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The change of the inner content parameters of table beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. esculenta Gurke var. rubra L.) as a result of storage
Published February 17, 2015

The stored vegetables play a key role in the vegetable consumption. After harvesting, the storage conditions greatly affect nutritional parameters of the crop. The red beet is a root vegetable, which is manufactured mainly fresh in our county, therefore we do not have enough information about the storage. In our experiment, 5 varieties (Rubin, ...Akela, Larka, Libero, Mona Lisa) were examined in prismatic structure (0–5 °C and 95–97% RH) through 5 mounths.

Our measurements proved that under the appropriate storage conditions water loss was also occurs, which increased the dry matter content (average of 0.5 g 100 g-1). The bioactive compounds, like pigments (betanine and vulgaxanthin) and the quantity of flavonoids, were significantly increased during the experiment.

The results showed that the nutritional parameters of the 5 types was positive during the prismatic structure. However, this storage method negatively affected the bioactive compounds of the Akela genotype. Further studies are recommended for proper storage parameter adjustment, which is justified by the need of the different varieties. The optimal conditions enable us to preserve and to increase the best nutritional index.

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Differences in content of beet root and beet root juice, and it’s suitable to develop functional foods from animal sources
Published March 24, 2015

In Western medicine is beginning to increasingly focus on the key role of healthy nutrition and lifestyle in preventing certain diseases. Therefore, it is important to emphasize the importance of primary prevention in our country, and to promote it; not only the health care team work, but broaden the recommended foods, which have benefit for health as well.

Polyphenols are antioxidants, which are easily consumable with diet, however, food processing can influence the level of them.

In our study, nutritional assessment was made of raw beet root and a juice, made from this beet root. We investigated in which special diet referenced to eat this foods and whether this is suitable to develop functional foods from animal sources as a row material.

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Evaluation of the correlations between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and yield in a seasoning paprika (Capsicum annuum L. var. longum) stand
Published September 18, 2014

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of our examination was to evaluate the correlations between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and yield, as well as to examine the possibility of yield estimation basedon NDVI in a seasoning paprika population.

Significant correlations were observed during the examination of the correlation between NDVI and yield. Furthermore, it was concluded that yield can be estimated with a 6.6–8.3% mean error based on the regression equations. No significant difference was shown between the error of estimations performed with various regression types and that of the estimations performed at various dates. For this reason, the identification of the optimum estimation method and the determination of the optimum date for estimation call for further examinations.

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Evaluation of mineral element content of beetroot during the different stages of the growing season
Published September 5, 2018

In modern nutrition, bioactive materials of different vegetables are especially important to be researched. The experiment was carried out on March 30, 2016 (sowing date). Mineral element content (B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Zn) was evaluated on the 60th, 85th and the 105th day of the vegetation period. The data are presented as the mean of... five varieties which can give the real state of these parameters of beetroot grown on lowland chernozem soil.

In the young beetroot leaves (60 days) the mineral element content was higher than in the older ones (85 days). The calcium and magnesium content of the leaves was much more favourable (10 times higher) than in the root. The potassium content of leaves has reached the amount of 5000 mg kg-1, but at the same time more than 3000 mg kg-1 was detected in the improved root. This value is favourable for the potassium supply of the human organism.

The sulphur content (1300 mg kg-1) of the leaves was the highest on the 85th day of vegetation period. Similar tendency was detected for boron content (2.45 mg kg-1), while for iron content it was higher (28.23 mg kg-1) in the younger leaves (60 days).

Finally, it can be concluded that the increased element content of beetroot leaves will be a favourable source of mineral element supply of the human organism.

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Practical experiences of a designing and operating a pilot aquaponic system
Published March 20, 2014

Aquaponics is the combination of fish farming (aquaculture) and the soilless cultivation of plants (hydroponics). The aquaponics system is an artificial, recirculating ecosystem, in which bacterial processes convert the waste materials in the water used for fish rearing into plant nutrients, and therefore with the generated heat it is suitable ...for culturing economically valuable plants, and thus it mitigates the nutrient laden and quantity of the intensive fish producing systems’ effluent water.

