No 67 (2016)

Published February 3, 2016

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Articles

Research of different adjuvants and yeast dosages in honey fermentation process
5-7

In order to ferment honey it is necessary to add in the fermentation environment some substances with the role of adjuvants, to improve the honey must composition and to help the fermentation process. There were tested 2 different combination of adjuvants which were analyzed in the fermentation process. Also the physical and chemical properties... of the final products were analyzed. After establishing the most suitable mix of adjuvants it was necessary to test the right dosage of the yeast used to metabolized sugars: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in order to obtain appropriate organoleptic properties.

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Examination of nutrient reaction of winter wheat after sunflower forecrop
9-13

We tested the fertilizer reaction of four different winter wheat varieties in three different crop years, on chernozem soil, in long-term experiment. We examined the optimum fertilizer requirements and the maximum yield of the varieties. According to our results there were significant differences among the years: the yield of the winter wheat v...arieties changed between 1.4–6.1 t ha-1 in 2013, 3.8–8.6 t ha-1 in 2014 and 3.2–8.6 t ha-1 in 2015. The yield increasing effect of fertilization was significantly different in the tested years. The optimum level of fertilization was determined by, besides the genetic differences among the varieties, the crop year and the extent of fertilization. In milder winter months, due to the higher average temperatures, yields of winter wheat increased compared to an average crop year.

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Effect of the claw disorders on production performance in dairy cattle
15-19

The aim of the study was the influence of claw disorders on production traits in dairy cattle. Observed were claw traits as claw angle, claw length, heel index, claw height, claw diagonal and claw width. Right hind claw after functional trimming was evaluated. Occurrence of claw disorders like interdigital dermatitis and heel erosion (IDHE), di...gital dermatitis (DD) and sole ulcer (SV) as well as the progress of disease were observed. Basic summary and variation statistics was performed by the SAS software. Two herds were included in the study. Holstein dairy cows (n=101) produced 11 875 kg of milk, 468 kg (3.94%) of fat and 396 kg (3.34%) of proteins. Holstein cows were affected with IDHE in 22 cases, with DD in 6 cases and with sole ulcer in 10 cases. Slovak Simmental dairy cows (n=101) produced 5834 kg of milk, 258 kg (4.44%) of fat and 209 kg (3.59%) of proteins. Slovak Simmental cows were affected with IDHE in 8 cases, with DD in 5 cases and with sole ulcer in 19 cases. Observed was that claw disorders caused deviations of milk production.

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The changes of the most important quality parameters of szegedien triticale cultivars in long-term fertilization trials
21-26

We were monitoring the quality changes of 2 triticale cultivars from Szeged (GK Rege and GK Szemes) in Fülöpszállás, Hungary, in a longterm fertilizer trial in 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. The following fertilizer combinations were used: untreated control, single applied N and single applied PK, 30 and 60 kg ha-1 N or PK, and N and PK together ...in 30:30, 60:60 ha-1 ratio. We measured the following quality parameters: kernel hardness, crude protein content and farinograph quality number for wholemeal flour.

Based on the results, the N fertilization treatment was beneficial to the tested triticale culticars in terms of kernel hardness and protein content as both indicators increased. The efficiency of the treatment was proportional to the N dose rate. On the other hand, the applied PK treatment decreased the kernel hardness and crude protein values. On these two parameters, the PK free, and high N dosage treatment (N60P0K0) had the most positive effect. However, the single applied N dose had no significant effect on farinograph quality numbers of the wholemeal flours, but PK dose had significantly positive impact on the tested cultivars. The N30P30K30 treatment resulted in the highest farinograph quality number, thus the low PK and low N combination was the most efficient treatment. The correlation analysis of the tested quality parameters showed positive correlation (0.9965***) between kernel hardness values and crude protein contents. Nevertheless, we found strong negative correlation between kernel hardness values and the farinograph quality number of the wholemeal flours (-0.9720***), as well as in the case of crude protein contents and farinograph quality number of the wholemeal flours (-0.9796***).

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Effect of divided nitrogen and sulfur fertilization on the quality of winter wheat
27-31

The ecological characteristics and agro-ecological conditions in Hungary provide opportunities for quality wheat production. For the successful wheat production besides the favorable conditions; the proper use of expertise and appropriate cultivation techniques are not negligible. Successful cultivation affected by many factors. To some extent ...we can affect, influence and convert the abiotic factors.

