No. 1 (2022)
Articles

The roles of mycotoxins in cereal crops production: A comparative study of Hungary and Tanzania

Published May 26, 2022
Muhoja Sylivester Nyandi
University of Debrecen Kálmán Kerpely Doctoral School
Péter Pepó
Institute of Plant Science, University of Debrecen
pdf

APA

Nyandi, M. S., & Pepó , P. . (2022). The roles of mycotoxins in cereal crops production: A comparative study of Hungary and Tanzania. Acta Agraria Debreceniensis, (1), 151–159. https://doi.org/10.34101/actaagrar/1/10833

Although Hungary and Tanzania's climatic, soil, and technological conditions differ significantly in crop production, cereals crop cultivation is of paramount importance; maize crop dominates the cultivated area (Hungary 1 million ha, Tanzania 3 million ha) both from a feed and food point of view. Unfortunately, in both countries, fungal species (Fusaria, Aspergilli, Penicillia, etc.) that produce various mycotoxins on cereals, including maize grains, are a growing concern. The situation is complicated because these fungal species and their toxins can appear not only on cereals but also on other crops. Despite the prevalence of mycotoxins in both countries, studies show higher exposure risks and contamination above tolerable levels for human consumption in Tanzania to Hungary, with Tanzania observing acute aflatoxicosis.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
  1. Abdallah, M.F.–Audenaert, K.–Lust, L.–Landschoot, S.–Bekaert, B.–Haesaert, G.–De Saeger, S. (2020): Risk characterisation and quantification of mycotoxins and their producing fungi in sugarcane juice: A neglected problem in a widely consumed traditional beverage. Food Control, 108, 106811.
  2. Adeyeye, S.A. (2016): Fungal mycotoxins in foods: A review. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 2(1), 1213127.
  3. Antonissen, G.–Martel, A.–Pasmans, F.–Ducatelle, R.–Verbrugghe, E.–Vandenbroucke, V.–Croubels, S. (2014): The impact of Fusarium mycotoxins on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases. Toxins, 6(2), 430–452.
  4. Benkerroum, N. (2019): Retrospective and prospective look at aflatoxin research and development from a practical standpoint. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(19), 3633.
  5. Benkerroum, N. (2020): Aflatoxins: Producing-molds, structure, health issues and incidence in Southeast Asian and Sub-Saharan African countries. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(4), 1215.
  6. Bennett, J.W.–Klich, M. (2003): Mycotoxins. Clinical microbiology reviews, 16(3), 497–516.
  7. Bennett, J.W.–Kale, S.–Yu, J. (2007): Aflatoxins: background, toxicology, and molecular biology. In Foodborne diseases. Humana Press. pp. 355–373.
  8. Berthiller, F.–Sulyok, M.–Krska, R.–Schuhmacher, R. (2007): Chromatographic methods for the simultaneous determination of mycotoxins and their conjugates in cereals. International journal of food microbiology, 119(1–2), 33–37.
  9. Bhat, R.V.–Miller, J.D. (1991): Mycotoxins and food supply. Food, Nutrition, and Agriculture-Food for the Future, FAO.
  10. Boni, S.B.–Beed, F.–Kimanya, M.E.–Koyano, E.–Mponda, O.–Mamiro, D.–Mahuku, G. (2021): Aflatoxin contamination in Tanzania: quantifying the problem in maize and groundnuts from rural households. World Mycotoxin Journal, 14(4), 553–564.
  11. Borbély, M.–Sipos, P.–Pelles, F.–Győri, Z. (2010): Mycotoxin contamination in cereals. Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies, 16, 96–98.
  12. Bui-Klimke, T.R.–Wu, F. (2015): Ochratoxin A and human health risk: A review of the evidence. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 55(13), 1860–1869.
  13. Búza, L–Marth-Schill, J. (2010): Mycotoxin test methods, results, occurrence in domestic feed. In: Kovács M, editor. Actualities in the mycotoxin research. Budapest (Hu): Academic; p. 13–19.
  14. Chen, C.–Mitchell, N.J.–Gratz, J.–Houpt, E.R.–Gong, Y.–Egner, P.A.–Groopman, J.D.–Riley, R.T.–Showker, J.L.–Svensen, E.–Mduma, E.R.–Pati, C.L.–Wu, F. (2018): Exposure to aflatoxin and Fumonisinsin children at risk for growth impairment in rural Tanzania. Environment international, 115, 29–37.
