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  • The effect of daytime and nighttime temperature on the cover colour of fruits in an apple gene bank
    45-53
    Views:
    95

    Skin colour of fruits is an important fruit quality parameter. Fruit growers know the phenomenon that the apple colouration is very good in one year while in other years the green and red apples can be differentiated only on the basis of the morphological characteristics of the fruits. There are great differences in values of cover colour between years.
    In the first step, the relationships between day and night temperature, the difference between day and night temperature and fruit skin colour should be determined. In this study, the authors investigate and quantify this relationship.

  • Fruit quality of sweet cherry cultivars in superintensive orchards
    75-81
    Views:
    163

    The fruit quality of 15 sweet cherry cultivars (’Canada Giant’, ’Celeste’, ’Chelan’, ’Ferrovia’, ’Germersdorfi Rigle’, ’Katalin’, ’Karina’, ’Kordia’, ’Linda’, ’Regina’, ’Sam’, ’Sandra Rose’, ’Sunburst’, ’Sylvia’ and ’Techlovan’) was studied under super-intensive growing conditions at Nagykutas. We measured the fruit diameter, fruit width, fruit height, stem length and stem weight, fruit and pit weight and the total dry matter content. There were large differences among the cultivars. These differences are due to the genetic characteristics of fruits because all other conditions were the same. For 11 cultivars, we collected fruit samples several times /2-4/. We examined on this cultivars all the above listed fruit quality parameters. When examining these samples, we have gained information how earlier or later than optimal harvest time influences fruit quality.

  • The Effect of Sunburn on Fruit Quality of cv. Idared Apple
    23-31
    Views:
    74

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of sunburn injury on fruit quality parameters (colour-coverage, depth of affected tissue, fruit flesh firmness, soluble solids content) of apple.
    The symptoms of sunburn injury appeared in concentric ring shape, differed from each other and surface colour-coverage. This can be due to the ratio of the injury. The authors observed the following colours on the fruit surface (from the epicentre of the blotch on the transversal diameter of the fruit) dark brown (strongly affected), light brown (moderately affected), pale red transition (poorly affected), red surface colour-coverage (not affected).
    Sunburn of apple fruits is a surface injury caused by solar radiation, heat and low air relative humidity that in the initial phase results in a light corky layer, golden or bronze discolouration, and injuries to the epidermal tissue, in the surface exposed to radiation. Thus it detracts from its appearance, but in most cases, it would not cause serious damage to the epidermal tissue. The depth of affected tissue is not considerable, its values are between 1.5-2.0 mm generally. It is commonly known that the tissue structure of apple fruit is not homogeneous. Accordingly, the degree of injury shows some differences under the different parts of the fruit surface.
    On the basis of flesh firmness research, the authors established that the measure of flesh firmness of the affected part of apple fruit increases with the effect of sunburn. The consequence of this is the suffered plant cells will die, the water content of this tissue decreases and the fruit gets harder. This water-loss caused the increase of soluble solids content.

  • The effect of sunburn damage on the fruit quality parameters of apple (Malus domestica cv. Idared)
    55-64
    Views:
    95

    In the present study the authors investigated the effect of sunburn injury on fruit quality parameters (cover colour, depth of tissue damage, fruit flesh firmness, dry matter content) of apple.
    The symptoms of sunburn injury appeared as concentric rings, differing in colour from each other and the cover colour. This can be connected with the ratio of the injury. The authors observed the following colours on the fruit surface (from the epicentre of spots on the surface of the fruit) dark brown (strongly damaged), light brown (moderately damaged), pale red transition (weakly damaged), red surface cover colour (not damaged).
    Sunburn of apple fruits is a surface injury caused by solar radiation, heat and low relative humidity. In the initial phase, a light corky layer, golden or bronze discolouration and injuries of the epidermal tissue appear on the surface exposed to radiation. Thus, it detracts from the fruit’s appearance, but in most of the cases it would not cause serious damages in the epidermal tissue. The depth of tissue damage is not considerable, its values are between 1.5-2.0 mm in general. It is commonly known, that tissue structure of the apple fruit is not homogeneous. Accordingly, the degree of injury shows some differences under the different parts of the fruit surface.
    On the basis of the flesh firmness studies, it can be stated that the flesh firmness of the damaged parts increases due to the sunburn effect. This is due to the fact that the damaged plant cells die, the water content of the tissue decreases and it hardens. However, due to this reduction in the water content the dry matter content will increase.

