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  • Anatomical relations of root formation in strawberry
    71-75.
    Views:
    176

    Anatomical relations of root formation are traced throughout the life cycle of the strawberry plant from the germinating seed up to the runners of the adult plant. Histological picture of the root changes a lot during the development of the plant. First the radicle of the germ grows to a main root, which makes branches into side roots and later adventitious roots are formed on the growing rootstock or rhizome. The anatomy of the different types of roots is also conspicuously different. First tiny branches appear relatively early after germination on the seedling's radicle, but soon the hypocotyl of the seedling thickens and develops side roots, which are already somewhat stronger. During this interval, the first true leaves are formed. The 4th or 5th of them being already tripartite, and the initiation of new roots extends into the epicotylar region of the shoot. The second years growth starts with the development of reproductive structures, inflorescences and runners starting from the axils of the new leaves. Near the tips of the runners below the small bunch of leaves, new root primordia are initiated. The tiny radicle of the germ develops a cortical region of 5-6 cell layers. Cells of the central cylinder are even smaller than the cortical parenchyma and include 3-4 xylem and 3-4 phloem elements as representatives of the conductive tissue. Roots originating from the shoot region are much more developed; their cortical zone contains 17-20 cell layers, whereas the central cylinder is about half as large. In the next year, new roots are formed at the base of the older leaves. These roots differ hardly from those of the last season in size and volume, however, they are recognised by colour and their position on the rhizome. The roots of the last year are dark, greyish-black, and grow on the lower third length of the rhizome, on the contrary, the new ones, on the upper region, are light brown. Roots starting from the shoot or rhizome are, independently from their age or sequence, mainly rather similar in size and diameter, thus being members of a homogenous root (homorhizous) system, i.e. without a main root. Plants developed and attained the reproductive phase develop in the axils of the leaves runners being plagiotropic, i.e. growing horizontally on the surface of the soil. The runners elongate intensely, become 150-200 mm, where some long internodes bear a bunch of small leaves and root primordia on short internodes and a growing tip. Runners do not stop growing, generally, further sections of 15-25 cm length are developed according to the same pattern, with small leaves on the tip. The growing tip of the runners is obliquely oriented, and small, conical root primordia are ready to start growing as soon as they touch the soil. The roots penetrate the soil, quickly, and pull, by contraction, the axis of the runner downwards, vertically, developing a new rhizome. The short internodes elongate a little and start developing adventitious roots. At the end of the growing season, the plantlets arisen on the rooted nods of runners are already similar to the original plants with homogenous root system. On the side of the adventitious roots, new branches (side-roots) are formed. The root-branches are thinner but their capillary zone is more developed being more active in uptake of water and nutrients. The usual thickening ensues later.

  • Influence of various mineral supply on sweet corn root development
    49-52.
    Views:
    127

    Investigations into root strength have assumed particular importance with the emergence of American rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera-virgifera) as the number one pest, mainly as a result of monocultural production. Three treatments were applied in the trial: zero control treatment, treatment "A" (g/m2): 4, 47 N + 7, 89 P205 + 19, 74 K20 and treatment "B"(g/m2): 8, 94 N + 15, 78 P205 + 19, 74 K20. Measurements were made to find out whether the treatments had produced any significant difference between the root strength of the two varieties (normal sweet Puma F I and super sweet Dessert R75 Fl) at the two dates of measurement (tasseling, milk stage) in the year 2003. The treatments with a high phosphorous ratio resulted in an apparent increase in root strength with both varieties. There was a detectable difference in root strength also between the two points of measurement, suggesting that root development had remained stable. The treatments produced significant increase not only in the root strength but also in the yields of both varieties.

  • Seasonal root development of Cabernet sauvignon grafted on different rootstocks
    61-63.
    Views:
    171

    The minirhizotron system gives opportunity to study the root development without disturbing the soil and root. We have found certified differences in root development during the year 2013 among the rootstocks grafted on ‘Cabernet sauvignon’. The number of roots varied according to the rootstocks in different depth of soil layers and also varied the development of ripeness of the root system. We conclude that root system development is affected by soil physical and chemical properties, but differences according to the rootstock genotype on the similar type of soil exist.

