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  • Advancement of a Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Selection System
    8-11
    Views:
    83

    All the research in Hungary and other countries in Europe focus on improving the quality of crops and increasing the competitiveness of production.
    In this respect, we have to advance the conventional technological elements, reduce the application of pesticides and fertilizers, and produce new varieties suitable for environmentally-sound production. In our crop breeding programs, we applied conventional and biotechnological methods (embryo rescue and double haploid methods) in order to get somaclonal and gametoclonal variations.
    We produced winter wheat lines (HP-31-95, HP-82-96) by traditional way, which have high baking qualities and high nutrient efficiency. Some diseases can limit the quantity and quality of a wheat crop. We examined several wheat diseases in our winter wheat candidates, and we found that our progenies have resistance to leaf rust.
    With respect to a serious problem was the small quantity of applied fertilizers and the other externals, our research focused onto advance a common wheat selection system, with the help of it, we can handle these problems. We have summarized that our selected progenies can compete with the registered varieties with quality and environmental respect.

  • Examination of the effect of pelleted poultry manure products on a sunflower test plant in a laboratory model experiment
    83-88
    Views:
    164

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the most important oil plants in Hungary, with a sown area of more than 627.000 ha in 2019. Sunflower cultivation is primarily important for use in the oil industry, but its role in feed and beekeeping cannot be neglected either. Sunflower adapts well to different production areas in terms of soil demand, yet, as important fact, it must be grown on soils with poorer conditions with intensive nutrient replenishment. From the agri-environmental point of view, in addition to the use of pelleted poultry manure products, which are also new to the consumer market, is of paramount importance. Their advantages include a wide range of nutrients as well as a soil structure improving effect.

    In our research, we investigated the starter effect of pelleted poultry manure products applied at different doses (200 kg ha-1 and 400 kg ha-1) on sandy soil with humus using a sunflower plant. The aim of our research to investigate the effect of using pelleted fertilizer products as starter fertilizers on sunflower plant germination, and investigate the effect of poultry manure products on soils.

    Based on our results, it can be stated that the pigment content (chlorophyll and carotenoid content) was positively influenced by the higher dose treatments (400 kg ha-1), thus increasing the photosynthetically active leaf area. Compared to the control, the carotenoid content in the test plants of the treatments increased, and the differences of this treatment proved to be significant (p<0.05). Our experiments supported the beneficial effect of pelleted poultry manure-based products in the soil-plant system.

  • The examination of the profit-making capacity of the wooden chip-based large-scale product path
    21-26
    Views:
    108

    Heating with wooden chips would provide a significantly cheaper energy production alternative for the local governments in heating their facilities and in district heating as well. The raw material should be available in the appropriate quality, quantity and at the right time. This type of heating requires the well-organized and joint work of the forestry, transporting, processing and receiving plants. This activity might be realized in the form of non-profit clusters. In order not to suffer any losses, the participants of the product path should carry out a very careful planning regarding the factors appearing in heating with wood but missing from gas heating. One such critical element is the transportation distance which might make the basically cost-efficient wooden chip-based heating process significantly more expensive.

    One of the main findings of my paper is that the transportation distance should be at most 23 kilometers for the wooden chips to be worth (economical) using against gas. From the viewpoint of practical use, this can be interpreted as the distance between the forestry and heatproducing units. By determining the constant and varying costs of transporting and chopping and from calculating the initial contribution, I concluded that the profit-making capacity of the product path would be sufficient for an energy-related investment. According to my calculations, by remaining within the economical transporting distance of 23 kilometers, such long-term savings might be achieved compared to gas heating which would partly cover the establishment of a biomass-based power plant or heating plant.

