...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">As in other parts of the world, the frequency of weather extremes has increased greatly in Hungary in recent years. This means that maize production is faced with greater risks from all aspects: nutrient replacement, irrigation, plant protection. This is especially true of fusarium diseases. In a continental climate, the pathogens causing the most serious problems are species belonging to the Fusarium genus. They infect the ears, which – besides reducing the yield – poses considerable risk to both human and animal health due to the mycotoxins produced by them. Depending on which Fusarium species are dominant at a given location, changes can be expected in the level of infection and in the quality deterioration caused by the mycotoxins they produce. Fusarium spp. not only damages the maize ears but when pathogen attacks the stalk, the plant dies earlier, reducing grain filling and resulting in small, light ears. In addition, the stalks break or lodge, resulting in further yield losses from ears that cannot be harvested. The degree of infection is fundamentally determined by the resistance traits of the maize hybrids, but also a great role in that region Fusarium species composition as well.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The knowledge of the evapotranspiration of natural ecosystems and plant populations is of fundamental importance in several branches of science, research topics and practical uses. Nevertheless, the harmonization of the large number of methods and the changing user needs often causes problems. Sensitivity analysis of 10 ET0 estimation models and model variants was performed. Magnitude of the obtained outputs and the changes triggered by each atmospheric parameter were evaluated. The objective of the analyses was to get to know the sensitivity of the different models and to select the most accurate and the most suitable ones for adaptation to local circumstances. Therefore, it becomes possible to achieve as high accuracy as possible in applications which need ET0 estimation.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of our examination was to evaluate the correlations between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and yield, as well as to examine the possibility of yield estimation basedon NDVI in a seasoning paprika population.
In this article we are presenting the methodology applied to analyse and interpret the topsoil surface reflectance parameters of multiple samples collected in the Mugello valley area in northern Italy in October 2012. The main aim of the whole project was to discover geomorphological behaviour and situation of the area ino order to improve pote...ntial for correct dating of certain archaeological artefacts found in the nearby areas. One of the crucial problem researchers are facing in the area is the lack of understanding of the underlying geological and geomorphological processes that were describing and characterizing the area and that played important role not only in the current geography and landscape formation but also in the transportation of various sediments and artefacts. In this particular research the main aim is to examine the possibility of developing a quick way to assess low level properties of the soil using hand held spectrometer and rapid analysis of cross-section using in situ measurement techniques. In this work we collected over 2000 individual samples of topsoil surface reflectance properties that we organized into a spectral library. This library is then to be used to describe physical and chemical processes in the soil. To support the analysis results were compared to analysis results from different kind of assessments in the same area. Our results show a great potential of application of hand held imaging spectrometer in soil property analysis based on the top soil surface reflectance parameters.
Larger cultivated plots are heterogeneous from a pedological aspect. Heterogeneity causes problems during fertilization and harvest. The heterogeneity of cultivated areas can be compensated by fertilization which is based on soil analysis. We carried out research into the changes of the soil on three soil types, from 1966 to 2006, on the cultiv...ated areas of Hajdúszoboszló.
There were no significant changes in pH on chernozem meadow soil and meadow chernozem soil, but the pH increased in 0-30 cm layer on type meadow solonetz soil. The saline content decreased in every examined soil type. Decrease was the largest on meadow solonetz soil. Decline of humus content was the largest (0.95%) on chernozem meadow soil, and the smallest (0.39%) on meadow chernozem soil. The nitrogen content decreased with 528 ppm in the 0-30 cm layer on chernozem meadow soil, and decreased by 186 ppm on meadow solonetz soil. Phosphorus and
potassium content increased in every examined soil types. Rise of phosphorus content was 188.9 ppm in the 0-30 cm layer on meadow chernozem soil. The potassium content rose by 153.7 ppm on this soil type. Phosphorus content increased with 70.8 ppm, and potassium content increased by 57.6 ppm from 1966 to 2006.
A description of the design and operating principle of the GPS system and the explanation of key terms of telemetric and chronometric measurements is followed by several examples characteristic of the results of factors which may influence accuracy of the identification of geographic location by satellites. In addition, results of accuracy test...ing of absolute GPS measurements and improvements of accuracy experienced and attributable to the alteration of the periods used for establishing average values are highlighted. Furthermore, we examined certain practical possibilities for the use of GPS systems in agriculture, emphasizing the advantages hidden in the use of GIS-GPS integration, crop mapping, soil maps and gross produce maps, in the application of the VRT (Variable Rate Technology) and in combinations of the same.
The level of nitrogen supply of a plant population can be quickly measured with non-destructive optical measurement devices and the differentiated determination of nitrogen shortage and the replenishment of nitrogen can also be carried out. The level of nitrogen supply is based on the fact that the chlorophyll content of crops is in close corre...lation with nitrogen content and that the amount of chlorophyll can be easily measured on the basis of the light absorption of chlorophyll molecules. The successfulness of optical measurements can be influenced by the change of weather parameters; therefore, it is important to know the correlations between measurement results and weather parameters when it comes to practical use.
The GreenSeeker Model 505 measurement device determines the relative chlorophyll content in the form of the Normalized Difference
Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated on the basis of the intensity of the reflected red and infrared rays of light from the crop population. The measurements were performed in alfalfa population with 10 replications at five measurement heights and four measurement times. The weather parameters were measured by a weather station located in the middle of the alfalfa population and the correlations between the meteorological data and the NDVI values were examined. During the statistical evaluation of the results, it was established that the NDVI measurement is primarily influenced by the relative humidity of the air, secondly by air temperature and thirdly by wind speed. Relative humidity was in strong correlation with the NDVI values which were also influenced by the measurement height and time. Regression was not significant in the case of 20 cm measurement height, but the measurements above 40 cm height showed significant correlations. The correlation was shown to be strong at each measurement time, but the influence of humidity was the lowest at 11:00 and 14:00.