  • Effects of activated charcoal on rooting of in vitro apple (Malus domestics Borkh.) shoots
    98-101.
    Views:
    146

    Rooting of in vitro 'Royal Gala' shoots was studied under different conditions of root induction and root elongation phase. The rooting capacity was affected by both rooting phases. Very high rooting percentage could be reached with both liquid and solid root induction media. Raising the temperature from 22 °C to 26 °C during root induction phase increased the rooting percentage. Presence of activated charcoal in root elongation media can affect the number of roots per rooted shoots and can increase the rooting percentage, the length of roots and the rate of survival depending also on other conditions during rooting. Presence of NAA in root elongation media reduced the number and the length of roots considerably. Favourable effect of activated charcoal on rooting was mainly due to adsorption of NAA.

  • Effects of environmental factors on morphological and quality parameters of table beet root
    139-146.
    Views:
    290

    In our trial morphological and quality parameters of 15 table root varieties were tested at 3 different sowing dates: 15 April, 9 July and 19 August 2010. In the trials the root shape of the varieties form the April sowing date approached most the regular spherical shape (diameter/length –1.0) which is favoured both by fresh market and the processing industry. In the July and August sowings the roots were elongated with reduced proportions. The highest red pigment content (betacyanin) was observed in the second sowing of July (>80 mg/100 g). In the late sowing (August, under plastic tent) a further 10–20 mg/100 g pigment increase was measured in relation to the earlier sowing dates of the same varieties. A similar trend could be observed in yellow pigments (vulgaxanthis) which proves a close correlation between the quantities of the 2 pigments (r=0.823). The highest vulgaxanthin content (103.3–124.18 mg/100 g) was obtained form roots of the late sowing harvested in December. Varieties reacted differently to temperature and so to sugar accumulation in the different sowing periods. In the July sowing higher water soluble solids content was measured on the mean of varieties (10.12 %) as compared to the April sowing (7.76%). Sensory evaluations included inner colour intensity (1–5), with ring (1–3) and taste (1–5) of the raw material evaluated by scoring. According to laboratory measurements better inner colour intensity was observed in the July and August sowing dates. In these samples uniformly coloured, almost with, ring-free roots were obtained. In our trial varieties from the spring sowing had superior taste. Early sowing is recommended for fresh market sale while the second crop (July) harvested in autumn can satisfy processing requirements. In the late sowing (under unheated plastic tent) fresh beet root can be grown at the end of autumn or beginning of winter, thus prolonging the usability of plastic tents.

  • Rhizogenesis in in vitro shoot cultures of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.) is affected by ethylene precursor and by inhibitors
    47-54.
    Views:
    170

    The effects of the ethylene precursor ACC and two inhibitors, AgNO3 and AVG, on root formation were tested in in vitro shoots of passion fruit (Passiflora Midis f.flavicalpa Deg.). The organogenic response was assessed on the basis of percentage of shoot-forming. roots, root number and length. The time course of ethylene production was also monitored. ACC inhibited root formation by delaying root emergence and increasine, callus formation at the basis of the shoots. In addition, ACC caused a marked increase in ethylene production, coupled to leaf chlorosis and senescence with lower rooting frequencies, number and length of roots. IAA supplementation increased ethylene production. Both ethylene inhibitors, AgNO3 and AVG, at appropriate concentrations reduced callus formation at the basis of shoots. AVG increased the number of roots per shoot, but drastically reduced length of differentiated roots. Regarding to leaf pigments, ACC promoted a marked reduction on carotenoids and total chlorophyll, whereas AVG and AgNO3 delayed explant senescence and pigments degradation, not differing from IAA supplemented and non-supplemented control treatments. The results confirm previous reports on the beneficial effects of ethylene inhibitors on in vitro rooting and suggest its reliability to be used as an alternative approach to evaluate sensitivity of Passiflora species to ethylene.

     

  • Agrobacterium transformation of Rhodiola sp.: current status and limitations
    37-42.
    Views:
    7

    The study of secondary metabolites has led to the discovery of new drugs for treating human diseases. However, consistent plant supply can be challenging, leading to the use of plant tissue culture techniques such as hairy root culture. Hairy roots have stable genetics, lateral branching, and can produce secondary metabolites, including alkaloids, flavonoids, and terpenoids. Research on hairy roots as a subject began in the late 19th century, and for the last four decades, hairy roots have been utilized for producing secondary metabolites and recombinant proteins. This article focuses on Rhodiola species - genus of perennial plants that belongs to the family Crassulaceae - and its potential as a source of secondary metabolites using hairy root culture techniques. Rhodiola sp. is widely distributed throughout the Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with several species having significant medicinal properties. The article discusses the possible use of hairy root cultures for the production of Rhodiola secondary metabolites, including salidroside and rosavins, which have demonstrated significant pharmacological activity in various studies. The use of elicitation and genetic engineering techniques to boost secondary metabolite production in Rhodiola hairy roots is also explored. Overall, the article highlights the potential of Rhodiola hairy root cultures as a valuable source of secondary metabolites with medicinal properties. However, despite some studies Rhodiola hairy root induction and culturing still remains highly unexplored.