  • The analysis of the fair data of a solar energy power plant with SPSS
    60-63
    Views:
    87

    The use of fossil energy sources greatly damages the environment. Moreover, the quantity of these energy sources is limited. Therefore, it is important to increase the share of renewable energy sources (solar, wind, water and biomass) in energy generation.
    Huge amounts of energy (1100-1300 kWh/m2 per year) arrive at the earth from the sun, and are utilized in passive and active ways. One of the active applications is photovoltaic current production, in the course of which electricity is produced directly with PV – panels. This can be fed into a grid. At the University of Debrecen is a solar energy power plant from September 2005 in operation. The electricity performance of the incorporated PV-panels (Kyocera, Dunasolar, and Siemens) are 8.64 kW. The are of PV – panels is 110 square meter. With the aid of the data storage, the tension, current, temperature of the PV-panels, global radiation, air temperature, wind speed, wind direction and the achievement is measured by the ac network.
    The effect of the shading on the performance of the PV – panels and the solar energy power plant is examined. The analysis and the graphic representation of the experiment results are carried out with SPSS per grief. We produced per grief.

  • Comparative analysis of sample preparation methods to determine the concentration of arsenic in soil- and plant-samples
    167-170
    Views:
    130

    Arsenic contamination of the fields and groundwater is a global problem. Alföld is the most affected area in Hungary. Irrigation witharsenic contaminated water, and crop production on the contaminated soil can cause a food safety problem, because arsenic is easy taken up by the cell of the plant roots. To prevent this, very important to monitoring the arsenic content of soils and plants. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a fast, easy method to determined the concentration of minerals in the case of plant and soil samples The analytical methods can give reliable, results if the analytical process, including the sample preparation method, is the best. The objective of this study was to compare 3 type of sample preparation method which was dry ashing, wet digestion in open system, and microwave digestion. As a result of our experiement shows the microwave digestion is the appropriate method to determined the arsenic content of soil samples. In the case of plant samples we can use wet digestion in open system or microwave digestion as a samle preparation method.

  • Changes of relative chlorophyll content at maize smut inoculated hybrids
    55-58
    Views:
    223

    The leaf chlorophyll content analysis is important for several reasons. The natural or anthropogenic stressors directly effect on the chlorophyll content. Through the measurement of the chlorophyll content it is possible to obtain data concerning the physiological status of the plant, moreover the chlorophyll content is closely related to the nitrogen content, so it is linked to photosynthesis and the photosynthetic activity which determine biomass production.
    One of the most common symptoms of plant diseases is the larger and smaller interveinal chlorotic areas. These might be local, or expand to the whole plant. There are multiply reasons of chlorosis such as reduction of chlorophyll content, unfavorable effects on the chlorophyll content,disorders regarding function of chloroplasts or ultimately destruction of the chloroplasts. Although such a chlorotic deviancy can contribute to significant losses in photosynthesis; however the underperformance photosynthesis of the sick plants is a more complex process.
    As we unambiguously experienced during our investigations on common smut that the infected maize plants most common accompanying symptom was chlorosis on the leaves, so it is especially important to examine how the infection influenced on the chlorophyll content of different hybrids.

  • The use of biogas in energetics
    41-46
    Views:
    101

    In our study we examine the technical facilities of biogas production in the economic environment of a given region. The region can be considered as typical: it has animal farms, a poultry-processing plant with the characteristic problems of environment load and by-product handling. Biogas can be used for energetic purposes, and, in large scale, it can be sold as electric energy. The heat coming from the engine and the generator can be collected in heat exchangers and can be used for preparing hot water and for heating. One third of the gained energy is electric, two thirds are heat. The aim of the local owner and the economic management is to increase the rate of cost-effectiveness in general. We examined the tecnnical and economic conditions of establishing a biogas plant (using data of an existing pigfarm). We planned the biogas plant and calculated the expected investment and operational costs and return.

