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  • Effect of foliar fertilization on leaf mineral composition, sugar and organic acid contents of sweet cherry
    45-48.
    Views:
    206

    Influence of a three-year-long foliar fertilization on mineral composition of leaf, content of sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose and sucrose) and organic acids (citric, malic and fumaric acid) of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruits was studied. The experiment was conducted during 2005-2007 in West Hungary on mature cv. `Germersdorfi 3' grafted on Prunus mahaleb rootstock, planted in 1999. Trees spaced 7 x 5 m, and growing in a calcareous chernozem soil. Trees were foliar-fertilized with potassium (K) as KNO3 and calcium (Ca) as Ca(NO3)2. Potassium spraying was carried out 3 (K1) and 5 (K2) while calcium was applied at 3 (Ca 1), 5 (Ca2) and 6 (Ca3) weeks after full bloom. Beside fruit analysis, complete soil and leaf analysis were done to study the rate of nutrient uptake and its effects on fruit quality. Contents of nutrients of soil and leaf were determined by atomic absorption and spectrophotometric method, while sugars and organic acids in fruit were determined by HPLC. The applied treatments (except K1) had been increasing leaf K significantly compared to the control till ripening. Most of treatments had no significant effect on Ca content of leaf till ripening. From applied treatments only the boron treatments had significant increasing effect on contents of all examined sugars, compared the control. Furthermore, the effect of calcium spraying on the contents of organic acids was significant.

  • Nutritional values of traditional open-pollinated melon (Cucumis melo L.) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thumb]) varieties
    29-31.
    Views:
    218

    The aim of our experiments was to investigate the internal quality parameters of some old melon and watermelon landraces or varieties whether they have any desirable characteristics. Measurements were carried out using 8 different types of melon (Cucumis melo L.) and 8 accessions of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thumb]), which were self pollinated under greenhouse conditions. Besides the determination of dry matter content; soluble solids, titratable acidity of the fruit juices, investigation of carbohydrates, total phenol content was measured by spectrophotometer. Total antioxidant capacities were determined spectrophotometrically using the FRAP method. We found some accesions both among melon and watermelon varieties, which could be characterized by outstanding inner content.

  • Grapevine - and apple - replant disease in Hungary
    29-33.
    Views:
    117

    Field experiment was conducted to study the replant problems of grapevine and apple. Plantings were in three different fields: on virgin soil, on apple replant soil and on vine replant soil. Each field was planted with 60 pieces of grafted vine (variety Bianca on rootstock Berl. X Rip. T.K. 5BB) and 60 pieces of grafted apple (variety Gloster on rootstock MM. 106). Fungicide (BUVICID K with 50% captan agent, 0.5 g/1 1 soil) and nematocide (VYDATE 10 G with 10% oxamil agent, 0.03 g/1 1 soil) treatments were used in the soil in order to identify the causal factor of the problem.

    Biological soil test was conducted to test 17 soil samples of 11 wine districts and vine growing fields in plastic pots, under shading net. No root pieces were left in the soil. Two bud-cuttings of the Berl. X Rip. T 5C rootstock varieties were used as test plants. In each case, samples were taken from the vineyard and from the virgin soil. One fourth of the soil from the vineyard was left untreated and the other three part was treated with nematocide, fungicide or heat.

    The results of the field experiment suggest that there was no problem growing grapevine after apple and apple after grapevine, but both species had been inhibited growing after itself. The fungicide and nematocide treatments did not succeed in determining the casual factor of the problem. Heat treatment of replant soil (in pot test) was useful in AS and VNS soils.

    Results of biological soil test suggest, that grapevine replant problem do not occur in every vineyard. In fifty percent of soils, no significant differences between the treatments for shoot length, weight of cane, length, diameter and wood:ratio of the fourth internode were observed. In one case, difference was not found in any of the measured characters. However, fruiting bodies of Roesleria pallida (Pers.) Sacc. and the mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix Prill. were observed in this sample. In other samples, there was no significant difference between the treatments, but nematode and fungus infection appeared to be involved in increased shoot growth in nematocide and fungicide treated plants (mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix was detected). In other samples, the fungus infection caused significant difference between the virgin, untreated and fungicide treated soils and infection of Rosellinia necatrix was observed.