  15. Chilaka, C.A.–De Boevre, M.–Atanda, O.O.–De Saeger, S. (2017): The status of Fusarium mycotoxins in sub-Saharan Africa: A review of emerging trends and post-harvest mitigation strategies towards food control. Toxins, 9(1), 19.
  16. Cochrane, N.–D'Souza, A. (2015): Measuring access to food in Tanzania: A food basket approach (No. 1476-2016-121041).
  17. Csima, G.–Horányi, A. (2008): Validation of the ALADIN-Climate regional climate model at the Hungarian Meteorological Service. Időjárás, 112(3–4), 155–77.
  18. D’Mello, J.P.F.–Placinta, C.M.–Macdonald, A.M.C. (1999): Fusarium mycotoxins: a review of global implications for animal health, welfare and productivity. Animal feed science and technology, 80(3–4), 183–205.
  19. Darwish, W.S.–Ikenaka, Y.–Nakayama, S.M.–Ishizuka, M. (2014): An overview on mycotoxin contamination of foods in Africa. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 76(6), 789–797.
  20. Degraeve, S.–Madege, R.R.–Audenaert, K.–Kamala, A.–Ortiz, J.–Kimanya, M.–Haesaert, G. (2016): Impact of local pre-harvest management practices in maize on the occurrence of Fusarium species and associated mycotoxins in two agro-ecosystems in Tanzania. Food Control, 59, 225–233.
  21. Desjardins, A.E.–Proctor, R.H. (2007): Molecular biology of Fusarium mycotoxins. International journal of food microbiology, 119(1–2), 47–50.
  22. Dobolyi, Cs.–Sebők, F.–Varga, J.–Kocsubé, S.–Szigeti, Gy.–Baranyi, N.–Szécsi, Á.–Lustyik, Gy.–Tóth, B.–Varga, M.–Kriszt, B.–Kukolya, J. (2011): Aflatoxin-termelő Aspergillus flavus törzsek előfordulása hazai kukorica szemtermésben. Növényvédelem, 47(4), 125–133.
  23. Dohlman, E. (2003): Mycotoxin hazards and regulations. International Trade and Food Safety, 97.
  24. El Khoury, A.–Atoui, A. (2010): Ochratoxin A: general overview and actual molecular status. Toxins, 2(4), 461–493.
  25. Eskola, M.–Kos, G.–Elliott, C.T.–Hajšlová, J.–Mayar, S.–Krska, R. (2020): Worldwide contamination of food-crops with mycotoxins: Validity of the widely cited ‘FAO estimate’of 25%. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 60(16), 2773–2789.
  26. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations
  27. statistics (FAOSTAT) available at {https://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home} ˙accessed 12th Feb, 2022.
  28. Frisvad, J.C.–Hubka, V.–Ezekiel, C.N.–Hong, S.B.–Nováková, A.–Chen, A.J.–Houbraken, J. (2018): Taxonomy of Aspergillus section Flavi and their production of Aflatoxins, Ochratoxins and other mycotoxins. Studies in mycology, 91(1), 37–59.
  29. Geary, P.A.–Chen, G.–Kimanya, M.E.–Shirima, C.P.–Oplatowska-Stachowiak, M.–Elliott, C.T.–Gong, Y.Y. (2016): Determination of multi-mycotoxin occurrence in maize-based porridges from selected regions of Tanzania by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), a longitudinal study. Food Control, 68, 337–343.
  30. Gieseker, K.E.–Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004): Outbreak of aflatoxin poisoning-eastern and central provinces, Kenya, January–July 2004.
  31. Gong, Y.Y.–Shirima, C.P.–Srey, C.–Kimanya, M.E.–Routledge, M.N. (2015): Deoxynivalenol and fumonisin exposure in children and adults in a family study in rural Tanzania. World Mycotoxin Journal, 8(5), 553–560.
  32. Hungarian central statistical office (KSH) 2022 at {https://www.ksh.hu/?lang=en}
  33. Kamala, A.–Kimanya, M.–De Meulenaer, B.–Kolsteren, P.–Jacxsens, L.–Haesaert, G.–Lachat, C. (2018): Post-harvest interventions decrease aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in maize and subsequent dietary exposure in Tanzanian infants: a cluster randomised-controlled trial. World Mycotoxin Journal, 11(3), 447–458.