With the help of this report evaluating the current situation of the region, characteristics of the development in agricultural production and regional differences can be clarified. By mapping out the regional soil, land use and climatic conditions and organizing these into a geographical information system, one can easily determine which plant...s are the most ideal to cultivate in that particular region. Moreover, it is a useful tool that enables us to
establish the most favorable land use structure suited to ecological demands and also helps to determine the methods of soil protection.
During our work, we chose administrative units in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, based on the latest aspects of regional cultivation.
Our pilot areas are: the small regions of Nyíregyháza, Nyírbátor, Nagykálló, Mátészalka and Csenger.
Using the database, we separated and uncovered the soil conditions of the pilot areas: the chemical and physical properties of the soil layer which is exploited by the roots of the plants, the humus content, the nutrient supply, the thickness of the cultivated layer and the water management conditions.
We separated the districts of regional cultivation, where the basic elements of the traditional Kreybig color systems were applied (light yellow, dark yellow, light brown, dark green, blue, pink, red, gray, greenish brown, reddish purple, light purple, dark purple, light green).
By using the data collected from the pilot areas, we compiled a map database, which is suitable to illustrate the plant cultivating characteristics of the region. We made recommendations to determine the most favorable plants to cultivate in the specific region with the given meteorological and soil conditions, as well as for the shifting of crops.
Our recommendations were also illustrated in a map with a resolution of 1:25000.
The soil fertility was degraded as a result of unreasonable tillage, therefore the application of site-specific nutrient replacement is necessary. It is essential for the application of precision fertilization to know the location, extension, soil properties and nutrient-supply of the different soil types of
The two examined soils are slightly calcareous, weakly saline, poor in zinc. The calcareous chernozem soil is slightly acid, the content of humus, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is medium in this soil. The meadow chernozem soil is slightly alkaline, and properly supplied with humus and potassium, and middling supplied with nitrogen and phosphorus. The meadow chernozem soil is more heterogenous in soil plasticity, lime, saline, nitrogen phosphorus and potassium content and less heterogenous in pH and zinc content than the calcareous chernozem soil.
Standard deviation of measured values in pH, soil plasticity, humus and nitrogen content significantly differ between the examined soil types. The soil plasticity, pH, humus, nitrogen and zinc content significantly differ among calcareous chernozem soil and meadow chernozem soil, but the difference in phosphorus content can be statistically proven only in case of Spring soil sampling.
Spatial problems and spatial decisions are decisive in agricultural-environmental informatics systems and the solutions require systems that can collect, evaluate and display spatial data. The distinctive features of spatial informatics systems therefore have to be considered when establishing integrated spatial informatics systems.
In this paper we present the interim results and the methodology applied to create web GIS ready cartographic representations of agricultural performance related information and environmental parameters. The main aim of the research is to eventually create a web GIS based decision support system that can enable decsision makers and genera...l users to create useful and representative map layouts of certain environment and agriculture related phenomena that can be easily analyzed and interpreted to make strategic decisions on environmental issues. In this aim the initial steps are to evaluate the available data for cartographic representation, analyze the possibilities of visualization, create a GIS ready data structure and implement the database and revise additional possibilities to incorporate further environment related datasets of auxiliary sources. The main results of the study are a comprehensive set of visual layouts that could serve as guideline for mapping statistical information of agriculture and some steps towards the incorporation of environmental parameters to the system.
The methodology for delineating water bodies on multispectral remote sensing imagery was examined and evaluated. A supervised approach is tested with the aim to accurately detect inland water, moisturised soil surface and swampy patches on the Landsat TM 7 scene. The goal of this research is to investigate whether the application of remote sens...ing image interpretation could further refine the possibilities of future soil conductivity measurement research. The methodologies used were the application of supervised classification algorithms based on the training data collected in the area. The achieved overall classification accuracy value of 83.0795% suggests that the methodology could be used as a successful strategy to incorporate remote sensing data interpretation into soil conductivity measurement planning and application. The main conclusion that can be drawn is that processing of multispectral data with further refinement of the presented methodologies can led to very useful outcomes for environmental measurements.
The successfulness of crop production is significantly affected by not only the the average yields that provide cost effectiveness, but also the success of striving for yield safety, therefore, varieties and hybrids tolerant to environmental stress factors are worth being included into the sowing structure. Our aim was to further the decision m...aking of producers in prepaering the right sowing structure by the evaluation of sweet maize hybrids’ tolerance to excess rainfall.
We performed our examinations in an extremely wet year (2010) on chernozem soil on three sweet maize hybrids (GSS 8529, GSS 1477, Overland) in 12 replications. Comparing the yields of 2010 with those that can be expected under optimal rainfall conditions, we showed that the examined hybrids react to the amount of rainfall higher than their needs with yield depression. The excess rainfall tolerance of the examined hybrids is different in the case of each hybrid.
Hibrid maize is cultivated on larger plots, therefore the sown areas of hibrid maize are heterogeneous from a pedology aspect. Heterogenity causes problems during tasseling, chemical plant protection and harvest. The heterogenity of sown areas can be compensated by fertilization which is based on soil analysis. We carried out research into chan...ge of the soil on four soil types from 1987 to 2005.
There were no significant changes in pH, hydroiodic acidity, CaCO3-content, humus-content on meadow chernozem soil. We detected equalization of salin content in the examined soil layers. There were no significant changes in the measured values on chernozem meadow soil and solonetz meadow soil in 2005. We discoverd equalization of saline content on chernozem meadow soil, but the changes were not as obvious as the changes on meadow chernozem soil. We found salinization in the 30-60 cm soil layer on type meadow soil that may be due to water movement.