Today, a particularly topical issue is the question of nutrition and that the species’ genetic code can be validated using the appropriate quantity and quality fertilizer. Beyond determining the fertilizer requirements of the winter wheat it is important to align the nutrient to the plant’s nutrient uptake dynamics and to ensure its shared dispensing. In any case, it is important to note the use of autumnal base-fertilizer as complex fertilizer. Hereafter sharing the fertilizer during the growing season with the recommended adequate nitrogen dose.The first top dressing of winter wheat in early spring (the time of tillering) can be made, the second top dressing at the time of stem elongation, and the third top dressing at the end of the blooming can be justified. Determining the rate of fertilizer application depends on the habitat conditions and the specific nutrient needs of plants. In autumn the 1/3 of the planned amount of basic fertilizer should be dispensed (in case of N). During setting our experiment we used 3 doses (0 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredient; 90 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredients and 150 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredient). Application dates beyond the autumn basic fertilization are the following: in one pass in early spring, divided in early spring and the time of run up, early spring and late flowering. In addition to nitrogen the replacement of sulfur gets a prominent role as a result of decreased atmospheric inputs. The proper sulfur supply mainly affects the quality parameters. It influences positively the wheat flour’s measure of value characteristics (gluten properties, volume of bread, dough rheology.

In terms of nitrogen doses; the larger amounts (150 kg ha-1 N-1 drug), is the proposed distributed application, while in the case of lower nitrogen (90 kg ha-1 N-1 drug) in a single pass in the early spring can achieve better results. After using sulfur the quality values among the nutritional parameters that can be associated with gluten properties took up higher values than the samples not treated with sulfur.

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Effect of harvest on the different fertilization methods of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)
33-37

The experiments were performed in the University of Debrecen Centre for Agricultural Research Institute of Nyíregyháza of 1500 m2 asparagus plantation in 2011. We were determind the number of shoots, plant height, fold thickness and yield of asparagus hybrid. I studied to the effects of various cropyear is addition Grolim hybrid asparagus gro...wth and development. Compared to previous years, 2014 was unusually wet and cold weather conditions which causes the plantation has developed outstanding. The soil temperature early and dynamic increase due to, the harvest had started a one month earlier 2014 than the 2013. The experiment asparagus harvested from lower yields as a result of the extremely dry spring in 2015.

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Susceptibility of maize hybrids to corn smut diseas
39-42

Corn smut disease is one of the most common maize diseases. In the previous years the disease lost from its importance, however nowadays it is becoming more and more important and widespread. The protection against it encounters great difficulties, therefore it is important to emphasize prevention and resistance based protection. The aim of the... research was to investigate under laboratory circumstances the resistance of Hungary’s most commonly cultivated maize hybrids to corn smut disease. Twelve species were investigated. We distinguished two susceptibility groups within the hybrids based on the investigated parameters. The results are intended to assist the protection against corn smut disease and to make a suggestion for the farmers so that they could apply more environmental friendly and economical production.

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Leaf protein analyses in order to utilise the leaf shoot of artichoke
43-47

The constat growth of the Earth’s population brings with itself a higher demand for food and protein not only in human nutrition but also for the feeding of livestock. Currently, the feed industry is mainly built onseed-based protein, wherethebaseplant is soybean, which is large lycovered by imports in Hungary, similar toother European countr...ies. However, the long-term economically sustainable lifestock breeding demandschanges which has also worked out strategies. An alternative protein sources could be green leafy plants.

In current work the Jerusalem artichokes as an alternative source of protein was studied, compared to alfalfa as a valuable protein plant. Our results indicate that fiber fraction ofJerusalem artichoke shootswas 34 to 37% after pressing in the autumn period while alfalfa slightly lower values were obtained (30%). On the other hand extracted green leaf protein concentration was higher in alfalfa than in Jerusalem artichoke. Along with this higher protein content could be measured from the leaf protein concentration of alfalfa and almost each amino acids were more, as well comparing to Jerusalem artichoke.

Overall, the alfalfa proved to be advantageous as expected both in leaf protein extraction efficiency, both regarding the content of the protein in the Jerusalem artichoke. However, considering aminoacid composition and green biomass production, Jerusalem artichokecould be a promisingplant species asplant protein sourceinthefuture.