  • Above-ground dendromass of sprouted black locust energy plantations: a case study
    19-21.
    Views:
    239

    Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) can be considered as one of the most suitable tree species for establishing energy plantations due to its favourable growing characteristics such as vigorous growing potential in the juvenile phase, excellent coppicing ability, a relatively high resistance to pests. Based on national and international test results the mean annual increment of oven-dry weight of energy plantations regenerated by coppicing generally exceeds the first cycle plantations established by seedlings.

  • Optimization of sample preparation for determination of antioxidant parameters from one grape berry
    93-97.
    Views:
    184

    Berry quality is an important issue in wineprocessing, however evaluating characteristics in a single berry level is very complex. The Phenolic compound analysis is more challenging because of the limited amount of material and a mixture of skin, pulp and seed. No clear protocol exists for evaluating these compounds from single berries. The aim of our investigation was to develop such a protocol. Single whole grape berries samples were homogenized in 20 replicates by 5 different methods. The most effective method was when berry was placed in a mortar and was crushed with a pestle under liquid nitrogen until seeds were clearly visible. Seeds were then taken from the mortar and crushed between two stainless steel plates with a hammer, and returned to the mortar without residues. Homogenization continued until the sample had a powdery appearance. The homogenized samples were taken for further analysis such as total polyphenols, total anthocyanin contents and total antioxidant capacity. Our results demonstrate that single berries could be processed and that the homogenates were suitable for taking chemically uniform subsamples.

  • Preliminary results on salicylic acid treatment on brown rot caused by Monilinia laxa on Jumbo Cot fruit, Prunus armeniaca L.
    37-39.
    Views:
    256

    The effect of salicylic acid on reducing brown rot caused by Monilinia laxa infection in postharvest apricot fruit Prunus armeniaca L. Freshly harvest Jumpo Cot fruit were treated with water as control treatment and other group treated with salicylic acid 2 Mm as induced resistance treatment, Fruits were infected by M. laxa (1 × 10-3spores ml-1) and incubated at 25 oC for 2, 4 and 6 days. Treatment fruits with salicylic acid resulted in direct effect on mycelial growth as in the salicylic acid treatment the growth reached to 45% after 6 days of incubation while in the control treatment it reached to 100%.

  • Organic and mineral fertilizer effects on the yield and mineral contents of carrot (Daucus carota)
    69-74.
    Views:
    413

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of ammonium-nitrate, food waste compost, bacterial fertilizer (EM-1) and their combinations on production and nutrient contents of carrot. The study was conducted on a calcareous chernozem and acidic sandy soils in a randomized complete block design with 8 treatments and four replications. NH4NO3 in chernozem soil increased the weight of carrot leaves only, while in sandy soil resulted in reduced yield and highly increased NO3-N content of roots. Sandy soil showed higher response of biomass production to food waste compost application than chernozem soil. The highest carotenoid content of roots was measured with compost treatment. Combined application of compost and NH4NO3 in chernozem proved to be good combination but in sandy soil have turn out to be less favourable than sole compost treatment. Bacterial fertilizer (EM-1) did not cause marked effect on the yield parameters, but caused increased phosphorus content of plant. In chernozem soil the maximum yield parameters were achieved with the combined treatment of ammonium-nitrate+compost+EM-1. In sandy soil the most favourable treatment proved to be the compost treatment. Results suggest that application of food waste compost as a nutrient source could be a promising agrochemical practice especially in soils having low organic material and low nutrient supply.

  • Floral biology, pollination and fertilisation of temperate zone fruit trees
    7-12.
    Views:
    362

    The knowledge of blooming, pollination and fertilisation and its use are indispensable in maximizing of cropping potential of fruits in economical fruit production. In attaining maximum yield a greater attention has to be focused on choosing cultivar combinations, and results of experiments on blooming, pollination and fertilisation must be applied carefully.

    To have efficient bee pollination requires attention at the time of designing an orchard. It requires further attention at the time of bloom of any of the fruit-hearing species. Markets demand new types of fruit which forces constant changes in the cultivar composition of orchard. The blooming, pollinating and fertilisation characteristics of cultivars chosen have to be known before an orchard is set up. Apart from the general knowledge of trees considered to be planted, there is a great need to know the flowering, pollinating and fertilization characteristics of each cultivar in detail.

