In this paper we introduce our results of three years (2007-2009) investigatio ns carried out in the framework of "Research and development in foodstaff chain" - project of Regional University Knowledge Center by the members of Corvi nus U niversity of Budapest - Department of Pomology and. Research Institute for Fru it growing and Ornamentals. Budapest-Erd. The main objectives of the project were the followings: submi ssion of sour cherry candidate suitable for industrial process for state approval; determination of physica l parameter and inner content value changes of sour cherry varieties duri ng ripening; evaluation of health care attributes of sour cherry fruit; ripen ing process description by the colour and the force required to pick fruits of sour cherry. We stated that the optimal begi nning and period of the harvest can be determined wi th the fruit removal force. In this period the fruit growth stops. ju iciness rat io does not change. refractions are approximately equal.acidic content turns to decreasing trend.However the proportion of anthocyan in and polypheno l can still increase. Fruits harvested in this period fulfil a wide range of industrial process opportunities. 'Erdi jubileum ·and candidate IV-3/48 according to their inner content values arc suitable for high quality products (containing real fruit material in high proportion).
Some experience or details are introduced in connection with the nutrient uptake of micropropagated fruit trees in the different phase of the in vitro or ex vitro development. It can be stated, that the plants during the micropropagation procedure are overfed. Special careful nutrient supply is necessary during the acclimatization.
Description of new sour cherry cultivars and cultivar candidates bred in the Research Institute for the Fruit Growing and Ornamentals
The cooperation of Hungarian professionals with Chinese, Thai, South-Korean, Taiwanese and Brazilian colleagues should deserve much more attention than actually done. We refer to the transfer and adaptation of production technologies as well as biotechnological developments in vegetables, fruits, ornamentals and medicinal plants from the Temperate Zone to the tropical and subtropical regions. According to our information Hungarian colleagues involved in extension work are highly esteemed on the same level as Japanese, Chilean, Italian and French colleagues. We could state that immigration of investors, local enterpreneurs as well as those coming from expansive regions of Europe, North America and oversses, representaives of supermakets keeps to be accelerated by the increasing confidence triggered also by the successful management of profitable plantations, vineyards and fruits initiated first about 15 years ago.
For Hungary, the presence and achievements of Hungarian horticultural expertise in tropical and subtropical zones yielded unequivocal advantages. Therefore, the next actual step of development would mean the organisation of a network of the "Units of Horticultural Mission" in the tropic and subtropic countries. We are convinced that those Units will stimulate the traffic of technologies as centers of transfer within and between the regions and contribute to the increasing influence of professionals on the production and trade of horticultural commodities. The introduction and testing of new varieties of vegetables, fruits, medicinal plants (as well as ornamentals), the development of the growing technologies, adaptation and acclimation of Temperate Zone germ plasm representing the general trends of advanced production will be the most important tasks of the Mission with a sufficient oversight upon the whole world. It is taken as a fact that Hungarian horticulture and breeding is competitive on the world market. We are ready to contribute to the development of horticulture on a worldwide scale. The Hungarian R & D will be attentive in the future to manage the accumulated capacities by information and mediating needs and offers to the volonteers of the profession. The reality of the above propositions are amply proved by successes of the Agroinvest Co and of other professionals registered in abroad.
To keep on the top of the world list of the profession we have to follow up the international trends by our permanent presence on the most important centers of administration and production of the world in order to hold on the hot line of the Hungarian administration competent in financing the R & D activities. We need specialists which are open minded, speak languages, familiar with the tricks of informatics, economics and politics, competent in deals, able to make decisions, etc. The education and training should be strenghtened to he conform with those trends. That proposal involves also the need to follow up the activities of the transnational companies, the regular, active participation on international conferences, the permanent attention paid to electronic informations available in the worldwide networks as well as the printed periodicals of horticulture. It is also related to the attraction of investors to the developments aimed within the country as well as abroad. At last but not at least we have to keep in mind that the work performed abroad by the Hungarian professional is a kind of "para-diplomatic mission" which cannot be substituted by any other, sometimes very expensive activity charged on the officia erliplomatic missions. The benefit of it is, however, valid to the whole country because false stereotypes developed during the last 50 years cannot be abolished otherwise.
On the basis of a six-year experiment a method was elaborated for forcing and off-seasons growing of tulips, narcissus and gladioli under frameless plastic cover. The advantages of this cheap energy-saving method are manifested in an improved quality of flowers and essentially in the earlier flowering. With this method mostly first-class flowers can be obtained immediately after the season of forcing in heated constructions with plastic cover, and anticipated outdoor flowering.