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The structure of tertiary education, training and research potential influencing factors
49-53

Nowadays more and more pronounced demand for tertiary education appears as an output of the labor market and the real labor market needs coordination of intention. A necessary condition for the long-term sector strategies, conscious coordination. In Hungary – the sector management level – headed tertiary education training structure and the... transformation of the institutional network. There is a close relationship between training supply and research and development potential, as an institution typically the same disciplinary education and research base continues. Based on this, we assume that the structure of the training may influence the development of the restructuring of the research and development potential as well. The institutional network reorganization (merger, liquidation, establishment of new institutions) is expected to result in a former spatial structure of tertiary education in the modification, which in itself is a training and research supply spatial rearrangement may apply. Against this background, questions have been raised as to how the objectives in the current tertiary education strategy for economic operators serving the needs of each territorial unit, how the institution fits into network transformation of economic structure and labor market needs of the regions.

In order for the Hungarian tertiary education can meet the requirement for industry standards, an essential part of the structure of industries, and the changes occurring in the economic structure, trends and industry relations in the investigation. On the other hand, we do not ignore those factors are not, which have a determining influence on the tertiary education institutions in training and R&D supply. As part of this study in tertiary education institutions will be examined possible factors influencing education, research and development demand and supply, which gets a prominent role in the economic structure of relations between the territorial dimension in the evolution of discount factors and the nature of particular sectors.

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Differentiation of enterprises headquarters and activities
55-59

The University of Miskolc – as part of a needs assessment – took up contact with businesses that have the nature of the industry in line with the strategic objective areas of the institution. The survey focused on industry-wide is so limited, most of the knowledge-intensive company was that the knowledge economy is distinguished by relevant... stakeholders through innovation activity.

The research results of the questionnaire are within the framework of this study, we intend to review how the knowledge-intensive small and medium enterprises differentiate implantation of the headquarters and activities their scope.

There are two types of embeddedness adapt the functions of universities with the aim to investigate the geographic scope of their activities in the extent of whether there is any impact on the local embedded and engagement.

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Energy use – in terms of efficiency
61-66

In the recent decades it has become apparent that the human race can lead to a polluting and energy- wasting lifestyle and the depletion of natural resources and an ecological disaster as well.

Energy efficiency is the realization of the chance to see a wider use of renewable energy. Renewable energy sources can be found in large quanti...ties in Europe. A proper exploitation of these would be important because of the "traditional" energy sources’s sate is very critical in many ways.

The utilization of renewable energy sources depends on many factors. The local natural conditions significantly determine each country's different renewable energy potentials. I find to be important the natural conditions, such as, solar radiation intensity , the number of sunny days per year, the wind conditions , the volume and their energy characteristics of the geothermal power resources , land features , soil and rock quality, the supply of fossil fuels or the nuclear possibilities of energy production. The economic environment is also a major influencing factor for the utilization of renewables. The conditions of price of fossil fuels (natural gas, oil and coal), the price of nuclear fuel production and other energy costs significantly influence the demand for renewables, as well as the level of subsidy and government tax policy. In addition, the international and national programs, objectives, strategies, subsidies and regulatory measures as well as technological factors can have a significant impact.

In my paper I point out the opportunities of renewable energy should be given to live. Nowadays the positive effects of their use is undisputed. In addition to the environmentally friendly produced energy, we should strive for energy conservation and energy efficiency as well. These expectations appear in practice, which can be directly perceived by citizens, in fact we should live accordingly. Furthermore, the environmentally relevant regulations of living conditions should appear as environmental demands.

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Variation of boza nutrition parameters based on raw materials
67-70

Boza is a ceral based fermented drink. Raw material of boza could be rise, millet, wheat and rye. Because of the diversity of raw materilas and the method of fermentation boza might show varied quality and nutrition value.

Nowadays healthy and conscious nutrition are playing more and more important roles in our lives. People pay an ever... growing attention to the nutrition value of products, such as protein- and sugar content, components with antioxidant properties, and the mineral content of the products. In our research we wanted to know how the protein,-, sugar-, total polifenol-, mikro- and macro element content of products change.