The primary goal of our 12 separate unit’s aquaponics system was to gain experience. We would like to find the right plant species, which are fit for that medium, and their crop can be sold. Besides the plants, our attention focused on the fish. Two fish species were included in the experiments, the common carp and barramundi. It was difficult to create them a perfect living space, besides a constantly changing conditions temperature. Apart the above mentioned we had a problem with the number of individuals per tank, the deformity of the fish body and the too high volume of pH (we registered continuous values above 8.4). We get by carps 4.7 grams of weight gain during 15 weeks, because of the bad conditions.

The main problems at the plants are caused by aphesis and protection against sunburn. Even so we have got the multiples of field yields for each plant species. At salad has grown twice of field yields, tomatoes one and half, kohlrabi than 3.5 times more. The causes of multiple yields are the continuous balanced water and the nutrient uptake of plants. Each plant species fit for cultivating in aquaponics and their crops are delicious, chemical -free, safe and marketable. The plants should be more concentrated. After the experiment, it has been determinated that the carp is suitable for aquaponics, but greater weight gain could be achieved with optimal selection of size of rearing units.

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Leaf and root evaluation of bioactive compounds of different beetroot varieties
Published June 30, 2018
The importance of beetroot lies in the numerous health benefits, attributed to its wide-ranging array of minerals, vitamins and bioactive compounds which play a key role in the human diet. Generally, beetroot is consumed for its root, however, its leaves also contain a good amount of bioactive compounds. The exper...iment was carried out with four beetroot varieties in order to compare the amount of bioactive compounds in the root and the leaf. The analyzed data were total dry matter content, total polyphenol, flavonoid and vitamin C.
Results have shown that roots contain the highest amount of bioactive compounds. Nevertheless, leaves can be also considered a significant source. Therefore, consumption of the young leaves is highly recommended due to their availability after thinning or at maturity stage (60 days after the germination). Of the examined varieties, ‘Libero’ demonstrated the highest total polyphenol, flavonoid and vitamin C values, although it was found to be statistically insignificant.
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The impact of production methods and row orientation on carrot quality in the case of various cultivars
Published February 25, 2014

Carrot is a wellknown and favoured, really important vegetable. Carrot’s cultivation is important, although its growing field has been reduced in last few years. The suitable cultivar and landstructure are essential to produce good quality carrot. The ridge cultivation is widely spread on plasted soils. At this type of cultivation relationshi...p between line orientations and carrot quality is less studied. That is the reason we tried to examine in our experiment the relationship between ridge highness and line orientation (N-S and E-W) and carrot’s morphological features at different genotipes. The experimental was settled in the Experimental Garden of the University of Debrecen on limy chernozem soil by plain, raised bed and ridge cultivation in 2013. In the experiment we examined four longgrowing cultivars (Danvers 126, Fertődi vörös, Rekord, Chantenay). The sowing was at 24th April. The harvest was at 15th October, 2013. In the multi factorial (type of cultivation, line orientation, cultivar) experimental we explained the effect of treatments on carrot root shoulder diameter and root weight.

In our experiment we stated that line orientation had no significant effect on shoulder diameter at different cultivations. The only exception is Fertődi vörös which has reached the biggest shoulder diameter (5 cm <) at N-S direction on raised bed. By examining the carrot rootweight we stated that they were higher in raised bed and ridge cultivation than in plain cultivation with the exception of one cultivar (Chantenay). This carrot had found ideal environment for growing between each cultivation conditions. That is why we can state that if you grow carrot on plasted soil and there is no possibility to make a ridge, use short, tapered and rounded ending root type for successful growing.

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Evaluating economic value properties of different beetroot varieties
Published May 16, 2017

The root vegetables have a pivotal role in the vegetable consumption and to form a healthy diet. The consumption of natural juices, like apple-beetroot are becoming more popular and the drying-, the pharmaceutical- and canning industry require more beetroot to process. For the processing, the industry requires easily peeled and round shaped roo...ts, therefore to use the proper variety is very important. The primary quality parameters are the inner color intensity, uniform color and water soluble dry matter content.
4 beetroot varieties were evaluated (Libero, Rubin, Detroit 2 and Cylindra) in the 3 years experiment which was carried out at the University of Debrecen, Institutes for Agricultural Research and Educational Farm, Botanical and Exhibiton Garden. The soil type was calcareous chernozem. Leaf length, shape index and water soluble solid content were measured, and sensory evaluation was carried out on taste, inner color intensity and white ring.
To summarize, we can state the exception of Rubin genotype all of the varieties are suitable for second cultivation and good for processing (canned, juice, powder).