  • Nutrient deficiency and effects of various nutrition technologies on crop health
    109-113
    Views:
    200

    The impacts of climate change on crop production are increasingly noticeable. Extreme weather conditions – such as devastating droughts, which occur more often – have serious effects on crop conditions, thus damaging their defence ability against pathogens and pests. Therefore, in order to achieve high-quality and high yielding crops, it is urgent to elaborate new technologies that improve general condition of crops and prevent development of nutrient diseases. Those crops which suffer from the lack of certain nutrients are more sensitive and their tolerance against diseases are decreased. Nitrogen – as the most influencing macronutrient in yield – is also essential in maintaining crop health. Nevertheless, due to the complicated processes in soil (such as leaching, denitrification), the utilization of nitrogen is not nearly complete, therefore nitrogen stabilizers may be needed to maximize this factor. The use of these stabilizers can be promising where plants with high nitrogen content are grown, although further experiments are needed in which impacts of nitrogen stabilizers on crop protection aspects are examined as well, since there is a close correlation between exaggerated nitrogen fertilizing and sensitivity to pests. During my research I am going to examine the combined effect of foliar fertilizer and nitrogen stabilizer on crop health. Furthermore, my goal is to find clear correlation between pathogens and the different technological variants of nutrition.

  • Plant production possibilities on a heavy metal contaminated soil with the purpose of biorefinery
    215-222
    Views:
    73

    Significant part of not cultivated area of Hungary is not suitable for agricultural utilization because of industrial
    pollution. Technologies of biorefinery make reutilization of contaminated areas possible. Biomass of plants
    produced on polluted soils can be raw material of valuable products. Applicability of biorefinery was tested on a
    heavy metal polluted soil, where the contamination originated from previous mining activity. Complete biomass
    utilization was aimed to obtain cosmetic ingredients, pharmaceutical agents, and precursors. During our research
    work 88 plant species and varieties were produced and tested for potential utilizable components. Levels of
    possible contaminants in these plants were monitored, and amounts of carbohydrates, protein, organic acid and
    cellulose were determined as well. Different plant extracts were tested as potential sources of biologically effective
    components or as raw materials for lactic acid fermentation. Our results show that biorefinery is a real possibility
    for utilization of polluted areas. Numerous plants could be cultivated on contaminated areas without increased
    levels of contaminants in their tissues, thus they can be sources of valuable compounds.

  • Evaluation of various silo sorghum hybrids from the energetic aspect
    107-111
    Views:
    121

    The sweet sorghum is a perspective plant of bioenergy, which can be the foundation of Hungarian bioethanol production in the future. By the examination six sweet sorghum hybrids have been examinated by the viewpoint of sugar aggregation and bioethanol production capacity. The founda tion of the surve y was three growing se ason (201 0, 2011, 2012 ). The ex per ime nt w as on the production sites of U niversity of Debrecen CAAES RISF Karcag Research Institute. The production site of the sweet sorghum have been sampled by samples of 1 m2 by hybrids within the period of august 15 and november 15. The sugar content of the samples have been measured by refractometer which was the base in the determination of ethanol production capacity.

    As a continuation of the evaluation of energetic viewpoint the Higher Heating Value (HHV) have been measured from the bagasse of sweet sorghums. According to the results it can be stated that int he case of sugarcontent and the dinamics of the sugar aggregation can show several differences, while HHV of sorghum bagasse is within 16 200 and 16 900 J g-1.

  • The potential of biological control on invasive weed species
    73-75
    Views:
    41

    Sorghum halepense is one of the invasive species in Europe. This study was made to identify the morphology of fungi on invasive weed species samples on the roots of Sorghum halepense. The samples were collected in the region of Debrecen. The experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions to determine the microscopic form of fungi. The samples were put on PDA and for identification of fungi is based on the morphological characteristics of the features and colonies of conidia that were developed in Petri dishes.

    The examination of the culture revealed that the fungus from the root of Sorghum halepense was Aspergillus niger. Pathogenicity and the relationship between the fungus and Sorghum halepense are still uncertain so in the future pathogenicity tests and re-isolations from plants are very important steps.

