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Testing of paraffin oil efficiency against grape powdery mildew in Eger wine region
Published February 18, 2016
73-80

The aim of the present study was to examine the efficiency of paraffin oil against powdery mildew in Eger wine region. The experiment has been carried out in 2013 and 2014 with Chardonnay and Kékfrankos grape varieties, which have different resistance against powdery mildew. The effectiveness of the oil was examined on leaves and clusters (fre...quency and intensity). This oil was effective against Erysiphe necator infection on field trials in Chile and Brazil. The spread of downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) was also inhibited by this material in some experiments conducted in Spain and France.

The differences between oil treatments represented the sensitivity of the grape varieties in accordance with the applied dosages. The oil was effective against powdery mildew with different extent as a result of the so called ”vintage effect”. In 2013, the treatment of the highest dosage (D3) didn’t differed significantly in frequency and intensity of infection from the regular treatment (clusters of Kékfrankos, leaves of Chardonnay). In 2014, the oil was not so effective against powdery mildew compared to 2013. No remarkable differences were detected between the treatments due to the strong pressure of powdery mildew. Furthermore, no any effect of the lowest dosage (D1) was detected in the case of the sensitive clusters of Chardonnay and leaves of Kékfrankos in both experimental years.

In summary, the oil treatment has an effect against powdery mildew, however this efficiency largely depends on the vintage characteristics and the pressure of powdery mildew. Further investigations are neccessary, for example field trials with combinations of other sprays. The oil can be useable as fungicide with proper care in eco-friendly integrated and bio (ecological) viticulture.

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Evaluation of the blood product characteristics of meat meal and hemoglobin with non-invasive methods in the VISNIR wavelength
Published March 23, 2016
49-56

 

The separate collection of poultry slaughterhouse trimmings and blood is partially solved in Hungary. Only properly prepared animal by-products, protein meals can be utilized as animal feed additive. Howev...er, different protein meals are appropriate for feeding different animal species. That is the reason why it is important to avoid accidental cross contamination of the products. Meat and blood meal produced on the same technological line, therefore mixing of the products can happen in various proportions during the shift of production.

 

Thus the aim of this study is to develop a spectral method which will allow to estimate the ratio of meat and blood protein meal in the final product. During the test the products were mixed in different proportions and were examined by the spectral method. Measurements were conducted with AvaSpec 2048 spectrometer in visible (VIS) and in near infrared (NIR) wavelength range (400–1000 nm) to define the spectral differentiation of the different meal products. Significant difference can be detected in spectral reflectance between the meat and blood product in the VIS-NIR range. The blood product has a characteristic spectral property: in the range of 600 and 735 nm reflectance values are increasing following a sigmoid curve. This property is not observed in the case of meat meal: close to linear rising is detected. Effective protein rate and purity detection could be made by Blood Product Sensitive Mixing Index (BPSMI – R930/R600), and by the calculation of inflection point in 600–735 nm.

 

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Interpretation of rurality and the situation of land use in Hungary
Published September 18, 2014
79-85

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The summarizing data collection of our study has been carried out in the scope of the FP7-REGPOT-2010-1 ’UD_AGR_REPO’ project as a part of the cooperation with the University of Lincoln. The University of Lincoln is an important partner of the project, the knowledge transfer activities that have been carried jointly with them are multilateral. One of the most important cooperation areas is the analysis of rural areas, rurality itself, determination of breakout points, exploration of alternative income sources, diversification possibilities. Some part of the work of the University of Lincoln on the field of rural development is based on the assessment and documentation global similarities and differences of rural areas. Present study also contributes to that work, it has been prepared on the request of the University of Lincoln with the aim of providing insight into the special political and economic changes/processes that took place in Hungary, and through them into the structure and operation of the unique Hungarian rural areas.

The study first positions the definition of rurality and rural areas into context on the basis of official EU and Hungarian legal classification. Then it covers the important agricultural nature of Hungary, which significantly determines the possibilities and properties of Hungarian rural areas. The further description of rural areas is completed by some historical summary, the introduction of ownership changes, detailed description of employment and income conditions and finally by the listing of breakout points of rural areas as a conclusion.

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Spectral analysis of stress symptoms caused by apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha
Published February 25, 2014
83-88

An orchard can be examined on the basis of spectral data, using methods with which the reflected radiation can be divided into a large number of (several hundreds) small spectral channel (some nm). Calculated on the basis of such hyperspectral data from different index numbers the water supply of foliage conditions can be well characterized....>

The research site is an intensive apple orchard, which located in University of Debrecen, Agricultural Sciences Centre, Farm and Regional Research Institute at Pallag. During my experiments the preliminary evaluation of spectral, non-invasive measurement method are carried out for detecting stress symptoms caused by Podosphaera leucotricha.

Based on the results narrow band greenness indices (NDVI705, mNDVI705, mSR705 and REP) can be used for determination of diseased canopy and for the detection of stress symptoms of Podosphaera leucotricha,. These statements can be utilized in precision plant protection systems, since it can be a basis for such integrated active sensors with LED or laser light source, measuring reflectance at the certain spectral range, which can facilitate real time status assessment of orchards and can control precision fungicide utilization.