  • Effects of different rootstocks on the morphologic parameters of watermelon grafts during transplant production
    69-73.
    Views:
    174

    Before Hungary joined the EU watermelon production was a key sector of the Hungarian vegetable industry. Its production area shrank by nearly 60 % since 2004, it is only 5000 ha today. Stable and reliable market failed to evolve in the last years and extreme weather events occurred more frequently. An unfavourable growing season can notably affect the production volume of the next season. Information gathered in the last years support the assumption, that suitable stocks can help eliminate the issues caused by extreme weather or short-term crop rotation. Choosing the right grafted or non-grafted transplant is not enough any more, growers also have to select stock. In fruit and vine production choosing the stock, which is the most suitable for the technology is evident and this approach should be widely adapted by watermelon growers as well. In this research we investigated the growth parameters of different watermelon stocks and their effect on the scion during the transplant production. Measurements were carried out on seven different stock-scion combinations of the scion ’Topgun F1’ hybrid. Two of the stocks were interspecific (Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata) and five stocks were Lagenaria-type (Lagenaria siceraria) stocks. We made and recorded observations of the transplants’ length (cm), diameter of the stock and scion (mm), number of leaves (piece), root length (cm), root mass (g) and shoot mass (g). We concluded that early pricking out of transplants with interspecific stocks is successful due to their hardiness and vigorous growth. The effect of the ’Shintosa camelforce F1’ interspecific stock was outstanding. Furthermore, the results confirmed the practical observation that the root system of interspecific stocks grow vertically more allowing them to take up water and nutrients from lower soil layers in poor sandy soils. From the Lagenaria group the root system of the ’DG-01 F1’ was similar to the interspecific stocks’. It can be grown even in sandy soil, however other Lagenaria-type stocks are more suitable for production in hard soils with nutrient supply because of their compact root system. This study can serve as a basis for further research in the topic that can conduce to site- and technology-specific stock selection.

  • In vitro rooting and anatomical study of leaves and roots of in vitro and ex vitro plants of Prunus x davidopersica 'Piroska'
    42-46.
    Views:
    173

    The process of in vitro rooting and the anatomical characters of in vitro and ex vitro leaves and roots of Prunus x davidopersica 'Piroska' were studied. Best rooting percentage (50%) and highest root number (5.0) was achieved in spring on a medium containing 0.1 mg/I NAA + 30 g/1 glucose. At the end of rooting the parenchyma of the in vitro leaves was more loose and spongy, than during the proliferation period. In the first newly developed leaf of an acclimatised plant, the parenchyma was much more developed, contained less row of cells and less air space too, compared to the leaves developed in the field. The in vitro developed root had a broad cortex and narrow vascular cylinder with less developed xylem elements, but at the end of the acclimatisation the vascular system became dominant in the root.

  • Correlation between pigment contents and FRAP values in beet root (Beta vulgaris ssp. esculents var. rubra)
    85-89.
    Views:
    266

    It is well known that beetroot quality is determined mainly by the red pigment content (betacyanins) and its uniformity of the root. The effect of the most important red pigment components (betanin). the total polyphenol content and antioxidants were studied in 20 beet root varieties. Antioxidants were expressed in FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma) values in pM/I.

    Our results indicated a close correlation (r = 0.7799 and r = 0.7435. respectively) between betanin and total polyphenol contents of the root as well as between FRAP values.

    Our measurements showed more than threefold differences in total antioxidant activity among varieties. the lowest value being 196.4 13M/1 and highest 702.57 pM/I. The corresponding betanin (16.3 and 57.8 mg/100 ml) and total polyphenol (37.5 and 85.5 mg/100 ml respectively) contents show similar differences. Based on our results it can be stated that varieties of higher betanin and poliphenol contents have higher antioxidant values as well.

    Accordingly, the two compounds must have a role in the evolution of antioxidant effects.