  • Topology in the fruit plantation
    253-257
    Views:
    165

    The localization of fruit trees, the topology of the branch structure and the spatial structure of the canopy are important to plan sitespecific agro-ecological and production technology projects in an orchard. The currently used instruments and technologies – in the precision agriculture – give opportunities to obtain these informations. The examinations were carried out in the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag with the use of a GreenSeeker 505 Hand Held™ Optical Sensor Unit, and its interface the Trimble AgGPS FmX Integrated Display board computer. The collected spectral data were completed with the 3D point cloud by Leica ScanStation C10 laser scanner. The laser impulse data and the vegetation index values were integrated in a unified 3D system. The integration of the two special data collection system provides new opportunities in the development of precision production technology system. The results could be directly used in phytotechnology, water management, plant protection and harvesting in orchards. Our elaborated method can supply digital high spatial accuracy guidance data for development of the automated machines, which could provide some new developmental way in the immediate future.

  • Comparative study of different soybean genotypes in irrigation technology
    91-95
    Views:
    274

    In many places in Hungary, early maturity soybean can be successfully grown. The earlier maturity group of soy which ripened in 110–125 days in most crop areas in Hungary. However, to achieve excellent results, the selection of proper varieties is important too. Successful cultivation is largely dependent on the macro and microclimate of the production area, the nutrient supply of the soil and the cultivation technology. Soybean can be produced in places where the amount of precipitation is right, as the lack of water results in lower yields and deteriorated oil and protein concentrations. In the following study, 2 years (2016 and 2017) are compared to the yield, protein and oil content of the soybeans of the early maturation group in irrigated and non-irrigated treatments. Based on our experiment, it can be stated that, during the irrigation of soybean, oil and protein content and yields did not always change.

  • The effect of nickel-contamination, nitrogen-supply and liming on the chemical composition of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)
    85-92
    Views:
    92

    Plant-production is determined by many production-factors. Each of these factors became subject of research-works through the years, still we state, that studying their interaction is even more important. For studying these interactions we set up a potexperiment, within that the direct effect and the interactions of four factors was inspected: soil, nitrogen-supply, nickel-loading and liming. Experiments were carried out on two soil types with extremely different characters: one was a chernozem soil with good fertility and buffering capacity, the other was a shifting sand soil with low humus-content and buffering capacity. Nitrogensupply and liming was added on two levels, while nickel on three within 12 combinations on each soil types. Plant production was cut two times within the vegetation period. The amount of production and dry matter was weighted, fractured and their element-content was measured by an ICP-detector.
    Ca-content on the shifting sand soil was determined by all three factors, however the interaction between nickel-loading and liming was also significant. Nitrogen and liming increased Cauptake, that is due to appropriate nutrient-supply and improvement of a better pH-value. On the chernozem soil nitrogen and CaCO3 also increased the Ca-content. This is caused by a better nutrient supply and a higher amount of available Ca-ions.
    On the shifting sand soil nickel content was increasing parallel to higher nitrogen-dosages. In presence of higher nickelamount the nickel-content of plants was also increasing, still according to liming, this increment was different. On the chernozem soil nitrogen a nickel increased Ni-uptake. However, liming also had a positive effect on Ni-content, that can be explained by the high amount on colloids in the soil, the adsorption of Ni-ions on them and in presence of liming material the replacement of Ca-and Ni-ions. 
    The potassium-content on the shifting sand soil was different in each liming-combination. In combinations without nickel the potassium-content of limed and not limed combinations was on the same level. In not limed combinations by adding nickel potassiumcontent was increasing, while in limed combinations no change was observed. On the chernozem soil by adding liming material the amount of uptaken potassium was decreasing, that is due to the antagonism between Ca- and K-ions. 

  • The impact of sowing date, production area and nutrient supply on the yield and quality parameters of millet
    105-109
    Views:
    98

    The millet is a very special plant with good adaptation that gives the possibility for the late sowing and secondary production. However the effects of late sowing modifies to the efficiency of the agrotechnological elements. The examinations – focused on this aspect – was conducted in the DU CAS RINY in the small plots in four replications in 2013. The largest effect was recorded in the sowing time of the examined factors (sowing time, nutrient supply, growing area). The effectiveness of the agrotechnological elements decreases under unfavourable circumstances caused by the late sowing. The examined factors did not affect in the protein content and milling rate, except in the latest sowing time when protein content was significantly the highest.