The possibilities of applying the method are studied on further ornamental plant species (other bulbous plants, Paeonia lactiflora, annual ornamentals).
Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) are generally self-incompatible and pollinator cultivars are needed in orchards for reliable yield. In Hungary, choosing the appropriate cross-compatible cultivar pairs has so far been based on traditional test-crosses in the field. In recent years PCR-based methods that allow the identification of the S-alleles responsible for compatibility have been elaborated. We have determined the S-allele constitution of 24 cultivars and four selections important to Hungarian growers and breeders using PCR-based methods developed at Horticulture Research International, East Malling. The 28 accessions had various pairs of 9 alleles including one new allele, Sr. They could be assigned to 12 of the existing incompatibility groups or to a new group (S4S12) for which the designation 'Group XXVII' is proposed. The cultivars `Krupnoplodnaja' and 'Rita' had novel genotypes, S5S9 and S5Sx, respectively and can be placed into group 0 that holds universal pollen donors. The genotype of the cultivar ‘Hedelfingeni óriás' grown in Hungary was found to be S3S4 and therefore different from the cultivar `Hedelfingen' that is widespread in Western Europe.
Between 1950-1989, the production and trade of ornamental plants in Hungary was characterised by meeting the demands of the home and that of the Eastern-Block market and by a minimal external trade with the Western countries. After the socio-economical changes in 1989/90, the trade of flowers gradually became liberalised and the Hungarian growers had to face the concurrency of steadily increasing import from the West and from all over the World. This tendency coincided with the physical and mental degradation (outdating) of most of the glasshouses, along with the decline of several former large growers of the communist type (state or cooperative), the appearance and growth of new private companies and the building (rebuilding) of new plastic houses and (mainly second-hand) glasshouses. In spite of the above-listed problems, the production as a whole did not (or only slightly) decrease and/or even an increase occured in many areas mainly in the open-ground production. In 1998, the protected flower cultivation comprised round 110 ha of glasshouses, 180-220 ha of plastic structures and 3-5 ha of frames, with the main crops as follows: cut flowers and cut foliage 220-240 ha; pot plants (with geraniums) 30-40 ha; bedding plants (without geraniums) 20-25 ha; "transit--greenhouses (for redistribution only) 3-5 ha: other (eg. propagation of woody ornamentals) 3-5 ha. The structure of open-ground production was as follows: Total 1150-1210 ha, including: Nursery products: woody ornamentals 880 ha; perennials 10-15 ha; rose bushes 30-35 ha. Other open-ground crops: flower bulbs 50-60 ha; dried flowers 130-140 ha; open-ground cut flowers 25-30 ha; flower seed 30-35 ha; (biennial) bedding plants 10-15 ha.
Long term fertilisation trials were combined with storage experiments with 'Jonathan' apple trees and fruits to study influence of tree nutrition on quantity and quality of crop. The site of experiments is a typical Carpathian-basin environment with loamy silt soil, high lime content and arid summers. Conclusions has been drown from six years' set of data. Augmented levels of soil fertilisation increased cropping capacity of apple trees, however, the fruit load has not met with cropping capacity in every year. More the def cit came into view in crop load, less the fruit quality resulted in. The deficit in cropping capacity, however, could not have been determined with simple rates as fruit weight per trunk circumference or similar. Better determination was obtained where foliar nutrient contents were correlated to crop per tree figures. In general terms, the N and Ca content in leaves increased with yields when K and P content formulated reciprocally. When storage quality of 'Jonathan' apple fruits were related to crop load (kg/tree), influence of crop deficit became visible. As the crop load and foliar nutrient levels interacted, the fruit quality (number of disordered apples after 6 month of storage) subjected of both physiological phenomena. Higher determination degree were obtained when crop load was assessed together with single or multiple foliar analysis data.
Authors present synthesis of experimental work, performed in the last decades, for better understanding nutritional behaviour of apple trees and related problems in fruit quality. There were evidences supporting possible deteriorating role of potassium in feeble physiological status of apples, if applied in excess. More intensive studies proved that higher potassium uptake into leaves and fruits might be also the result of increased sink power of individual fruits. Nevertheless early senescence of apples during storage and also sensibility to bitter pit were successfully related to the increased sink power of fruits, casual relations in excessive NPK fertilization, although increase in sink power need further investigations. Impaired weather conditions during early development of fruits, hostile orchard practices in pruning, thinning, irrigation and also unskilled application of growth regulators may also contribute in the enhancement of sink power and in weakened physiological status of apple fruits.
The scope of apple growing and marketing has been determined by the economic and political systems in the recent decades. One may follow the booms and collapses in the Hungarian apple industry. Re-establishment of the market economy gives new chances for recovery in the fruit section as well.