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Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana B.) yield in the case of different production technologies
Published May 16, 2017

Stevia rebaudiana B. offers a natural alternative of sweetening, potential health promotion plant, and our country shows increased interest about cultivation in Hungary in addition to the neighboring European countries. The agricultural production system installation necessary
understanding of the needs of the plant, as well as exploring the... agronomic potential. Field experiments were conducted in 2015 with the aim to highlight some of the technological production parameters and correlations between them. We have reviewed the most important agronomic factors, the spacing (50×50 cm and 33×33 cm), ground covering (agro-cloth covered and uncovered/ control), their vegetative growth (first-,second-order branch), herb yield and quality in effect.
Based on empirical evidence, that the Hungarian climates also have the opportunity of 3 cuttings during a growing season, besides of early planting, optimal climatic conditions (in October didn’t reduce the daily minimum temperature below 0 °C, after cuttings the maximum interval values remain below 40 °C), and adequate water supply and crop protection facility. The 33×33 cm spacing evaporates more than 50×50 cm spacing, because of the dense population, the continuous canopy less able to breathe, so there are serious chances to the pathogen colonization.
Based on the results of our research to the wider 50×50 cm spacing favorable appreciate the stevia optimal progress in terms of qualitative and quantitative parameters of the yield. The stevia yields produced in the Northern Great Plains field cultivation can produce similar results as stevia crop yields in warmer climates, where the primary crops. Our research experience suggest that there is a viable domestic stevia cultivation, developing the necessary technology is still growing further investigation justifies.

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Folic acid content of beetroot leaf and root by different growing stages and genotypes
Published November 6, 2019

An increasing interest has been observed of beetroot leaf as a salad component due to recent studies focusing on their nutritional value. The randomized field experiment was carried out on lowland chernozem soil with 6 varieties, 3 replications and 2 sowing dates. Sampling was performed on 23 of August 2018 at the stage of 30 and 50 days of veg...etation, where leaf (30 and 50 days) and root (50 days) were collected. Total dry matter, folic acid and nitrate content were evaluated.

The results of this investigation show that higher total dry matter content was measured in the root (8.47–10.30%) compared to the leaf in both developmental stages (6.47–9.20%). Nevertheless, higher folic acid content was found in the young leaves of 30 and 50 days of development (58.77–113.86 µg 100g-1). Among the examined varieties, Bonel has presented great amount of folic acid not only in the leaves (99.35–113.61 µg 100g-1), but also in the root (89.99 µg 100g-1). Finally, lower nitrate content was found in Libero (316.16 mg kg-1) at 30 days and in Akela (340.41 mg kg-1) at 50 days of development. Thereby, fresh consumption of beetroot leaves are highly recommended.

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Correlation between cultivation methods and quality in some vegetable species
Published November 13, 2012

Quality parameters of 5 table root varieties were tested on 3 sowing dates with different cultivation methods: open field on 15 April and 9 July 2010 and under plastic tents on 19 August. The highest red pigment content (betanin) was measured in the varieties Akela and Mona Lisa (~ 80 mg 100 g-1) of the second (July) crop. This crop in general use in Hungary. In comparison, in the late sown varieties (August, under plastics) a further pigment increase (10–20 mg 100 g-1) was observed in the same varieties as related to the earlier sowing dates. Yellow pigments (vulgaxanthins) showed similar trends. Roots of the late sowing date (with harvest in December) contained the highest vulgaxanthin values (103.3–124.18 mg kg-1).
Varieties reacted differently to temperature changes during the production period and thus to sugar accumulation. In the second crop (July) higher water soluble solids content was measured on the average of varieties (10.12%) in comparison to the April sowing (7.76%). Beetroots of the spring sowing are recommended for fresh market while the second (July) crop with autumn harvest can satisfy industry requirements. Late sowing under unheated plastic tents supply us with fresh beetroot in late autumn and early winter and prolong the usability of plastic tents. 
Six lettuce species/subspecies were tested in the open field and under plastic tents in 3 repetitions for nitrate nitrogen, vitamin-C, polyphenol (gallus acid equivalent – mg GAE 100 g-1) and mineral element (Ca, K, Mg, Na) contents. Our measurements showed lower nitrate nitrogen values under plastic than in the open field (89.10± 8.13 and 127.06±14.29 mg kg-1) on the average of genotypes. Lettuce grown in the field had higher vitamin-C content (1.4 mg%) which is nearly 50% more than in plants under plastic. The highest polyphenol content was found in samples from the field with a conspicuous value of 804.17±56.47 mg GAE 100 g-1 in Piros cikória. Samples grown under plastic were richer in mineral elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na) which can be explained by the higher nutrient content of the soil. In this environment superior Mg content was observed in Edivia (4616.33±
311.21 mg kg-1). 