  • Spatially Continuous GIS Analysis of Sampling Points Based on Yield and Quality Analysis of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)
    56-61
    Views:
    107

    The homogeneity of a study area of 20x20 m used for beetroot production in North-West Hungary was analysed with geo-statistical methods on the basis of measured plant and soil parameters. Based on variogram calculations (Equation 1 and 2), the yield surface showed homogeneity in North-South direction. Considering the results, decrease of sampling distance to 17 m can be suggested. The direction of the variability of yield (Figure 1) could be modelled with a direction variogram based on analysis of the variogram surface. In the study, developed methodological processes are presented for the analysis of spatial relationship between measured production and soil parameters. 5 spatial evaluation methods for yield surface were compared (Table 1). On the basis of the analysed methods, it can be stated that different methods (LP, RBF) should be used when the reasons for locally extreme yields are in focus than in case when the yield surface of the whole area is estimated (IDW, GP). Using adequate parameters the kriging method is applicable for both functions. Similarly to the results of an ordinary Pearson correlation analysis, spatial correlation analysis was shown using soil pH and Cu concentration data. The results of cross variogram analysis (Equation 2) and the North-South direction of the variogram surface showed negative correlation (Figure 3). Based on simulation calculations, decrease of 30% in sampling points resulted in increase of 12% in error for the total sample number considering Cu concentration. The method provides a tool to decrease the cost of sampling and sample analyses of spatially correlating features, and to increase the reliability of spatial estimation using a better sampling strategy with the same sample number.

  • Technological and Technical Issues of Efficient Nutrient Supply
    43-46
    Views:
    59

    Efficient plant production requires modern production technologies, including a nutrient supply of a scientific basis. The harmonic nutrient supply of quality products that are required by market demands can be produced by the optimal combination of a compound system of requirements. These requirements are partly preparatory (soil investigations, yield measurements, preparation of digital field maps) and are partly based on the knowledge of the most significant characteristics of the applied nutrients. Most artificial fertilizers are applied by spinning disc fertilizer spreaders all over the world, therefore, it is advisable to use them in Hungary as well. Importantly, these machines should be well adjustable, capable of the exact measurement and control of the spread quantity, as well as of even spreading. My report has investigated only the most significant technical requirements affecting the even application of nutrients.

  • Rippl-Rónai’s color in the native parks: production and using of new, synthetic Wild sage color-mixture
    59-64
    Views:
    151

    The climate changes is becoming more damaging to ornamental plants. Besides ornamental species and varieties of plants on public spaces. It will be necessary to use domestic, well adaptable climate-tolerant plant species.

    One field of our growing ornamental plants researches from 2001 in the Centre of Agricultural Sciences of University of Debrecen, is studying drought patient, mainly Hungarian improved annual varieties, which are able to get acclimatized with the landscape. Moreover, we have in view to work out new, economical seedling production technologies. In the program, the excellent drought- and frost tolerant annuals and perennials belongs to the climate change tolerant plants. From the evaluated of species we want to create and spread the application. of the new types of ornamental horticulture culture.

  • Effects of cultivation methods on some soil biological parameters of a meadow chernozem soil (Vertisols)
    61-66
    Views:
    75

    The effect of extended drought conditions on soil, the unfavourable cultivation technologies and the application of chemicals have been enhancing the processes of physical and biological soil degradation, so the fertility of soil is gradually declining. 
    The effects of two cultivation methods – traditional ploughing (TP) and conservation tillage (CT) – on the biological activity of a meadow
    chernozem soil were examined in a long term experiment. Different parameters of the biological activity of soil were determined. These are
    the numbers of total bacteria, microscopic fungi, aerobic cellulose decomposing bacteria, as well as the activities of some important soil
    enzymes and CO2 production.
    Conservation tillage seemed to be a more favourable cultivation method for the majority of microorganisms, the activities of urease and
    dehydrogenase enzymes and CO2 production, compared to the traditional ploughing system. These parameters increased significantly,
    especially in the upper layer of conservation tillage plots. Concerning the plant cultures, the majority of microbiological parameters were
    higher in the soil of vetch (Vicia sativa L.) depending on the cultivation methods, so involving the pulses to the crop-rotation seems to be
    very important in this soil type.
    According to the ninth year’s results, the importance of conservation tillage as a means of protecting the soil biological activity in meadow
    chernozem (Vertisols) can be established; it was proven by microbiological investigations.