Reconstruction of the apple industry has started with private ownership of lands. In the present work we characterise the still existing apple farms inherited from the previous system, present the newly established orchards in detail, deal with the present state of apple commerce and finally, we try to predict the near future of Hungarian apple industry.
In the continental weather zone, more and more frequently occurring extreme conditions require continuous renewal of the market which generates constant challenge for the ornamental plant breeders. Most of the traditionally used decorative ornamental plants are sensitive to these extreme conditions. In 2001, Department of Plant Biotechnology, Debrecen University initiated an interdisciplinary breeding program in collaborations with Zoltan Kovats (he dealt with hungarian drought-tolerant plant species) to produce new or reintroduce forgotten drought-tolerant ornamental species into public parks and roadsides. From ~900 species of Salvia genus, Salvia nemorosa L. has been known as a medical plant, however, because of its high adaptation ability and decorative nature it is a highly recommended ornamental plant as well. Salvia nemorosa L. has a low maintenance, extremely droughttolerant, fast growing plant, generates proper cover, and highly competing weeds on roadsides. Nowadays, 50-60 varieties are available; however this number could be increased by new hybrids. Great morphological and colour variation could be seen within the species, from different white to deep violet. The main goal of this research is the production of elite lines with wide colour and morphological variation in wild sage. We have already obtained 25 different clones for further investigation without eliminating the original plants generating an in vitro gene bank as it has been done by Italian breeders.
Fruit set of two sweet cherry cultivars (Alex' and 'Stella' ) and four Hungarian selections have been studied over two years following open pollination, unassisted self-pollination (autogamy) and artificial self-pollination (geitonogamy). Among accessions 'IV-6/240' proved to be self-sterile, while the other five revealed to be self-fertile. Significant differences have been found in fruit set among years and among pollination treatments but not among self-fertile accessions. Fruit set following unassisted self-pollination was significantly lower than of other pollination treatments. Thus pollen transfer is essential for profitable yield in sweet cherry growing.
There was no significant relationship in the fruit set of open- and self-pollination.
Cherry incompatibility has widely been studied from the beginning of the twentieth century. As a consequence of the valuable results cherry has become a model for incompatibility research of other plant species. This study provides a detailed information about incompatibility of sweet and sour cherry based on several Hungarian and international literature sources from the last 100 years. The study gave details about the traditional and molecular base of incompatibility of sweet and sour cherry.
The consumers have been exigent increasingly about excellent quality. The speci fie flavour and fragrance of apricot evolve during ripening. We need to be acquainted with changing of inert content during ripening to the choosing of optimal harvest time. The Regional University Knowled ge Centre -Research and Development in Foodstuff Chain project had presented an opportun ity to study the inner content of apricot. Our aim was to study evaluation of health care attributes of apricot fruit. We investigated different ripeness samples of four apricot varieties ('Mandulakajszi', 'Pann 6nia', 'Gonci magyar kajszi'. 'Harcot') in our study of 2007-2009. Samples were taken the orchard of Sóskútfruct Ltd. Hungary. We had measured the water soluble antioxidant capacity, polyphenol-, f3-carotene content and the dissimilar sugar and acid-fractions during ripening. We had experienced significant different in inert content between varieties.
Cross-incompatibility is a common phenomenon between various sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars. Traditionally, choosing cross-compatible cultivar pairs is based on test crossings in the field.
There is a lack of information about fertility relations of novel Hungarian sweet cherry cultivars and selections. We have studied cross-incompatibility in 42 sweet cherry cultivar pairs by test-crossings in the field. Out of those, 3 combinations showed incompatibility and 15 pairs were compatible.
Test-crossing results proved that with the knowledge of S-allele constitution of Hungarian cultivars incompatible cultivar pairs are recognised in practice reliably. However, we assume that in sterility not only the S-gene system, but other factors (e.g. abnormal development of pollen or flower) also occur, therefore, their examination would be needed.
A variety trial has been accomplished to study the flowering performance of some modern roses. Blooming time and blooming intensity were studied in Hungarian and Western European varieties. 120 Floribundas, polyanthas and climbings were observed. Our work shows that valuable Hungarian varieties can be found in all the three studied classes. The best Hungarian climbing roses at blooming intensity were `Futótűz', `Rozalia', ‘Sarolt and 'Szent Erzsébet emléke'; best floribundas were ‘Báthory István emléke', 'Munkács', 'Szent Margit emléke; and the best Hungarian polyanthas were `Csinszka', `Domokos PáI Péter emléke'. Some really good flowering Western-European rose varieties have also been found, the best ones were 'Clg. Gertrude Westphal' climbing, 'La Sevillana' floribunda and 'Beauty of New South Wells', 'Happy' polyanthus. 'La Sevillana' and 'Picasso' were in strong bloom for the longest time.