  34. Kamala, A.–Kimanya, M.–Haesaert, G.–Tiisekwa, B.–Madege, R.–Degraeve, S.–De Meulenaer, B. (2016): Local post-harvest practices associated with aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize in three agro-ecological zones of Tanzania. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 33(3), 551–559.
  35. Kamala, A.–Ortiz, J.–Kimanya, M.–Haesaert, G.–Donoso, S.–Tiisekwa, B.–De Meulenaer, B. (2015): Multiple mycotoxin co-occurrence in maize grown in three agro-ecological zones of Tanzania. Food Control, 54, 208–215.
  36. Kamala, A.–Shirima, C.–Jani, B.–Bakari, M.–Sillo, H.–Rusibamayila, N. & investigation team. (2018): Outbreak of an acute aflatoxicosis in Tanzania during 2016. World Mycotoxin Journal, 11(3), 311–320.
  37. Kimanya, M.E.–De Meulenaer, B.–Roberfroid, D.–Lachat, C.–Kolsteren, P. (2010): Fumonisin exposure through maize in complementary foods is inversely associated with the linear growth of infants in Tanzania. Molecular nutrition & food research, 54(11), 1659–1667.
  38. Kimanya, M.E.–De Meulenaer, B.–Tiisekwa, B.–Ndomondo-Sigonda, M.–Devlieghere, F.–Van Camp, J.–Kolsteren, P. (2008): Co-occurrence of Fumonisinswith Aflatoxins in home-stored maize for human consumption in rural villages of Tanzania. Food additives and contaminants, 25(11), 1353–1364.
  39. Kimanya, M.E.–Routledge, M.N.–Mpolya, E.–Ezekiel, C.N.–Shirima, C.P.–Gong, Y.Y. (2021): Estimating the risk of aflatoxin-induced liver cancer in Tanzania based on biomarker data. Plos one, 16(3), e0247281.
  40. Kimanya, M.E.–Shirima, C.P.–Magoha, H.–Shewiyo, D.H.–De Meulenaer, B.–Kolsteren, P.–Gong, Y.Y. (2014): Co-exposures of Aflatoxins with Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisinsfrom maize-based complementary foods in Rombo, Northern Tanzania. Food Control, 41, 76–81.
  41. Kocsčubé, S.–Varga, J.–Sigeti, Đ.–Baranji, N.–Šuri, K.–Tot, B.–Toldi, É.–Bartók, T.–Mešterhazi, A. (2013): Aspergillus species as mycotoxin producers in agricultural products in central Europe. Zbornik Matice srpske za prirodne nauke, (124), 13–25.
  42. Krishnamachari, K.A.V.R.–Nagarajan, V.–Bhat, R.–Tilak, T.B.G. (1975): Hepatitis due to aflatoxicosis: an outbreak in western India. Te Lancet, 305(7915), 1061–1063.
  43. Kuhumba, G.D.–Simonne, A.H.–Mugula, J.K. (2018): Evaluation of Aflatoxins in peanut-enriched complementary flours from selected urban markets in Tanzania. Food Control, 89, 196–202.
  44. Kumar, A.–Pathak, H.–Bhadauria, S.–Sudan, J. (2021): Aflatoxin contamination in food crops: causes, detection, and management: a review. Food Production, Processing and Nutrition, 3(1), 1–9.
  45. Lasztity, R.–Tamás, K.–Taniás, K.–Wöller, L. (1977): Occurrence of" fusarium" mycotoxins in some hungarian corn crops and the possibilities of detoxication. In Annales de la nutrition et de l'alimentation. centre national de la recherche scientifique. pp. 495–498.
  46. Lewis, L.–Onsongo, M.–Njapau, H.–Schurz-Rogers, H.–Luber, G.–Kieszak, S.–Kenya Aflatoxicosis Investigation Group (2005): Aflatoxin contamination of commercial maize products during an outbreak of acute aflatoxicosis in eastern and central Kenya. Environmental health perspectives, 113(12), 1763–1767.
  47. Logrieco, A.–Battilani, P.–Leggieri, M.C.–Jiang, Y.–Haesaert, G.–Lanubile, A.–Mahuku, G.–Mesterházy, Á.–Ortega-Beltran, A.–Pasti, M.–Smeu, I.–Torres, A.–Xu, J.–Munkvold, G. (2021): Perspectives on global mycotoxin issues and management from the MycoKey Maize Working Group. Plant disease, 105(3), 525–537.