  • The development and reproduction of grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) strains of Hungarian vine-districts in root-bioassays
    67-71.
    Views:
    134

    The root bioassay method allows for 4-6 week continuous observation of grape phylloxera feeding on the grape root. 10 Hungarian phylloxera strains were compared on susceptible Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay and the resistant rootstocks of V. berlandieri x V. riparia Teleki 5C and V. berlandieri x V. rupestris Georgikon 121 in in vitro observations. The strains originated from Villany and Eger (Figure 3) had higher reproduction on the root of V. berlandieri x V. riparia Teleki 5C (201 and 119 eggs) and were more aggressive than the others (average production 10 eggs). The continuous high level of survival, development and reproduction of the Eger strain on Teleki 5C (V. berlandieri x V. ripuria) until day 46 may be due to adaptation.

  • Introduction of alkanet (Alkanna tinctoria (L.) Tausch), a traditional dye plant into cultivation
    41-46.
    Views:
    302

    As a part of the research project to establish natural sources of plant pigments, possibilities of introduction of Alkanna tinctoria (alkanet) into cultivation were studied.

    As a result of the germination experiment, the relevance of 21 days' duration of germination procedure was proved. To get high germination rate alkanet fruits are proposed to pretreat by gibberellinic acid (GA3) in the concentration of 400 ppm, overnight before sowing. This method results approximately 50 % germination rate.

    The morphological and production properties of alkanet roots are characterized during ontogenesis. Transplanted populations can be characterized by numerous, thick and heavy roots comparing to the spontaneous ones. Thus, seed sowing and transplantation proved to be an effective method for cultivation of the species.

    According to our results it can be concluded that in cultivation the optimal harvesting time of roots is at the end of the second vegetation cycle, when the dry root mass of the individuals is about 10-20 g with 3,0-3,5 % accumulation level of active substances.

    Considerable seasonal variability have been found influencing not only the root masses, but also the accumulation levels of alkannin derivatives. In a more humid vegetation cycle the root size and mass as well as the content of active substances are much higher.

  • The tissue structure of the vegetative organs of strawberry (Fragaria moschata Duch®)
    28-31.
    Views:
    175

    The tissue structure of the vegetative organs of strawberry (root, rhizome, stolon, leaf) is discussed in this paper. The authors stated that the root structure described by Muromcev (1969) and Naumann-Seip (1989) develops further from the primary structure. It grows secondarily and the transport tissue becomes continuous having ring shape. In the primary cortex of the rhizome periderm like tissue differentiates, but according to the examinations up to now, it does not take over the role of the exodermis. The exodermis is phloboran filled primary cortex tissue with 3-4 cell rows under the rhizodermis. The development of the transport tissue of the petiole is also a new recognition. In the lower third of the petiole the transport tissue consists of 3 collaterally compound vascular bundles. In the middle third there are 5 bundles because of the separation of the central bundle and in the upper third of the petiole 7 bundles can be observed because of the ramification of the outside bundles. Therefore attention must be taken also in the case of other plants at making sections. There might be confusions in the results of the examinations if the number of bundles increases in the petiole. The tissue structure might vary depending on the origin of the tissue segment.

    The palisade parenchyma of the leaf blade has two layers and it is wider than the spongy parenchyma. Among the 5-6-angular cells of the upper epidermis do not develop stomata while in the lower epidermis there are a fairly lot of them.

  • The effect of drying process on the pigment content and composition of table beet varieties
    115-117.
    Views:
    186

    The food industry requires natural colouring agents in increasing quantities. Beet root is highly adapted to this purpose with its red (betacyanin) and yellow (betaxanthin) pigments suitable for numerous products. The two pigments are, however, very heat-sensitive depending not only on the method of drying as well. In our experiment we tested 6 table beet varieties with vacuum drying (instrument: Eurovac KIT-150) and obtained very big differences in the suitability of varieties for drying. The less colour loss was measured in Bordó (16.84%), while Rubin and Cylindra indicated 45.15 and 47.18% loss respectively. During the drying raw material with higher colour content produced higher rate of pigment loss (r = 0.880). In our experiment we found adverse effects on colour material and dry matter content in the fresh beet root. The variety with higher solids (mainly sugar) resulted in higher pigment loss (r = -0.847) during the vacuum drying process. Furthermore, we stated that the yellow pigments (betaxanthin) were less heat sensitive during drying than the red (betacyanin) ones. For the production of beet root powder varieties of high pigment content but low water soluble solids content (sugar) are needed.

