficiency. Analysing the changes of CaCl2 soluble nitrate-N and total N of the soil, it can be stated that the effect of increasing fertilizer doses clearly appears in these parameters, because the treatment with increasing fertilizer doses resulted higher CaCl2 soluble N forms compared to the control treatment in soil. These values increased until flowering stage of wheat and after that a slightly decrease was observed as a result of higher N uptake of plant. In overall, it can be stated, that the effect of superphosphate on measured sulphur fraction is prevailed. With increasing fertilizer doses higher sulphate content was detected in soil, but the sulphate content measured in different soil extractant is not enough for the wheat in this experiment area. Studying the correlation between the measured parameters of plant and soil, it can be concluded, that the relationships between nitrogen in the plant and in the soil is stable, and did not change during the growing season. The correlation between plant S and soil S varied in the measured periods and the r value was low in most cases. At the stage of flowering the highest r value was found between KCl-SO4 and plant S. In the stage of ripening the strongest correlation was detected between KH2PO4-SO4 and grain S content.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of two sulphur forms (sulphate and tiosulphate) in combination with three different N:S ratios on the yield of spring wheat and total N- and S-content and uptake by the aboveground biomass on chernozem and sandy soil. In the greenhouse experiment, the effects of two sulphur forms wer...e compared: sulphate (SO42-) and thiosulphate (S2O32-). The sulphate was applied as potassium-sulphate (K2SO4) and thiosulphate as ammonium-thiosulphate ((NH4)2S2O3). Increasing doses of both sulphur forms (24, 60, 120 kg S ha-1) were used with the same nitrogen dose (120 kg N ha-1) which caused three different N:S ratios background (1:0.2, 1:0.5, 1:1). Nitrogen was supplied in the form of monoammonium-phosphate (MAP), ammonium-nitrate and ammonium-thiosulphate. Plant samples were taken in three different development stages of spring wheat based on the BBCH scale: at the stage of BBCH 30–32 (stem elongation), BBCH 65–69 (flowering) and BBCH 89 (ripening). The total nitrogen and total sulphur content of plant at different development stages and also wheat grain were measured by Elementar Vario EL type CNS analyser. The nutrient uptake by plant and grain was calculated from the yield of spring wheat and the N and S content of plant. The grain yield on chernozem soil ranged between 6.31 and 12.13 g/pot. All fertilised treatments significantly increased the grain yield compared to the control. The highest yield was obtained in the case of the application of 120 kg N ha-1 and 60 kg S ha-1in sulphate form. The grain yield on sandy soil varied from 2.53 to 6.62 g/pot. The fertilised treatments significantly enhanced the yield compared to the control. The highest yield was observed in the case of the application of 120 kg N ha-1 and 60 kg S ha-1 in thiosulphate form. On chernozem soil the increasing doses of sulphur (24, 60, 120 kg S ha-1) with the same N dose (120 kg N ha-1) increased the N-content of spring wheat at all development stages and in the grain. The treatments with different sulphur sources did not cause further changes in the N-content. On sandy soil in the most cases the N-content did not change significantly as a result of increasing sulphur doses. The treatments with sulphate form basically resulted higher nitrogen-content than treatments with thiosulphate form. The treatments with increasing sulphur doses resulted higher S-content on both of chernozem and sandy soil in the case of all development stage. Comparing the effect of the applied sulphur sources on the S-content it can be stated that at the stage of BBCH 30–31 and 65–69 the treatments with sulphate form resulted higher sulphur-content. At the stage of BBCH 89 there was no significant differences in S-content of grain as a result of different sulphur-sources.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes of different sulphur forms (soluble, adsorbed) in chernozem soil in a long-term field experiment supplied with increasing doses of NPK fertilizers for a long time. In addition, other objective of this study included the examination of the applicability of recommended extractants of the different...sulphate fraction in Hungarian soils. A long-term field experiment was established at the Research Station of Látókép of the University of Debrecen in 1984. In addition to control, two levels of NPK fertilizer doses have been used with irrigated and non-irrigated variants. Winter wheat and corn were cropped in a crop rotation on plots. Soil samples were collected in three different development stages of winter wheat, at the stage of stem elongation (April), flowering (May) and ripening (June of 2018) from the topsoil (0–20 cm) of experiment plots. Water-soluble inorganic sulphate was extracted with 0.01M CaCl2 solutions. The soluble plus adsorbed sulphate was extracted with 0.016M KH2PO4 solution. Sulphate was measured by turbidimetric method. 0.01M CaCl2-SO42— ranged between 0.293–1.896 mg kg-1 and the 0.016 M KH2PO4-SO42- varied between 5.087–10.261 mg kg-1. The values of KH2PO4 SO42- was higher than that of CaCl2-SO42-, because KH2PO4 extracted the adsorbed and soluble fractions of sulphate, while CaCl2 extracted the soluble sulphate fraction. The amount of absorbed sulphate was calculated by the differences of KH2PO4- SO4 and CaCl2-SO4. The KH2PO4 characterizes mainly the adsorbed sulphate fraction much more than the water-soluble fraction. KCl is the most widely used extractant for the determination of plant available sulphate content of soil in Hungary; therefore, KCl-SO42- fraction also was determined. The KCl-SO42- ranged between 0.328–2.152 mg kg-1. The CaCl2-SO42- and KCl-SO42- fractions were compared and based on Pearson's linear correlation, moderate correlation was established (r=0.511) between them. In all three extractant (0.01M CaCl2, 1M KCl, 0.016 M KH2PO4) higher sulphate fractions were measured in the fertilized plots where superphosphate had been supplied for ages until 2010. The arylsulphatase activity of soil also was determined and ranged between 9.284 and 26.860 µg p-nitrophenol g-1 h-1. The lowest value was observed in the treatment with highest NPK2 dose, both in irrigated and non-irrigated areas.
Composting is an alternative way for practicing site-specific and environmental friendly plant nutrient supply. Our aim was to study the effect of different composts on plant and soil system.
Pot experiment with acidic sandy soil blended with three composts in five (0%, 5%, 10%, 25% and 50%) proportion was set up. Our experimental plan
The three composts had different effect on dry weight production and on nutrient-supply of soil. We established that one of the compost had significantly larger effect on the dry weight of ryegrass compared to the others. In this study we proved that favourable compost/soil proportion is different in the case of different composts.