Besides the well- known headed lettuce, Piros cikória (Red chicory),the red leaved Lollo Rossa and Tölgylevel (Oak leaf lettuce) should be
mentioned which well deserve further testing in order to supply us with nourishing, healthy food. 

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The Effect of Mg Foliage Fertilization on Beetroot (Beta vulgaris ssp. esculenta var. rubra) Morphology, Quality Traits and their Relations
Published September 22, 2004

Mg-treatment increased solid soluble content in roots probably due to the larger assimilation area.
The applied foliage fertilization affected inner colour intensity and uniformity in roots positively.
The 2% Mg-sulphate solution affected pigment quantity favourably depending on varieties.
Close correlation (r=0,71) was found between t...he yellow (BX) and red (BC) pigments which indicates a similar biosynthetic pathway of the two compounds.
The Mg-sulphate foliage fertilization improves quality considerably but the individual reaction of varieties needs further studies.

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Motivation for and Possibilities of Increasing Table Beet Root Cultivation
Published December 10, 2002

Due to its manifold nutritional-physiological effects, table beet root would deserve more attention. Its active components and their role in human therapy and prevention should rank it higher in our list of vegetables.
The actual some 100 ha area under beet root could be considerably increased, if its role in nutrition and its varied product...s were universally known.
Most of the physiologically favourable effects are related to its pigment content. Pigment content can be increased by choosing proper varieties and applying cultural methods which, favourably influence red pigment synthesis (optimal sowing date).
The high Mg-content and advantageous ion ratio must also be mentioned. They can be increased by Mg leaf fertilisation, as can solids content and foliage resistance.
The special knowledge accumulated in literature ought to be made known to experts so as to help them to set up trials and to introduce results into practice.

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Rheological evaluation of industrial tomato
Published December 15, 2019

Today, tomato has the second largest harvesting area globally, and the fourth largest in Hungary. The importance of industrial tomato is growing year by year, and one of the most important tasks is to satisfy the needs of the industry. To meet these needs, the producer has to find the proper genotype, which can achieve up to 100 t ha-1...p> crop yield. This quality has high importance to be researched.

The experiment was carried out in the Botanical and Exhibition Garden of the University of Debrecen, with 3 examined genotypes. The planting date was 3 of May 2018. The harvesting was two-threaded. On 27 of July the physical parameters – fruit shape index (length/diameter), firmness (kg cm-2), water-soluble dry matter content (Brix%) and weight of the berries (g) – were evaluated. On 15 of August the rheological parameters were examined – the force needed to tear the skin – bioyield point (g) and flesh firmness (g).

The fruit shape index was oval (between 1.19 and 1.24) for all the examined genotypes. The firmness was between 0.92 (UG1122713 F1) and 1.05(Prestomech F1) kg cm-2, which compliance the needs of the industry. The water-soluble dry matter content was suitable, with a value between 4.49 (Prestomech F1) and 4.65 (UG1122713 F1) Brix%. The weight of the berries was between 45.94 (UG989 F1) and 49.37 (Prestomech F1) g per piece.

The bioyield point was between 76.00 (UG1122713 F1) and 85.16 (UG989 F1) g. The flesh firmness was between 33.68 (UG1122713 F1) and 42.81 (UG989 F1) g.

Finally, we can conclude based on the obtained data that the UG989 F1 hybrid was the most proper for the applied cultivation conditions. This genotype can be recommended for the farmers even in extreme weather conditions.

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