  • Effect of Rootstocks on Blooming Capacity and Productivity of AppleCultivars
    14-20
    Views:
    96

    The experiment with three different rootstock cultivars was set up in a commercial apple orchard at Nagykutas, which is situated in the western part of Hungary. The aim of our two-year-study was to determine the effect three different growing rootstock cultivars (M9, MM106 and seedling) on the flowering and productivity of 33 apple cultivars. Our observations included the following measurements: the date of the beginning and the end of flowering, flower density, fruit density, fruit numbers per tree and tree productivity. According to our results, it was found that the different growing rootstocks have a great determining effect on the above measurements. Our results showed that the flowering period was similar for all cultivars on the three different rootstocks. However, the flowering and the fruit setting decreased in the order M9, MM106 and seedling rootstocks. In contrast, the fruit number per tree followed, in decreasing order, MM106, seedling and M9 rootstocks.

  • Environmentally-benign plant protection possibilities against domestic Monilinia spp. in organic apple and stone fruit orchards
    101-105
    Views:
    113

    In this study, possibilities of environmental-friendly plant protection against domestical brwon rot species were summarized for oecological pome and stone fruit orchards. Symtomps of the two most important brown rot species (Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey and Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey) were described and then cultivar susceptibility to brown rot was discussed. Furthermore, mechanical, agrotecnical, biological, and other control possibilities (stone powders, plant extracts and restricted chemical materials) were shown.

  • The effect of rootstocks on the fruit quality parameters of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
    39-43
    Views:
    94

    The authors studied the effect of rootstocks with different growing vigour on fruit quality of different cultivars. Research results shows that best fruit diamter and fruit weight of all cultivars are for M9 rootstock. Similar tendency was found in skin colour, but in the case of Granny Smith, MM106 rootstock is more favourable because the green skin colour is necessary for the consumers’ acceptance. Seedling rootstok has some unfavourable effects on fruit quality, thus its usage is not expedient.

  • The effect of location on the incidence of brown rot blossom and shoot blight infection on apricot
    89-91
    Views:
    97

    The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of brown rot blossom and shoot blight and caused by Monilinia laxa. Assessments of incidence were made on cv. Bergeron (susceptible to brown rot) in a flatland and a hilly growing area (at Cegléd and Gönc, respectively). In 2004, when spring and summer weather conditions were wet and cold, incidence reached 95 % for blossom blight and 33 % for shoot blight in the untreated plots. Blossom blight incidence was 1.5-2 times higher in the flatland area compared to the hilly growing area. During the blooming period of apricot, two (at flower bud stage and at full bloom) and three (at flower bud stage, at full bloom and at petal fall) fungicide applications were necessary for the successful control at Gönc and Cegléd, respectively. The difference between the two orchards was due to the fact that blooming started one week later in the hilly region (at Gönc) than in the flatland region (at Cegléd), therefore, the critical weather period coincided with blooming in the orchard in the hilly region only partially.

  • The bioactive compounds of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) with special regards to antioxidant activity and antioxidant density
    83-87
    Views:
    164

    Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Recent research has proven that sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is a valuable natural source of some bioactive compounds important in human health preservation.
    In our work, we identified the total antioxidant capacity and ”antioxidant density” of sour cherry varieties named ”Újfehértói fürtös”, ”Debreceni bõtermõ”, ”Kántorjánosi” and ”Érdi bõtermõ” and those of the ”Bosnyák” sour cherry clones. ”Antioxidant density” is a biological value indicator obtained in a synthetic way, which indicates the antioxidant capacity of the particular food, e. g. fruit and vegetable, per 1 Calorie.

  • Will there be a horticultural triangle (cluster)? Thoughts about the reconstruction of the Hungarian horticulture between two European regions
    21-27
    Views:
    95