  • Stimulating effect of distilled water
    47-49.
    Views:
    128

    It is an early observation that plants in poor soil are developing roots quicker and more abundantly than on rich one. There is a similar correlation between the nutrient status of medium and adventitious root formation.

    In order to throw more light on the background of this strange phenomenon we started a systematic experimental program in which the biological effects of distilled water as model factor was investigated.

    The experiments proved that the root formation of Pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cuttings with 3 cm long hypocotyls was promoted by distilled water.

    The phenomenon above accompanied with slower decline and faster recovery of total and also water-soluble protein content, more intensive efflux of amino acids, greater amount of tryptophane and increased uptake of water compared to those in control hypocotyls. From other data obtained we may suspect that some additional active substance unknown for us also contributes to the stimulation of root initiation in distilled water.

  • Propagation from root cuttings for black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) improvement in Hungary: a review
    39-41.
    Views:
    288

    Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is a valuable stand-forming tree species introduced to Europe approximately 400 years ago from North America. Today it is widely planted throughout the world, first of all for wood production. In Hungary, where black locust has great importance in the forest management, it is mainly propagated by seeds. But since the seed-raised plants present a great genetic variation, this type of propagation can not be used for Robinia’s improved cultivars. In the Hungarian black locust clonal forestry, propagation from root cuttings can be used for reproduction of superior individuals or cultivars in large quantities. However, this method demands more care than raising seedlings from seeds and can be applied with success in well-equipped nurseries.

  • Interactive effect of sulphur and lead on the growth of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) seedling
    72-76.
    Views:
    110

    The effect of sulphur and lead on growth of muskmelon (Cucmis melo L.) sweet ananas was measured under plastic tunnel. Lead (Pb) was applied at the rate of 0, 75, 300, 600 and 1200 pg/g of soil in factorial combination with treatments of 0, 48, 80, 112 and 224 mg S/kg soils. Muskmelon growth was reduced by increasing Pb concentration and/or by removing S from the growth medium. Lead concentration in plant tissues increased linearly with increasing Pb concentration in the growth medium. Increasing S concentration in solution reduced the effects of the 75-1200 pg Pb /g soil treatments. Increasing S concentration in soil increased shoot and root growth at high levels of Pb. Increased levels of S in the growth medium decreased Pb concentration in shoot and root tissues and increased growth of muskmelon. The reduction in Pb toxicity at high S supply may be due to reduced root absorption of Pb.

     

  • Studies on the alkaloid production of genetically transformed and non-transformed cultures of Lobelia inflata L.
    65-71.
    Views:
    142

    The investigations of the growth and alkaloid production of cell suspension-, callus-, organized- and hairy root cultures from Lobelia inflata L. proved that these cultures are able to synthesize the characteristic piperidine alkaloids of the intact plant. Alkaloid precursor amino acids (Phe, Lys) and plant growth regulators affect not only the growth and differentiation of tissue cultures but also their secondary metabolism. The synthetic regulator Sz/I I combined with Phe increased the total alkaloid content considerably in callus- and organized cultures; regulator Sz/28 especially increased the lobeline content (in organized cultures in response to Lys, in callus tissues as a result of Phe application). With the aim of optimizing growth and alkaloid production of the genetically transformed hairy root cultures of Lobelia inflata L. we studied the effect of some growth regulators (NAA, IAA, kinetin) and precursor amino acids (Lys, Phe). The kinetin had inhibiting effect on the growth and lobeline production of the hairy roots. The IAA and NAA increased the biomass formation and lobeline production. The highest lobeline level was detected in tissues cultivated on hormone-free medium containing Phe.

     

  • Grapevine and apple replant disease in Hungary
    57-61.
    Views:
    142

    Field experiment was conducted to study the replant problems of grapevine and apple. Plantings were in three different fields: on virgin soil, on apple replant soil and on vine replant soil. Each field was planted with 60 pieces of grafted vine (variety Bianca on rootstock Berl. X Rip. T.K. 5BB) and 60 pieces of grafted apple (variety Gloster on rootstock MM. 106). Fungicide (BUVICID K with 50 % captan agent, 0.5 g/1 1 soil) and nematocide (VYDATE 10 G with 10 % oxamil agent, 0.03 g/1 I soil) treatments were used in the soil in order to identify the causal factor of the problem.