  48. Lund, F.–Frisvad, J.C. (2003): Penicillium verrucosum in wheat and barley indicates presence of Ochratoxin A. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 95(5), 1117–1123.
  49. Magembe, K.S.–Mwatawala, M.W.–Mamiro, D.P. (2016): Mycotoxin contamination in stored maize and groundnuts based on storage practices and conditions in subhumid tropical Africa: The case of Kilosa District, Tanzania. Journal of food protection, 79(12), 2160–2166.
  50. Magembe, K.S.–Mwatawala, M.W.–Mamiro, D.P.–Chingonikaya, E.E. (2016): Assessment of awareness of mycotoxins infections in stored maize (Zea mays L.) and groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) in Kilosa District, Tanzania. International Journal of Food Contamination, 3(1), 1–8.
  51. Magnoli, C.E.–Astoreca, A.L.–Chiacchiera, S.M.–Dalcero, A.M. (2007): Occurrence of Ochratoxin A and ochratoxigenic mycoflora in corn and corn-based foods and feeds in some South American countries. Mycopathologia, 163(5), 249–260.
  52. Magoha, H.–Kimanya, M.–De Meulenaer, B.–Roberfroid, D.–Lachat, C.–Kolsteren, P. (2014): Association between aflatoxin M1 exposure through breast milk and growth impairment in infants from Northern Tanzania. World Mycotoxin Journal, 7(3), 277–284.
  53. Magoha, H.–Kimanya, M.–De Meulenaer, B.–Roberfroid, D.–Lachat, C.–Kolsteren, P. (2016): Risk of dietary exposure to Aflatoxins and Fumonisinsin infants less than 6 months of age in Rombo, Northern T Tanzania. Maternal & child nutrition, 12(3), 516–527.
  54. Manjula, K.–Hell, K.–Fandohan, P.–Abass, A.–Bandyopadhyay, R. (2009): Aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of cassava products and maize grain from markets in Tanzania and republic of the Congo. Toxin reviews, 28(2–3), 63–69.
  55. Manoza, F.S.–Mushongi, A.A.–Harvey, J.–Wainaina, J.–Wanjuki, I.–Ngeno, R.–Massomo, S.M. (2017): Potential of using host plant resistance, nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers for reduction of Aspergillus flavus colonisation and aflatoxin accumulation in maize in Tanzania. Crop protection, 93, 98–105.
  56. Marin, S.–Ramos, A.J.–Cano-Sancho, G.–Sanchis, V. (2013): Mycotoxins: Occurrence, toxicology, and exposure assessment. Food and chemical toxicology, 60, 218–237.
  57. Massart, F.–Saggese, G. (2010): Oestrogenic mycotoxin exposures and precocious pubertal development. International journal of andrology, 33(2), 369–376.
  58. Massomo, S.M. (2020): Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination in the maize value chain and what needs to be done in Tanzania. Scientific African, e00606.
  59. Mazumder, P.M.–Sasmal, D. (2001): Mycotoxins–limits and regulations. Ancient science of life, 20(3), 1.
  60. Mboya, R.–Bogale, A. (2012): Mycotoxin contamination of food and its possible implications on sustainable development in Rungwe District, Tanzania. OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, 5(7), 37–46.
  61. Mboya, R.–Tongoona, P.–Derera, J.–Mudhara, M.–Langyintuo, A. (2011): The dietary importance of maize in Katumba ward, Rungwe district, Tanzania, and its contribution to household food security. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(11), 2617–2626.
  62. Mesterhazy, A.–Lemmens, M.–Reid, L.M. (2012): Breeding for resistance to ear rots caused by Fusarium spp. in maize–a review. Plant Breeding, 131(1), 1–19.
  63. Miraglia, M.–De Santis, B.–Brera, C. (2008): Climate change: Implications for mycotoxin contamination of foods. Journal of Biotechnology, (136), S715.
  64. Mollay, C.–Kimanya, M.–Kassim, N.–Stoltzfus, R. (2021): Main complementary food ingredients contributing to aflatoxin exposure to infants and young children in Kongwa, Tanzania. Food Control, 108709.
  65. Mtega, M.–Mgina, C.A.–Kaale, E.–Sempombe, J.–Kilulya, K.F. (2020): Occurrence of Aflatoxins in maize and maize products from selected locations of Tanzania and the effects of cooking preparation processes on toxin levels. Tanzania Journal of Science, 46(2), 407–418.