In Hungary, the floribunda and polyantha classes had good flowering intensity to the almost the same extent, floribundas had stronger, and polyanthas had longer flowering waves, but the ever-blooming ability of the climbing roses was moderate in the dry midsummer.
The main fields of open ground ornamental plant cultivation in Hungary are: Woody ornamental nursery products (trees, shrubs, conifers) (950 ha cultivation area and 4-6 million plants sold per years.; Rose bushes (around 140 ha and 2-4 million bushes per year); Perennial plants (20-30 ha and 3-4 million plants per year); Dried flowers (200-250 ha of land and a production value of 5-700.000 HUF per year). The paper is discussing in detail the structure, development and tendencies of ornamental nursery production (with figures in tabulated form) and later gives shorter assessments of the present state and perspectives of the other three fields. Finally, a list is given of the Hungarian professional associations and unions, education and research centres involved in ornamental plant growing and trade.
The widespread genus Cotoneaster has its centre of diversity in the Himalayas and surrounding areas. Most taxa appear to be polyploid and apomictic, and many of them have become popular ornamentals due to their attractive foliage and berries. One of the taxonomically most critical groups is Section Alpigeni which contains several important ornamental plants. The number of species belonging to this section varies widely between different taxonomic treatises, depending on whether 'splitting' or 'lumping' of species is preferred. Using a rather narrow species definition, we have investigated 13 different species using RAPD analysis. A simple matching (SM) coefficient-based principle coordinate analysis (PCO) was calculated from the RAPD data. Some species were clearly more similar to each other than to other species in the analysis. The levels of similarity did, however, not correspond very well to the lumping together of several taxa under the same species name as performed e.g. in the recent Flora of China. Obviously, the complex hybridogenous origination and, in some cases, still ongoing recombination with sexual species or among the apomictic taxa themselves, produces a genetic variability structure that cannot be properly reflected in a hierarchical taxonomy.
A great number of crosses have been made with Hungarian and foreign varieties as partners to breed improved varieties. This species shows a particular trait, namely the autoregulation of fruit set, which affects considerably the productivity of commercial orchards. Thus the inheritance of the blooming time of the male and female flowers has been explored for several years in the progenies.
It has been stated that
- the feature of the partners does not turn up predictably in the progeny,
- it is most important to take into consideration the blooming time class of both, male and female flowers in planning associations of varieties for commercial orchards.
- in years of irregular spring weather the stability of the blooming time of the variety or in other words the deviation of the actual blooming time of variety from its characteristic blooming-time class is also very important.
In this study, the susceptibility of 7 commercially important sour cherry cultivars to Monilinia laxa was studied. Artificial inoculation was made with M. laxa isolates, which were isolated from different woody plants. Artificial inoculation was prepared in the laboratory and in the field. In laboratory, flowers of sour cherries while in the field, the two-year old twigs were inoculated in 2006 and 2007. According to results of stigmata inoculation, there were infection ability differences among the isolates originated from five different stone fruit host. Cultivars could be sorted into two susceptibility groups. In the field, twig inoculation in 2007 was made at blossom period and in 2007 at harvest. Seven sour cherry cultivars were inoculated with 8-day-old mycelial culture of M. laxa originated from sour cherry and almond. The agressivity and pathogenicity of the two isolates were measured by the degree of floem death: Results showed that year and phenological stage considerably influenced the degree of symptoms caused by the fungus. After artificial inoculation, tissue death progression was studied by fluorescent microscope. According to results, sour cherry cultivars were sorted into disease susceptibility groups. Susceptibility orders were identical to results on stigmata inoculation.
The interest in wild growing fruits was increased considerably by the pharmaceutical industry, the cosmetics as well as by the food industry. (Stefanovits-Bányai et al., 2004). Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L), sand thorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.), cornet (Cornus mas L.), dog rose (Rosa canina L. bearing hips) and the Sorbus species (Sorhus ssp.) have been well known medicinal and/or ornamental plants since long. Recently, precious substances have been detected in their fruits, which are indispensable in healthy foods. Several species and micro-species of the genus Sorbus are components of the native flora of Hungary, and the fruit of some of them have been consumed traditionally, however, they are preferably considered as ornamentals. The nursery of Alsótekeres (Balatonvilágos) maintained some 16 clones of Sorbus species, which are mainly apomictic "micro species" of. the collection. In 2003, a comprehensive analysis of sorb fruits born on apomictic micro species was initiated in order to find those, which will be suitable to establish plantations. It turned out that considerable differences exist between the fruits of individual taxa, however, it is largely influenced by seasonal effects. According to physical measurements, a scale of mean fruit masses could be established. As for chemical ingredients of the fruits, those are of special interest, which are involved mainly in anti-oxidant activities of the organisms (calcium, potash, phosphorus, copper, magnesium).