    Biological soil test was conducted to test 17 soil samples of II wine districts and vine growing fields in plastic pots, under shading net. No root pieces were left in the soil. Two bud-cuttings of the Bed. X Rip. T 5C rootstock varieties were used as test plants. In each case, samples were taken from the vineyard and from the virgin soil. One fourth of the soil from the vineyard was left untreated and the other three part was treated with nematocide, fungicide or heat.

    The results of the field experiment suggest that there was no problem growing grapevine after apple and apple after grapevine, but both species had been inhibited growing after itself. The fungicide and nematocide treatments did not succeed in determining the casual factor of the problem. Heat treatment of replant soil (in pot test) was useful in AS and VNS soils.

    Results of biological soil test suggest, that grapevine replant problem do not occur in every vineyard. In fifty percent of soils, no significant differences between the treatments for shoot length, weight of cane, length, diameter and wood:ratio of the fourth internode were observed. In one case, difference was not found in any of the measured characters. However, fruiting bodies of Roesleria pallida (Pers.)Sacc. and the mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix Prill. were observed in this sample. In other samples, there was no significant difference between the treatments, but nematode and fungus infection appeared to be involved in increased shoot growth in nematocide and fungicide treated plants (mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix was detected). In other samples, the fungus infection caused significant difference between the virgin, untreated and fungicide treated soils and infection of Rosellinia necatrix was observed.

  • Hydroponic pepper growing on baked clay pellets
    37-40.
    Views:
    200

    Nowadays one of the most important issues of greenhouse vegetable production in soilless media is the protection of the environment, in particular, the selection of the root medium to be applied. The objective of the trial was to test the applicability of baked (expanded) clay granules in hydroponic pepper growing with special respect to the growing pot (plastic tubes and buckets with bottom and lateral holes). From the result of the experiment it can be concluded that baked clay pellets, similarly to rockwool, are a suitable medium for providing root anchorage for pepper, however, it is necessary to examine some technological issues (e.g. fertilization, irrigation) prior to starting a large scale commercial cultivation. Relative to the three growing containers tested, it can be concluded that with the 4-8 mm crushed clay pebbles cultivation can be carried out successfully both in the white plastic tube and in the bucket, with the latter it is recommended to locate the drainage holes on the side of the growing container (at 6 cm from the bottom of the bucket).

  • Grapevine - and apple - replant disease in Hungary
    29-33.
    Views:
    120

    Field experiment was conducted to study the replant problems of grapevine and apple. Plantings were in three different fields: on virgin soil, on apple replant soil and on vine replant soil. Each field was planted with 60 pieces of grafted vine (variety Bianca on rootstock Berl. X Rip. T.K. 5BB) and 60 pieces of grafted apple (variety Gloster on rootstock MM. 106). Fungicide (BUVICID K with 50% captan agent, 0.5 g/1 1 soil) and nematocide (VYDATE 10 G with 10% oxamil agent, 0.03 g/1 1 soil) treatments were used in the soil in order to identify the causal factor of the problem.

    Biological soil test was conducted to test 17 soil samples of 11 wine districts and vine growing fields in plastic pots, under shading net. No root pieces were left in the soil. Two bud-cuttings of the Berl. X Rip. T 5C rootstock varieties were used as test plants. In each case, samples were taken from the vineyard and from the virgin soil. One fourth of the soil from the vineyard was left untreated and the other three part was treated with nematocide, fungicide or heat.

    The results of the field experiment suggest that there was no problem growing grapevine after apple and apple after grapevine, but both species had been inhibited growing after itself. The fungicide and nematocide treatments did not succeed in determining the casual factor of the problem. Heat treatment of replant soil (in pot test) was useful in AS and VNS soils.

    Results of biological soil test suggest, that grapevine replant problem do not occur in every vineyard. In fifty percent of soils, no significant differences between the treatments for shoot length, weight of cane, length, diameter and wood:ratio of the fourth internode were observed. In one case, difference was not found in any of the measured characters. However, fruiting bodies of Roesleria pallida (Pers.) Sacc. and the mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix Prill. were observed in this sample. In other samples, there was no significant difference between the treatments, but nematode and fungus infection appeared to be involved in increased shoot growth in nematocide and fungicide treated plants (mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix was detected). In other samples, the fungus infection caused significant difference between the virgin, untreated and fungicide treated soils and infection of Rosellinia necatrix was observed.