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Horticulture applicability of 3D laser scanner
Published May 16, 2012
75-78

As a result of the technological development, remote sensing instruments and methods have become widespread in all segments of life (from precision agriculture through architecture to medicine). Among the innovative development of remote sensing instruments the 3D laser scanner is overriding importance. The horticulture applicability of terrest...rial laser scanning technique is innovation in the precision agriculture, because it could be determine the structure of trees and branches, the canopy extension, which can help to recognize some biophysical parameters. The examination was carried out with Leica ScanStation C10 terrestrial laser scanner in the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag. In this article I present the measuring principle, the parameters and horticulture applicability of the terrestrial laser scanner.

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Challenges – the impact of climate change on the nutritional management of Hungarian orchards
Published September 5, 2018
323-334

The agricultural sector is increasingly exposed to both environmental and economic risks due to the phenomena of climate change and climate variability. Fruit growth and productivity are adversely affected by nature’s wrath in the form of various abiotic stress factors. Climate change and extreme climatic events are predicted to increase in i...ntensity, frequency, and geographic extent as a consequence of global climate change. It is no doubt that frequency of unexpected climatic events and their growing rate result in an increasing amount of problems for fruit growers globally. Today, climate change impacts are the most serious problems for Hungarian fruit growers as well. It can be stated that the nutrient demand of fruit trees can be supplied only under even worse conditions.

Therefore, it is so important to know and apply adaptation and mitigation strategies in horticulture to improve fruit quality and yield. In the last ten years, at the Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management at University of Debrecen expanded studies have been made to prove the importance of groundcover management in horticultural applications. In this mini review paper, is presented, how the university's researches contributed to the expansion of knowledge of preservation of soil moisture and what advice we can provide for fruit growers to face the challenges of climate change.

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Development of precision apple production technologies in Institute of Water and Environmental Management
Published July 18, 2012
97-101

From the precision agriculture point of view, by the rapid development of the investigated technological elements – global positioning system (GPS), remote sensing (RS), global information system (GIS) – the number of services, which were not available in the past, because of their speed, complexity or price are increasing. The high accurac...y high-tech instruments provide opportunity to elaborate several fruit production technologies, which aim is creating and operating water and energy safe quality fruit production systems. To evaluate these possibilities, experience was carried out in the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag with the use of a GreenSeeker 505 Hand Held™ Optical Sensor Unit, and its interface the Trimble AgGPS FmX Integrated Display board computer, and a ScanStation C10 laser scanner by Leica. The results show the absolute applicability of these equipments in precision horticulture.

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Fruit quality of sweet cherry cultivars in superintensive orchards
Published September 14, 2005
75-81

The fruit quality of 15 sweet cherry cultivars (’Canada Giant’, ’Celeste’, ’Chelan’, ’Ferrovia’, ’Germersdorfi Rigle’, ’Katalin’, ’Karina’, ’Kordia’, ’Linda’, ’Regina’, ’Sam’, ’Sandra Rose’, ’Sunburst’, ’Sylvia’ and ’Techlovan’) was studied under super-intensive growing conditions at N...agykutas. We measured the fruit diameter, fruit width, fruit height, stem length and stem weight, fruit and pit weight and the total dry matter content. There were large differences among the cultivars. These differences are due to the genetic characteristics of fruits because all other conditions were the same. For 11 cultivars, we collected fruit samples several times /2-4/. We examined on this cultivars all the above listed fruit quality parameters. When examining these samples, we have gained information how earlier or later than optimal harvest time influences fruit quality.

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Fertilisation Effect on Quantity of 0.01 M CaCl2 Soluble N-Forms in a Long-Term-Small-Plot Experiment
Published May 11, 2003
166-170

long-term experiments have an opportunity to investigate the effects of fertilization and plant nutrition. The paper reports the results achieved in the 39th years of a long-term-small-plot fertilisation and liming experiment set up on acidic sandy brown forest soil in the Nyírség region. From the 32 treatment, four replications, altogether 1...28 plot experiments with 10 treatments are summarized. We took samples after harvest of triticale, in August.
We used a reliable method (segmented continuous flow analysis) to determine different (easily mobilized - 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble) N-forms of soil. The 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble inorganic and total N content and the UV digestable organic-N form of soil were determined by this method.
The results are summarized below:
– The mineralized-N (Nmin.) content of soil increased with dose of nitrogen treatment. Liming treatments increase the amount of Nmin.
– The maximum content of easily mobilize organic-N-fraction was found in the upper (0-20 cm) layer. This fact due to the large amount of crop and roots.
– Changing of content of 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble total-N-forms due to N doses.
– The ratios of these N forms are variable. It is very important that the content of organic N fraction is not negligible and this fraction plays a main role in the plant nutrition.