  • New approach in soil tillage – bases of the precision crop production
    123-127
    Views:
    99

    A new approach is needed in soil tillage practice. The important achievements of this are the recognition of the risk – poor tillage practices, poor soil quality, soil state defects, and climate extremes etc. – the need for the development of risk reduction, prevention, remediation and maintenance of the favorable soil state. In this paper 13 main soil state defects are listed, to which the prevention and improving tasks are also commented. In the second part of the paper the most important soil tillage tasks are summarized in 30 sections and realization of these points may promote the implementation of precision plant production.

  • From Organic to Precision Farming (Contemporary Publication)
    81-86
    Views:
    66

    The paper presents a short review of the different types of farming systems:
    Biofarming, Organic farming, Alternatíve farming, Biodynamic farming, Low input sustainable agriculture (LISA)
    Mid-tech farming, Sustainable agriculture, Soil conservation farming, No till farming, Environmentally sound, Environmentally friendly, Diversity farming
    Crop production system, Integrated pest management (IPM), Integrated farming, High-tech farming
    Site specific production (SSP), Site specific technology (SST), Spatial variable technology, Satellite farming.
    Precision farming
    It concludes that the various systems are applicable in different ratios and combinations depending on the natural and economic conditions.
    The author predicts an increase in precision technologies , the first step being the construction of yield maps compared with soil maps and their agronomic analysis. Based on this information, it will be necessary to elaborate the variable technology within the field, especially for plant density, fertilization and weed control.
    The changes in weed flora during the past fifty years based on 10.000 samples within the same fields using the weed cover method are presented.

  • Effects of Tillage Systems on Physical Status and Organic Matter Turnover of the Soil
    42-45
    Views:
    154

    The cultivation technology for those plant, that play a key role in arable land production need to be renewed in order to reduce production costs and to protect arable land. The modernisation of technologies can only be achieved by applying appropriate tillage systems. Our measurements were carried out on chernozem soil with lime deposits at the Látókép Experimental Station of the Center for Agricultural Sciences, Debrecen University, in long term tillage experiments set up in 1989. We examined the typical physical parameters, the albedo, field capacity, the bulk density of the soil, organic carbon content (humus %) and the measured pH-values in the water solution within the two tillage variations. We have also modelled nitrogen cycle formation in different treatments.
    A significant difference occured between the albedos of the two soils, which may be the result of significant amounts of stem remaining on the surface in the case of the reduced tillage method. The yellow, waxy stem of maize reflects 21% of the sun’s rays, especially at the beginning of the vegetation period, when its decomposition has only just started. This delys the warming up in early spring, which delays the sowing time of maize and reduces evaporation. In the two tillage variations, the water management characteristics do not differ practically, the wilting point field capacity are in accordance. In reduced tillage methods, the so-called „plough-pan” can be well measured at 15-20 cm, while in winter ploughing it is at 30 cm. The humus % of the soil does not differ in the two tillage variations, but due to the difference in bulk density this means a different humus and organic nitrogen content. The organic nitrogen content is greater in the reduced tillage method. On the basis of pH value evaluations, we could not detect significant differences in the two tillage variations. The organic nitrogen content of areas where reduced tillage method was applied is higher than in areas where conventional winter ploughing was applied.