  66. Munkvold, G.P.–Arias, S.–Taschl, I.–Gruber-Dorninger, C. (2019): Mycotoxins in maize: Occurrence, impacts, and management. In Maize. AACC International Press. pp. 235–287.
  67. Ngindu, A.–Kenya, P.–Ocheng, D.–Omondi, T.–Ngare, W.–Gatei, D.–Siongok, T.A. (1982): Outbreak of acute hepatitis caused by aflatoxin poisoning in Kenya. The Lancet, 319(8285), 1346–1348.
  68. Nyangi, C.–Beed, F.–Mugula, J.K.–Boni, S.–Koyano, E.–Mahuku, G.–Bekunda, M. (2016): Assessment of pre-harvest aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize in Babati District, Tanzania. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 16(3), 11039–11053.
  69. Omotayo, O.P.–Omotayo, A.O.–Mwanza, M.–Babalola, O.O. (2019): Prevalence of mycotoxins and their consequences on human health. Toxicological research, 35(1), 1–7.
  70. Prevention of aflatoxin contamination in Africa (PACA) Secretariat. (2013): PACA Strategy 2013–2022.
  71. Park, D. L.–Njapau, H.–Boutrif, E. (1999): Minimising risks posed by mycotoxins utilising the HACCP concept. Food Nutrition and Agriculture, 49–54.
  72. Pfliegler, W.P.–Pócsi, I.–Győri, Z.–Pusztahelyi, T. (2020): The Aspergilli and their mycotoxins: Metabolic interactions with plants and the soil biota. Frontiers in microbiology, 10, 2921.
  73. Pinton, P.–Oswald, I.P. (2014): Effect of Deoxynivalenol and other Type B Trichotheceneson the intestine: a review. Toxins, 6, 1615–1643.
  74. Pitt, J.I. (2013): Foodborne Infections and Intoxications: Chapter 30. Mycotoxins. Elsevier Inc. Chapters.
  75. Pitt, J.I.–Miller, J.D. (2017): A concise history of mycotoxin research. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 65(33), 7021–7033.
  76. Rajarajan, P.N.–Rajasekaran, K.M.–Devi, N.A. (2013): Aflatoxin contamination in agricultural commodities. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research, 1(04), 148–151.
  77. Rheeder, J.P.–Marasas, W.F.–Vismer, H.F. (2002): Production of fumonisin analogs by Fusarium species. Applied and environmental microbiology, 68(5), 2101–2105.
  78. Sasamalo, M.M.–Mugula, J.K.–Nyangi, C.J. (2018): Aflatoxins contamination of maize at harvest and during storage in Dodoma, Tanzania. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, 7(6), 11–15.
  79. Schmale, D.G.–Munkvold, G.P. (2009): Mycotoxins in crops: A threat to human and domestic animal health. The plant
  80. health instructor, 3(3), 340–353. Available at {https://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/disimpactmngmnt/topc/Mycotoxins/Pages/EconomicImpact.aspx}. accessed on 8th February 2022}
  81. Seetha, A.–Munthali, W.–Msere, H.W.–Swai, E.–Muzanila, Y.–Sichone, E.–Okori, P. (2017): Occurrence of Aflatoxins and its management in diverse cropping systems of central Tanzania. Mycotoxin Research, 33(4), 323–331.
  82. Shabani, I.–Kimanya, M.E.–Gichuhi, P.N.–Bonsi, C.–Bovell-Benjamin, A.C. (2015): Maize storage and consumption practices of farmers in Handeni District, Tanzania: Corollaries for mycotoxin contamination. Open journal of preventive medicine, 5(08), 330.
  83. Shirima, C.P.–Kimanya, M.E.–Kinabo, J.L.–Routledge, M.N.–Srey, C.–Wild, C.P.–Gong, Y.Y. (2013): Dietary exposure to aflatoxin and fumonisin among T anzanian children as determined using biomarkers of exposure. Molecular nutrition & food research, 57(10), 1874–1881.
  84. Shirima, C.P.–Kimanya, M.E.–Routledge, M.N.–Srey, C.–Kinabo, J.L.–Humpf, H.U.– Wild, C.P.–Tu, Y-K.–Gong, Y.Y. (2015): A prospective study of growth and biomarkers of exposure to aflatoxin and fumonisin during early childhood in Tanzania. Environmental health perspectives, 123(2), 173–178.