    The authors of this study seek the answer to the question how to develop, in the first decade or decades of the 21st century, the university-level
    horticultural scientific training, the horticultural innovation and the scientific co-operation between companies and universities in Debrecen and
    in the North Great Plain Region and – in a wider sense – in Hungary to a standard being competitive even in European terms. With the synthesis
    of the prospects of past, present and future, they drew the following conclusions. The reconstruction of agriculture, horticulture and food industry
    is a part of reforming Hungary's countryside. Horticulture, producing high added value, will be able to decisively contribute to the plan whereas
    the value presently produced in an agriculturally cultivated area of 1,000 euros/hectare can reach 2,000 to 3,000 euros in the next two decades.
    A necessary and indispensable precondition to achieving this is the strengthening of the innovation output of the Hungarian horticultural sector.
    Despite the numerous technical criticisms formulated in connection with the serious problems of Hungarian agricultural and horticultural
    scientific innovation, no progress has been made in this field for the past one and a half decade. The scientific research of this topic hardly
    continued or did not continue at all, the up-to-date surveys and in-depth analyses were missing. The objective, basic principles and tasks of the
    Act CXXXIV of 2004 (TTI) enacted concerning research-development and technological innovation are clear and progressive. The co-operation
    between the National Research Technology Office and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the setting up of the Innovation Fund are heartening
    opportunities. These – along with the new Higher Education Bill to be passed – may as well be suitable for restarting the Hungarian agricultural
    and horticultural scientific innovation. In our opinion, this requires a new, well-considered national agricultural programme, which can be
    conceived in the framework of the "Ferenc Entz National Horticultural Plan" proposed by us for horticulture. In the most eastern Hungarian
    university knowledge centre, at the University of Debrecen, the continuing of the horticultural scientific innovation strategy started in the last
    decade may be the focal point and generator of the development of the so-called "Hungarian Horticultural Triangle”, or "Hungarian
    Horticultural Cluster". This region comprises the Northern and Southern Great Plain Regions and the area between the Danube and Tisza
    Rivers. Here, about 70 to 75% of the total Hungarian horticultural commodity stock is produced. The objective of the HORT-INNOTECH
    DEBRECEN programme planned in 2004 by the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Science is to establish the horticultural scientific
    research-development and technological innovation structure and knowledge base of the Hungarian Horticultural Triangle / Hungarian
    Horticultural Cluster. In harmony with this, the objectives are to bring about competitive, new horticultural products, to improve the conditions
    of utilising them, to enhance the competitiveness of enterprises based on technological innovation, to make use of the research-development and
    innovation opportunities available in the regions in an efficient manner, to as full extent as possible, to encourage the creation of places of
    employment producing high added value in the field of horticulture, to improve the technical skills of those employed in horticultural researchdevelopment and to promote their enhanced recognition by the society.

  • Introduction of DNA-based Methods to Agriculture Through Molecular Taxonomic Examination of Poa Species
    139-142
    Views:
    81

    biological methods, one among them is AFLP that is well applicable for taxonomic research. Bluegrass species, that are important components of meadow associations, thus their thorough knowledge is necessary in maintaining biodiversity, were examined with bringing this method to perfection.
    Taxonomic relationship of the members of Poa pratensis aggregation is a controversial issue. Present study aimes to identify the members of this group, with a developed AFLP method through molecular taxonomic examination of Poa species in meadows nearby Debrecen, revealing their genetical distances. Species of the aggregation show a great genetic variability, but their genetic proximity approves the use of the term aggregation. Results established wider geographical investigation of three species of the aggregation. The distinctness of the species based on their morphological features was confirmed according to their genetical basis as well. The method overall turned out to be appropriate for the taxonomic research of bluegrass species like Poa pratensis and its aggregation.

  • Establishing regional cultivating districts on the basis of the Kreybig practical soil mapping system
    20-25
    Views:
    85

    With the help of this report evaluating the current situation of the region, characteristics of the development in agricultural production and regional differences can be clarified. By mapping out the regional soil, land use and climatic conditions and organizing these into a geographical information system, one can easily determine which plants are the most ideal to cultivate in that particular region. Moreover, it is a useful tool that enables us to
    establish the most favorable land use structure suited to ecological demands and also helps to determine the methods of soil protection.
    During our work, we chose administrative units in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, based on the latest aspects of regional cultivation.
    Our pilot areas are: the small regions of Nyíregyháza, Nyírbátor, Nagykálló, Mátészalka and Csenger.
    Using the database, we separated and uncovered the soil conditions of the pilot areas: the chemical and physical properties of the soil layer which is exploited by the roots of the plants, the humus content, the nutrient supply, the thickness of the cultivated layer and the water management conditions.
    We separated the districts of regional cultivation, where the basic elements of the traditional Kreybig color systems were applied (light yellow, dark yellow, light brown, dark green, blue, pink, red, gray, greenish brown, reddish purple, light purple, dark purple, light green).
    By using the data collected from the pilot areas, we compiled a map database, which is suitable to illustrate the plant cultivating characteristics of the region. We made recommendations to determine the most favorable plants to cultivate in the specific region with the given meteorological and soil conditions, as well as for the shifting of crops.
    Our recommendations were also illustrated in a map with a resolution of 1:25000. 