  • Microclimatic studies on different aged apple plantations
    7-11.
    Views:
    188

    The purpose of measuring parallel canopy and out of canopy microclimates was to find out in what extent climatic parameters measured in different aged canopis differ from each other and from the values characteristic to out-of-canopi areas. The importance of phytoclimatic researches seems to lie in the fact that if the reactions of fruit trees towards meteorological elements are continuously followed, we have the possibility to provide growers with information. These pieces of information are like defining the optimum time of phitotechnical interventions (summer pruning, sorting sprouts, thinning fruits, etc.), the necessity of applying mulching, defining the method and time of irrigation and applying plant protection activities. By means of phytoclimatic researches, it is possible to react to unfavourable meteorological impacts within a certain extent. It is also possible to successfully reduce the risks of late spring and early autumn frost damage, as well as the risks, content and measure of experienced heat and water stress conditions by finding out about the physical characteristics of the canopis' internal area.

  • Results in the valuation of some balcony plants Hungary
    73-77.
    Views:
    127

    Three varieties of different species of annual bedding and balcony plants were examined in balcony boxes in three different places (Budapest, Solymár-Kerekhegy, Tázlár) in order to determine their tolerance to different climate conditions. The experiment proved that Celosia argentea L. var. plumosa 'Savaria' and Dichondra repens J. R. Forst. et G. Forst 'Silver Falls' tolerate well the Hungarian extremely dry, hot and changing climate. Nemesia Vent. 'Blue Bird' developed and flowered well only in cooler and protected conditions; therefore, this species can be offered to a more balanced climate as the western areas of Hungary and the mountains.

  • Growth and yield of sweet cherry trees on different roostocks
    98-101.
    Views:
    223

    The first nine years' results of sweet cherry rootstock trial from Hungary are presented with the aim to select efficient rootstocks for the local ecological conditions. The trials were established in 1989 with 'Van' and 'Germersdorfi óriás' cultivars on the following rootstocks: mahaleb Sainte Lucie 64, Colt, MxM 14, MxM 97. All the trees were headed at 80 cm and trained to a modified Brunner-spindle system. Tree size and yield was measured every year, and the cumulative yield efficiency was calculated.

    Based upon the results, mahaleb cherry SL 64 is a vigorous rootstock with good compatibility and productivity. In comparison to SL 64. the trunk cross-sectional area and canopy spread of the 'Van' trees decreased by 10-15% on rootstock Colt, while the trees of 'Germersdorfi orias' on Colt roostock grew even larger than on SL 64. Considerable 30-40 % reduction of tree size was achieved on trees grafted on M x M hybrids. Trees of `Germersdorfi óriás' showed a similar tendency without significant differences. The cumulative yield efficiency of `Van' trees after nine years was highest on rootstock MxM 14, followed by Sainte Lucie 64. Trees on Colt and MxM 97 rootstocks showed low productivity. `Germersdorfi óriás' produced the highest cumulative yield efficiency on SL 64, followed by MxM 14 and Colt and last MxM 97. Biennial bearing index of heavy cropping 'Van' trees was smaller than that of `Germersdorfi óriás'. The trees of 'Van' on MxM 97 showed higher biennial bearing index, while 'Germersdorfi orias' on different rootstocks showed similar tendency, but without significant differences.

    MxM 14 and MxM 97 rootstocks reduced the crotch angle of the shoots on both sweet cherry varieties which is disadvantegous to spindle training. Slight suckering (1-3/year) of the rootstocks Colt, MxM 14 and MxM 97 were observed during the first few years.

  • Effects of DMI and strobilurin fungicide combinations on scab and powdery mildew incidence in apple production: a preliminary study
    37-39.
    Views:
    214

    The aim of our study was to evaulate the effectiveness of four DMI and strobilurion fungicide combinations in a season-long disease management programme against apple scab and powdery mildew in two integrated apple orchards on cultivar Jonagold. The four spray programmes were: i) standard, ii) DMI dominant iii) strobilurin dominant, and iv) DMI and strobilurin dominant. Apple scab incidence as generally high in both orchards in the standard fungicide treatment plots ranged between 21.8 and 26.4%. Leaf scab incidence was higher in all treatments compared to fruit incidence. Scab incidence was generally higher at Mándok compared to Ófehértó. In both locations the lowest scab incidence was assessed in DMI dominant treatment ranged between 5 to 10.7%, which was not signifi cantly different from the DMI and strobilurin dominant treatment. Powdery mildew incidence was generally low in both orchards in all fungicide treatments ranged between 0.002 and 0.5%. Although there were no signifi cant differences among treatments, the lowest powdery mildew incidence was assessed in the DMI and strobilurin dominant treatment in Mándok and in the strobilurin dominant treatment in Ófehértó.