  • Dynamic analysis of a simple fruit tree structure model
    53-55.
    Views:
    124

    The effect of shaker harvest on root damage was studied on a simple tree structure model. Equations were set up to be able to calculate the relation between shaking height and stress in the roots. To get the strain at break data field experiments were carried out. The acceleration versus time curves were recorded on different heights of the stem. Evaluating measured and calculated data it can be concluded, that the risk of root damage increases when

    • the height of shaking is decreased,
    • the stern diameter is smaller, and if
    • the unbalanced mass of the shaker is increased.
  • Using compost of grape manufacture and farm wastes as growing media in vegetable ad ornamental nurseries
    45-50.
    Views:
    231

    This work was conducted at private nursery in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate during 2006 and 2007 seasons to investigate the possibility of using grape manufacture waste compost (GMWC) and farm wastes compost (FWC) in ornamental and vegetable nurseries as partially or totally replacement of coconut peat (CP) and vermiculite (V) in the growing medium and also to find out the optimum media of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, cv. Castle Rock) and Cockscomb (Celosia plumosa) as comparing to a mixture of CP and V (1:1 v/v). The authors used a ten mixtures as followed: 1- Control (CP+V at 1:1 v/v), 2-GMWC (100 %), 3- GMWC +CP (1:1 v/v), 4- GMWC + V(1:1 v/v),5- GMWC +CP + V (1:1:1 v/v/v), 6- FWC (100 %),7- FWC+ CP (1:1 v/v), 8- FWC+ V (1:1 v/v), 9- FWC+ CP+ V (1:1:1 v/v/v), 10- GMWC+FWC+CP+V (1:1:1:1 v/v/v/v). Data recorded as seedling height, No. of leaves, total pigments, shoot fresh and dry weights, root length and root fresh and dry weights in order to assess the quality of both transplants of tomato and cockscomb. Both seedlings grown in medium contain a mixture of GMWC+CP+V displayed quality traits similar or better as to those of recorded from the control treatment.

  • Colour components of different table beet varieties
    36-38.
    Views:
    208

    Information of the total pigment content of table beet roots is not sufficient enough to estimate their suitability to processing. Differences in the occurrence of the red pigment components of different thermostability determine the mode of processing of the varieties. Pigment extraction methods which require heat treatment (e.g. table beet root powder) need raw materials of higher betanin content.

    Of the tested varieties — Bonel, Nero, Favorit, Rubin and Detroit — Bonel and Favorit had the highest betanin content (50.03 and 49.53 mg/100g, respectively).

    The isobetanin quantity varies according to varieties (13.10-26.62 mg/100g). Values between 2.92-6.63 mg/100g and 0.96-2.96 mg/100g. respectively were found for betanidin and isobetanidin.

    Data revealed the highest BC/BX ratio in the variety Rubin (2.08) indicating good inner colour in sensory tests. However, the high total pigment content (81.01 mg/I00g) was associated with lower betanin content (46,26 mg/100g) and at the same time, with higher isobetanin (25.16 mg/100g), betanidin (6.63 mg/100g) and isobetanidin (2.96 nig/100g) contents. Out of the tested varieties Nero had the lowest total red pigment content (57.43 mg/100g) but the relative betanin value was the highest with nearly 70 %.

    Laboratory testing of the table beet root varieties will be required to find the most suitable material to produce colouring agents.

     

  • Morphological, physiological features and differences of Vriesea splendens ’Fire’ plants during in vitro multiplication and rooting
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    119

    During in vitro multiplication and rooting of Vriesea splendens ’Fire’, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg l-1 benzyladenine (BAP), benzyladenine-riboside (BAPR), kinetin (KIN), meta-topoline (MT), indole-butyric acid (IBA) and naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA) were added to basal Murashige and Skoog (1962) MS medium. As compared to the hormone-free control, plants developed significantly more shoots on medium supplemented with almost all cytokinins (excepting KIN), especially BAP resulted the highest multiplication up to almost 26 shoots. Enhancement of cytokinin concentrations increased shoot number (and in case of BAP, peroxidase activity) but decreased plant height and rooting parameters. Regarding root production, both auxins were definitely beneficial (0.2 mg l-1 NAA resulted more than 7.5 roots and higher auxin concentrations efficiently stimulate root elongation); however, KIN had similar effects. After a three-month duration time of acclimatization, we observed that plants which were previously cultured on medium containing certain cytokinins (KIN in all doses and 0.1 mg l-1 MT) or both auxins had greater survival, moreover, as negative after-effect, higher cytokinin concentrations reduced the number of survived specimens.