...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The knowledge of the evapotranspiration of natural ecosystems and plant populations is of fundamental importance in several branches of science, research topics and practical uses. Nevertheless, the harmonization of the large number of methods and the changing user needs often causes problems. Sensitivity analysis of 10 ET0 estimation models and model variants was performed. Magnitude of the obtained outputs and the changes triggered by each atmospheric parameter were evaluated. The objective of the analyses was to get to know the sensitivity of the different models and to select the most accurate and the most suitable ones for adaptation to local circumstances. Therefore, it becomes possible to achieve as high accuracy as possible in applications which need ET0 estimation.
In a continental climate, the pathogens causing the most serious problems are species belonging to the Fusarium genus. When the pathogen attacks the stalk, the plant dies earlier, reducing grain filling and resulting in small, light ears. In addition, the stalks break or lodge, resulting in further yield losses from ears that cannot be harveste...d. During the three years of the experiment, 14 inbred lines were examined. The genotypes were sown in a two-factor split-plot design with four replications, with the genotypes in the main plots and four treatments in the subplots: two Fusarium graminearum isolates (1. FG36, 2. FGH4), 3. sterile kernels, 4. untreated control. The results experiments showed significant differences between the genotypes for resistance to fusarium stalk rot. Among the inbred lines the best resistance to fusarium stalk rot was exhibited by P06 and P07, both of which were related to ISSS. The precision and sensitivity of disease evaluations carried out visually and using image analysis software were compared in the experiment, and with two exceptions the CV values were lower for the image analysis. As the CV for measurements can be considered as a relative error, it can be stated that image analysis is the more precise of the two methods, so this technique gives a more accurate picture of the extent of stalk rot. The extent of stalk rot developing in response to natural infection is extremely environment-dependent, so the use of artificial inoculation is recommended for selection trials.
Many authors, both in Hungary and abroad, have reported on experiments carried out to determine the role of sowing time in maize, but the results are often contradictory. This is hardly surprising, since the maize plant exhibits enormous genetic variability and the hybrids created through selection and inbreeding may have very specific requirem...ents as to sowing date. The year effect, too, often complicates the efforts of scientists to provide clear guidance to farmers on the optimal sowing date for each hybrid.
Plant and ear height are very important characters not only for describing new varieties of maize (Zea mays L.), but for green and dry matter production, and even for grain yield. Significant positive correlations have been reported by various authors between plant height and stover yield, plant height and dry matter yield, and plant height and... grain yield. The height of the main ear is also correlated to plant height. It depends on the variety or the environment, but is likely to be the same height within a population. Many environmental and agronomical factors (e.g. plant density, fertilization, pests and diseases) influence the expression of these characters, which are not quality traits. Their expression is controlled by many genes and by the interactions between these genes. The heritability of these traits is high and they show significant genotypic variability and positive heterosis, as reported in many research publications.