  • How does the S-locus determining self-incompatibility in stone fruits work in self-compatible peach?
    93-100
    Views:
    84

    The majority of stone fruit species are self-incompatible, a feature that is determined by a specific recognition mechanism between the S-ribonuclease enzymes residing in the pistils and the F-box proteins expressed in the pollen tubes. Failure in the function of any component of this bipartite system resulted in self-compatibility (SC) in many cultivars of Prunus species. Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.) is the only species in the Prunoideae subfamily that is traditionally known to be self-compatible, but its molecular background is completely unknown. Isoelectric focusing and S-gene specific PCR revealed that SC is not due to functional inability of pistil ribonucleases. We hypothesize that SC may be a consequence of a kind of pollen-part mutation or the action of one or more currently unknown modifier gene(s). Only two S-alleles were identified in a set of peach genotypes of various origin and phenotypes in contrast to the 17–30 alleles described in self-incompatible fruit trees. Most important commercial cultivars carry the same S-allele and are in a homozygote state. This indicates the common origin of these cultivars and also the consequence of self-fertilization. According to the available information, this is the first report to elucidate the role of S-locus in the fertilization process of peach. 

  • The future of apple growing in the Northern Great Plain region
    35-38
    Views:
    86

    We revealed and assessed those macroeconomic data which enabled us to identify the outstanding role of agriculture and within it that of fruit production. Based on this, it can be said that soil is the most important natural resource of Hungary. The appropriate combination of the additional resources required for production, labour and assets can provide a comparative advantage for the Northern Great Plain Region.
    The Northern Great Plain Region is one of the most underdeveloped regions in Hungary, so its development is a political objective. When analysing the economic sectors in the region, the important role of agriculture is obvious and it is also clear that the industry and the tertiary sector can only have an alternative income generating role in the future also. Therefore, it is important that the regional development funds of Hungary and the European Union are directly or indirectly aimed at improving agricultural development and competitiveness.

  • Effect of the dry and rainy weather on the Idared and Golden Reinders apple varieties fruit quality
    107-110
    Views:
    87

    Weather conditions have an important role in fruit production. In the last few decades, this role is increased and basically determines the
    fruit quality and quantity. Despite of this statement, there is but very few information about impacts caused by weather anomalies in
    Hungarian orchards. Regarding this, the relation between the external, and internal values of the Idared and Golden Reinders apple varieties,
    the changing of the temperature and precipitation in a dry year (2009) as well as in a rainy year (2010) were investigated. The examined
    apple varieties are grown at the same training system (rootstock, spacing, training, pruning system). The average weight, average diameter,
    acid content and soluble solids were higher in 2009 than in 2010, although the precipitation was higher in 2010. Due to the many rainy days
    the intensity of sunshine and the number of sunny days were less. To produce better quality it is very important the amount of the sunshine
    and heat, the optimal temperature and the precipitation rate.

  • Alternatives of microclimate control in orchards
    209-212
    Views:
    117

    The aim of the study was to find out which of the methods used to avoid damages of late frosts would be the most effective for the fruit growing practice. We tested the antifrost irrigation method in Debrecen-Pallag. For that purpose microjet sprayers are used, which are thrifty and does not need for that purpose large containers. With the aim to secure an even distribution of water, the sprayers are distributed on three levels: above and inside of the crown as well as on the level of trunks. On a large scale, a single microjet above the crown level would be sufficient. By means of a detailed analysis  served to set the optimum intervals between spraying phases: with each 15, 10, 5 and 3 minutes during half a minute. The synchronous presence of water and ice below the freezing point, the released freezing heat plus the water used much above the freezing point
    (9–10 °C) altogether maintains the temperature above around 0 °C near the flowers or growing fruitlets, meanwhile, the surrounding air cools down to -8 °C. The effectiveness of the generally used antifrost would be increased substantially by the former application of cooling irrigation, which delays the blooming date. 

  • Local strategical tasks in the Hungarian fruit production with respect to the global economic and climatic changes
    39-34
    Views:
    89

    After identifying the problems, we have determined the local tasks which Hungarian fruit growing has to accomplish to remain competitive despite global market pressures and global climate change.
    Fruit growing in the Great Plain is of determining importance in Hungary as 75% of fruit originates from the Great Plain. Therefore, the maintenance of the competitiveness of fruit growing on the Great Plain is an important economic interest which is a difficult task to resolve, because the global economic pressure against local resources and climate change affect the fruit growers sensitively. 
    In Hungarian fruit production, it is necessary to select/develop with great care the appropriate location, training system and methods of emergency technology which have to be harmonised.