  85. Streit, E.–Schatzmayr, G.–Tassis, P.–Tzika, E.–Marin, D.–Taranu, I.–Oswald, I.P. (2012): Current situation of mycotoxin contamination and co-occurrence in animal feed–Focus on Europe. Toxins, 4(10), 788–809.
  86. Suleiman, R.A.–Kurt, R.A. (2015): Current maize production, postharvest losses and the risk of mycotoxins contamination in Tanzania. In 2015 ASABE Annual International Meeting (p. 1). American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.
  87. Suleiman, R.A.–Rosentrater, K.A.–Chove, B. (2017): Understanding postharvest practices, knowledge, and actual mycotoxin levels in maize in three agro-ecological zones in Tanzania. Journal of Stored Products and Postharvest Research, 8(7), 73–84.
  88. Suleiman, R.–Rosentrater, K.A.–Bern, C. (2013): Effects of deterioration parameters on storage of maize: A review. Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 3(9), 147–165.
  89. Sulyok, M.–Beed, F.–Boni, S.–Abass, A.–Mukunzi, A.–Krska, R. (2015): Quantitation of multiple mycotoxins and cyanogenic glucosides in cassava samples from Tanzania and Rwanda by an LC-MS/MS-based multi-toxin method. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 32(4), 488–502.
  90. Szécsi, Á.–Szekeres, A.–Bartók, T.–Oros, G.–Bartók, M.–Mesterházy, Á. (2010): Fumonisin B1-4-producing capacity of Hungarian Fusarium verticillioides isolates. World Mycotoxin Journal, 3(1), 67–76.
  91. Szigeti, G.–Baranyi, N.–Kocsubé, S.–Győri, T.–Szekeres, A.–Tóth, B.–Török, O.–Háfra, E.–Pálfi, X.–Varga, J. (2012): Role of Aspergillus species in mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products in Central Europe.
  92. Szuets, P.–Mesterhazy, A.–Falkay, Gy.–Bartok, T. (1997): Early telarche symptoms in children and their relations to zearalenon contamination in foodstuffs. Cereal Research Communications, 25(3/1), 429–436.
  93. Tanzania Food and Drugs Authority (TFDA) (2012): Aflatoxin contamination and potential solutions for its control in Tanzania. A summary of the country and economic assessment available {https://archives.au.int/handle/123456789/5492?show=full}
  94. Tima, H.–Brückner, A.–Mohácsi-Farkas, C.–Kiskó, G. (2016): Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals harvested from Hungarian fields. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part B, 9(2), 127–131.
  95. Tola, M.–Kebede, B. (2016): Occurrence, importance and control of mycotoxins: A review. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 2(1), 1191103.
  96. Tóth, B.–Török, O.–Kótai, É.–Varga, M.–Toldiné Tóth, É.–Pálfi, X.–Mesterházy, Á. (2012): Role of Aspergilli and Penicillia in mycotoxin contamination of maize in Hungary. Acta Agronomica Hungarica, 60(2), 143–149.
  97. World Health Organization (WHO) (2006): Mycotoxins in African foods: implications to food safety and health. AFRO Food
  98. Safety Newsletter. World Health Organization
  99. Food safety (FOS), Issue No. 2 available {https://www.google.com/search?q=WHO+(World+Health+Organization).+(2006).+Mycotoxins+in+African+foods%3A+Implications+to+food+safety+and+health.&rlz=1C1BNSD_enHU977HU978&oq=WHO+(World+Health+Organization).+(2006).+Mycotoxins+in+African+foods%3A+Implications+to+food+
  100. safety+and+health.&aqs=chrome..69i57j69i60.1321j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8}
  101. Yiannikouris, A.–Poughon, L.–Cameleyre, X.–Dussap, C.G.–François, J.–Bertin, G.–Jouany, J.P. (2003): A novel technique to evaluate interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall and mycotoxins: application to Zearalenone. Biotechnology letters, 25(10), 783–789.
  102. Zain, M.E. (2011): Impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals. Journal of Saudi chemical society, 15(2), 129–144.
  103. Zentai, A.–Szeitzné-Szabó, M.–Mihucz, G.–Szeli, N.–Szabó, A.–Kovács, M. (2019): Occurrence and risk assessment of fumonisin B1 and B2 mycotoxins in maize-based food products in Hungary. Toxins, 11(12), 709.