Regular observations and experiments were performed during a 14 year period on 6 sour cherry varieties. The morphological traits of leaves and fruits were compared, and the phenology of blooming as well as of ripening dates served to start an estimation of the possibilities of mutual pollination and the planning of harvest operations. Experiments involved obligate autogamy, artificially controlled allogamy and open pollination in order to reveal self-fertility, self-sterility or inter-incompatibility relations.
The varietal characters represent, each, different values in the distinction of the items, because of their intra-varietal variability. From that point of view, the most reliable are the data of blooming and ripening time, fruit size and the fertility relations.
Inter-incompatibility was observed between the group of self-fertile, "Pándy type" varieties (`Újfehértói fürtös’, ‘Debreceni bőtermő’, ‘Kántorjánosi’) on one side and the selection of Pándy 7', a self-sterile variety on the other side. Unilateral incompatibility has been detected within the former group of new, self-fertile varieties, the combinations: (`Újfehértói fürtös’ x ‘Debreceni bőtermő’ as well as `Újfehértói fürtös’ x Kántorjánosi’.
Our results prove the close kinship between those three new varieties and the original Pándy variety on the base of being highly similar in their morphology and also of the fact of their inter-incompatibility, though unilateral.
Effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization were investigated on the change of nutrient content, vegetative and generative production of apricot, peach and sour cherry trees, as well as on frost hardiness in long term experiments. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization increased only the concentration of these elements in cherry leaves without effect on growth and yield. Consequent potassium effect was proved on these stone fruit species. Effect on yield appeared following the first higher crop load.
Potassium supply has positive effect on frost hardiness of apricot and sour cherry flowers and peach flower buds.
In peach, the lime content of soil decreased the yield but it could be compensated by potassium dressing to some extent. Favourable nutrient boundary values were determined for soil and foliage.
In vivo as well as in vitro pollen tube growth studies along the style were performed, each with two pairs of sweet cherry cultivar combinations by means of fluorescence microscopy. In vivo studies showed that the percentage of pollen tubes penetrating the middle and basal section of the style was higher in the fully compatible 'Margit' x 'Alex' combination than in the half compatible `Germersdorfi 3' x `Alex' cross. The year effect was significant at P=0.] probability level. All pollen tubes in vitro stopped at the upper third of the style in the incompatible 'Vera' x 'Van' cross, whereas in the half compatible 'Alex' x 'Van' 50% of the pollen tubes penetrated to the lower third of the style. By in vitro fluorescence microscopy, it was possible to distinguish half compatible combinations from incompatible ones. Results obtained by in vivo technique only were much ambiguous.
Sida hermephrodita or virginia mallow is a perspective perennial herb in the Malvaceae family able to yield a biomass crop through between ten and twenty years. Additionally, the plants have a lot of uses and benefits for instance it can use it as a fodder crop, honey crop, ornamental plant in public gardens. It has favorable features like fast growing and resistance against the disease and climatic fluctuations, etc. Sida is in base stage of domestication therefore has a serious disadvantage the low and slow germination as a big part of wild plants. Due to the expressly low germination percent the need of seed showing of driller is should tenfold, 200 thousand seed/acre instead of 10-20 thousand what is not available and expensive Therefore practical purposes of our research of seed physiology was to increase the seed germination percent in a disposable ,basically wild Sida population. We examined two factors relating to seed germination percent and seed germination power during our research: the influence of hot water treatment and the effect of exogenus or endogenus infection of seed. However, in our germination tests, utilizing scarified seeds with hot water (65, 80 and 95 oC), 29,33 to 46% germinated of the seeds collected from the population of S. hermaphrodita in Debrecen. The average germination for all season was 5-10 % wihitout treatment and rised using hot water up to almost 50%. When physically scarified used, the oldest seeds showed the best germination (46 %) after the hot water operation in spite of the previus studys (Spooner 1985; Chudik et al. 2010; Doliński R. 2009.). We discovered that there are a distinguished close relationship between the seeds collecting time and the infection, as well as germination percentage. Thus, 2009 season was the most favourable in case of contamination (control:17,33 and 80 oC treatment:0%) as well as germination percent. It could be concluded that, the best season for our findings was 2009 due to autumn harvest of Sida seeds. In our oppinion, the autumn harvesting should be the best time to overcome the problem of the low germination and high infection percentage.