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A szervetlen-C és a szerves-C mennyiségének változása egy homoktalajban, meszezés hatására
Published March 27, 2002
8-10

The effect of liming on different organic and inorganic carbon forms in soil was studied in a pot experiment on acidic sandy soil (pH(H2O)=4.38; pH(KCl)=3.42). We used three kinds of liming doses (which were signed M1, M2, M3,). M1 was half of the M2 dose; M2 was the calculated lime dose and M3 was one and the half dose of M2. Lime (CaCO3) was ...mixed into the soil in powdery form. In addition to liming treatments, a uniform N, P and K treatment (1-1-1g N, P2O5 and K2O per pot) was given. Water supply was set up to 75% field water capacity of soil. Pots were watered daily. During the vegetation period soil and plant (oats; Avena sativa L.) samples were taken from each treatment three times (after 6-10-15 weeks). We determined inorganic- and total-C of the soil by Vario EL element analyser (based on dry combustion method) and calculated the organic-C.
The conclusions can be summarized as follows:
– Liming treatments had a significant positive effect on the soil-pH and caused quantitative change of different carbon forms of soil.
– Increasing tendency of liming doses caused more intensive changes in inorganic- and organic-C forms of soil.
– A significant correlations was found between the soil pH and the inorganic-C fraction of soil.
– A decreasing correlation was found between the vegetation period and the organic-C fraction.

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Effects of different groundcover matters on nutrient availability in an integrated apple orchard in Eastern-Hungary
Published November 3, 2010
21-25

The aim of our study is to examine the effects of different groundcover methods on nutrient availability and uptake of apple orchard. The
experiment was carried out at the orchard of TEDEJ Rt. at Hajdúnánás-Tedej, in Eastern Hungary. The orchard was set up on lowland chernozem soil in the Nyírség region. It was established in the autumn... of 1999, using Idared cultivar grafted on MM106 rootstocks at a spacing of 3.8 x 1.1 m.
The applied treatments were divided into two groups according to origins and effects. On the one hand, different livestock manures (cow,
horse and pig), on the other hand different mulch-matters (straw, pine bark mulch, black foil) were used. The different manures and mulches
were applied on the surface to test the effectiveness of these materials.
The effectiveness of manure treatments was higher than the other treatments on AL soluble P content of soil. Mostly the manure treatments
increased the AL soluble K of soil. Our all treatments increased 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble NO3 - -N content of the examined soil layers. The effect
of manure treatments was the highest. From the results it was evident that the amount of easily soluble organic nitrogen fraction distributed
more homogeneously than the other mineral N fractions examined.
Our results can be summarized as follows:
1. Our results pointed out that the used ground covering matters divided into several categories regarding its effect.
2. The available N, P and K contents of soil were mostly increased by applying manures.
3. The effectiveness of straw, mulch and mostly black foil was lower.
4. Differences were found between nutrient supplying treatments and the treatments which did not supply nutrients.

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Effect of fertilization on the potentially mineralize N forms of soil of long term field experiment was set in an acidic sandy soil
Published November 15, 2007
20-24

The aim of this paper was to provide further information about the nitrogen mineralization processes of soil. A modified incubation technique was applied to establish the amount of easily soluble mineral and organic N forms during the incubation period. An acidic sandy soil was used for incubation, which was sampled from the „Westsik” long-...term field experiment. The incubation was carried out on fifteen selected soil samples which were received different treatments since the experiment was set up. 
From the obtained results, the amount of potentially mineralizable N and the mineralization rate constant were determined. Results of chemical analysis and biological interpretation of results are discussed.

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Evaluation of KCl-EDTA-, CaCl2- DTPA-, CaCl2-DTPA-TEA extractants for estimating available Cu in soils
Published November 15, 2007
5-9

KCl-EDTA-, CaCl2-DTPA-, CaCl2-DTPA-TEA extraction
methods were compared to determine the plant available Cu
amounts in the soil samples. In the soil extracts, the amounts of
copper were measurable. In the buffered CaCl2-DTPA-TEA
extracts, data showed the lowest values.
On the applied soils, a corr...elation was observed between
plant removal and soil Cu using extractants mentioned above. The
closest correlation appeared in the case of sandy soils.
From the results of statistical analysis, it appears that soil
properties may play role in the efficiency of the extraction using
either CaCl2-DTPA or KCl-EDTA solutions.
To establish more reliable relations, further studies with
different types of soils are needed.

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Experiences of Waste Management at Agricultural Enterprises in Hajdú-Bihar County
Published March 4, 2006
50-55

The general tendency of the last few years has been that besides large agricultural Ltd.’s and firms, smaller agricultural enterprises also have to correspond to stricter environmental regulations.
This process suits the EU’s environmental and waste management regulations. Recently, manure, liquid manure and addle are registered as non h...azardous agricultural waste in waste management in Hungary.
In the case of the amount of these wastes is larger than 200 t/year, one has to make an individual waste management plan.
Accordingly, several small agricultural enterprises have to make individual waste management plants in Hajdú-Bihar County.
This article is based on the results of these companies experiences.

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