  • Element content analyses in the Institute for Food Sciences, Quality Assurance and Microbiology
    203-207
    Views:
    110

    The role of chemical elements to ensure and promote our health is undisputed. Some of them are essential for plants, animals and human, others can cause diseases. The major source of mineral constituents is food, drinking water has a minor contribution to it, so the knowledge of elemental intake through food is crucial and needs continuous monitoring and by this way it promotes the food quality assurance and dietetics.
    With the evolution of spectroscopic methods increasingly lower concentrations could be determined, so the elemental composition of a sample could be more precisely and fully described. Due to the results the gathered knowledge up to the present is supported and new observations can be done helping us to understand such complex systems as biological organisms are.
    The quality of a food is determined by the full process of its production, consequently it starts with agricultural production so elemental-analysis usually cover the whole soil – plant – (animal) – food chain, by this way the „Fork-to-Farm” precept is true in elemental analysis field also.
    The history of elemental analysis in the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, Institute of Food Processing, Quality Assurance and Microbiology goes back to 1980s when the so called Regional Measurement Central gave the background for research. The continuous deployment resulted in an obtain of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) in 1988, which extended the scope of examinations due to its excellent performance characteristics
    compared to flame atom absorption (FAAS) and flame emission spectrometers (FES). The instrumental park retain up to date correlate to the developing analytical techniques due to acquiring a newer ICPAES in 1998 and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in 2004 – which sensitivity is three order of magnitude better compared to ICP-AES. The Institute supports the work with its own ICP-AES and ICP-MS since 2011. 

  • Changes of some soil chemical and microbiological characteristics in a long-term fertilization experiment in Hungary
    253-265
    Views:
    247

    Agricultural management practices – directly or indirectly – influence soil properties.

    Fertilization rates and crop rotation can strongly affect soil pH, soil nutrient supply and soil organic matter content due to the changes of microbial processes. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of different fertilization doses in monoculture and tri-culture of maize (monoculture: only maize grown since 1983, tri-culture: it is a three-year crop rotation system: pea – winter wheat – maize) on selected soil characteristics. The long-term fertilization experiments were set up in 1983 in Eastern Hungary. These experiments are situated west of Debrecen in Hajdúság loess region, on calcareous chernozem (according to WRB: Chernozems).

    The test plant was maize (Zea mays L.). One-one pilot blocks were selected from monoculture and tri-culture of the long-term experiments. The observed soil samples were taken in the 30th year of the experiment, in 2013. The doses of NPK fertilizers increased parallel together, so the effects of N-, P- and K-fertilizers cannot be separated.

    With the increasing fertilizer doses, the soil pH has decreased in both crop production systems and, in parallel, the hydrolytic acidity has significantly increased. A close negative correlation was proved between the pHH2O, pHKCl and hydrolytic acidity. An increased nutrient content in soil was recorded in every NPK treatment and the available phosphorus and nitrate content increased in higher proportion than that of potassium. Of the measured parameters of C-and N-cycles, fertilization has mostly had a positive effect on the microbial activity of soils. Besides the effects of fertilizer doses, correlation were looked for between soil microbiological properties. Evaluating the ratios among the measured parameters (organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon, OC/MBC ratio; carbon-dioxide and microbial biomass carbon; CO2/MBC proportion), the fertilization rate seems to be favoured by the increase of amounts of organic compounds

  • The roles of mycotoxins in cereal crops production: A comparative study of Hungary and Tanzania
    151-159
    Views:
    134

    Although Hungary and Tanzania's climatic, soil, and technological conditions differ significantly in crop production, cereals crop cultivation is of paramount importance; maize crop dominates the cultivated area (Hungary 1 million ha, Tanzania 3 million ha) both from a feed and food point of view. Unfortunately, in both countries, fungal species (Fusaria, Aspergilli, Penicillia, etc.) that produce various mycotoxins on cereals, including maize grains, are a growing concern. The situation is complicated because these fungal species and their toxins can appear not only on cereals but also on other crops. Despite the prevalence of mycotoxins in both countries, studies show higher exposure risks and contamination above tolerable levels for human consumption in Tanzania to Hungary, with Tanzania observing acute aflatoxicosis.