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Doing sport is good – Responsible for popularization of sport
71-75

Responsible leaders of more and more companies build legal, ethic, moral, environmental and social aspects in their goals and values beyond profit maximization. The number of companies whose activities in terms of social responsibility (CSR) has clear connections with promoting and putting forward sports shows an increasing tendency.

Th...e aim of this study is the conceptual clarification of corporate social responsibility, and emphasize the CSR’s significance in sport management, next the analysis of 3 top food and beverage companies’ (Coca-Cola, Nestle, Danone) CSR activity in special regard to sport management in Hungary and abroad.

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Evaluate the nutritional reaction at winter wheat after different forecrops
77-80

Our field researches took place on the Látókép test farm of Agricultural Science Centre of University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, in long-term experiment, on calcareous chernozem soil, in growing season of 2014/2015. In our experiment we examined the fertilizer reaction and the yield of different winte...r wheat genotypes (GK Öthalom, GK Csillag, Mv Csárdás, Mv Toldi) with grain maize and sweetcorn forecrops. According to our results, the sweetcorn forecrop strongly affected the yield. In the average of the fertilizer treatments and the varieties, after sweetcorn forecrop 6.9 t ha-1, after grain maize forecrop 5.4 t ha-1 average yield was gained. According to our data, the fertilizer reactions of the varieties were significantly different.

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The effect of rising concentration of atmospheric carbone dioxide on crop production
81-84

In the atmosphere, the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are rising in gradually increasing pace since the Industrial Revolution. The rising concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) contributes to global warming, and the changes affect to both the precipitation and the evaporation quantity. Moreover, the concentration... of carbon dioxide directly affects the productivity and physiology of plants. The effect of temperature changes on plants is still controversial, although studies have been widely conducted. The C4-type plants react better in this respect than the C3-type plants. However, the C3-type plants respond more richer for the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide and climate change.

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Effect of sowing time and planting space on change of yield and protein content of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.)
85-89

The hinge of the lupine crop cultivation technology is the sowing time and the determination of the breeding area. According to the literature the early sowing (as soon as possible to go to the soil) and larger growing area is recommended for seed production. Based on the results of our 2 years experiment, the effect of sowing time and differen...t spacing is important on yield of white lupine, and the effect of the sowing time is more significant. A decrease in the yield was observed after later sowings. The yield and the rate of its decreasing was varied in one year and among different years depending on wheather condition and sowing time.

The role of sowing time is significant for protein content of seeds. The average protein content decreased due to the later sowings in 2014, while 2015 the protein content of seeds in early sowing time and of plants sowed 4 weeks later was similar. We measured less protein content in the 2. sowing time sowed 2 weeks later than the first one. In the studied years the average protein content of seeds from different row spaces were not different.

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A morphological survey of Ustilago trichophora, a smut fungi and evaluation as bioherbicidal agent for barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli)
91-93

Ustilago trichophora (Link) Kunze is a widespread smut fungus in all over the world. This fungus is pathogenic on species of Echinochloa genus. The subject of present research was that smut fungi occurrence on barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli). Numerous barnyard grass plants with symptoms of smut galls caused by Ustilago trichophora on st...ems were collected from two counties, víz. Hajdú-Bihar (East-Hungary) and Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok (Middle-Hungary). The infested plants were examined in laboratory, which included the observation of the symptoms and the morphological properties of the spores and the colonies developed from sporidia. The results suggested that this fungus could be effective against barnyard grass weed so the biological control of this weed plant (Echinochloa cruss-galli) can be managed by using Ustilago trichophora biopreparates. As Ustilago trichophora can produce abundant sporidia in liquid culture, a high effectiveness control should be apply by Ustilago trichophora smut fungus as a mycoherbicide in Echinochloa weed control.

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Investigation of soils of stubbles of winter wheat and winter peas in conventional and reduced tillage systems
95-99

The effect of reduced and conventional tillage on soil compaction, soil moisture status and carbon-dioxide emission of the soil was studied on a meadow chernozem soil with high clay content in the soil cultivation experiment started in 1997 at Karcag Research Institute. Our investigations were done on stubbles after the harvest of winter wheat ...and winter peas after the very droughty vegetation period of 2014/2015.

We established that the soil in both tillage systems was dry and compacted and the CO2-emission was very low. The positive effects of reduced tillage could be figured out only in the soil layer of 40–60 cm in the given weather conditions of that period.

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