  • Role of hydrogen peroxide and Pharmaplant-turbo against cucumber powdery mildew fungus under organic and inorganic production
    39-44.
    Views:
    411

    Cucumber leaves have been sprayed with a solution of hydrogen peroxide (H202) or Pharmaplant-turbo combined with organic or inorganic fertilizers under plasic house. Under the influence of H202, leaves exhibited resistant against Podoshaera fusca fungus, the causal agent of cucumber powdery mildew. H202 (15 mM) was able to decrease the disease severity from 90.4% to 12% in two experiments conducted in two seasons. Pharmaplant-turbo (Turbo) is new chemical compound and used as an antifungal compound. Turbo in 1 ml/L was able to decrease the disease severity from 90.4% to 11.5% in the both experiments as well. Both of H202 and Turbo were combined with organic treatment (compost + compost tea + seaweed extracts) which showed significant effect against cucumber powdery mildew fungus and strongly suppressed it as compared to control leaves. Organic treatment produced higher vegetative growth characters and greater early and total yields as compared to inorganic treatment, also organic fruits produced the lower nitrate content and the higher ascorbic acid content as compared to inorganic fruits. Our study have indicated that, H202 and Turbo combined with organic fertilizers play a role in the resistance of cucumber against powdery mildew by decreasing the disease severity. We suggest to give more attention to the direct application of H202 in low concentration and Turbo against powdery mildew diseases and other plant diseases.

  • Fruit drop: II. Biological background of flower and fruit drop
    103-108.
    Views:
    294

    The most important components of fruit drop are: the rootstock, the combination of polliniser varieties, the conditions depending of nutrition, the extent and timing of the administration of fertilisers, the moments of water stress and the timing of agrotechnical interventions. Further adversities may appear as flushes of heat and drought, the rainy spring weather during the blooming period as well as the excessive hot, cool or windy weather impairing pollination, moreover, the appearance of diseases and pests all influence the fate of flowers of growing and become ripe fruits. As generally maintained, dry springs are causing severe fruit drop.

    In analysing the endogenous and environmental causes of drop of the generative organs (flowers and fruits), the model of leaf abscission has been used, as a study of the excised, well defined abscission zone (AZ) seemed to be an adequate approach to the question. Comparing the effects active in the abscission of fruit with those of the excised leaf stem differences are observed as well as analogies between the anatomy and the accumulation of ethylene in the respective abscission tissues.

  • Evaluation of the competitiveness of fresh tomato
    Views:
    158

    The existence of international trade and related trade theory are closely related to competitiveness. The following study focuses on the competitiveness of Hungary, which studies the development of comparative advantage in terms of tomato for fresh consumption among horticultural products. As a consequence, the main objective is whether Hungary has comparative advantage over EU-28 countries in case of fresh market tomato. Data in the study were provided by FAOSTAT database. The study period focuses on results from 2004 to 2019, breaking them down into 5-year (average) cycles. The method chosen was the RCA index group, the most widely recognized and applied index group for calculating comparative advantage. Although Hungary is not a significant vegetable-producing country in Europe, the fruit and vegetable sector accounts for 10-13% of the production value of agriculture. Regarding the results, it can be stated that Hungary does not have comparative advantage in case of tomato products. With respect to values of the tomato sector, the RCA index is in the range of 0<RCA≤1, therefore we have no comparative advantage. Spain and the Netherlands have stable competitive advantage. These countries show weak comparative advantage in each period studied, as the indicator values exceed 1 but do not reach 2.

  • Performance of sweet cherry cultivars grafted on Colt rootstock
    7-10.
    Views:
    608

    In this paper growing characteristics and fruit bearing parameters of ‘Lapins’, ‘Kordia’, ‘Sweetheart’ and ‘Regina’ sweet cherry cultivars grafted on vigorous Colt rootstock were evaluated at the University of Debrecen, Pallag Experimental Station. Based on our data five years old trees can be described with homogenous strong growing, but very week yielding (2.1-3.1 kg/tree), as while fruit size varies between 26.2 and 27.2 mm. Producing the examined cultivars on Colt rootstock with high plant density requires higher attention and more interventions (root pruning, sawing the trunk) during the technology.

  • RAPD analysis of grapevine hybrids and cultivars
    63-66.
    Views:
    140

    Utilization of the Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique as a molecular marker was tested to investigate the relationships between some representative grapevine cultivars and hybrids established at the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding (CUB), to distinguish clones as well as to characterize various hybrids between species or cultivars and their parents. Vitis vinifera cultivars were easily and successfully distinguished by the RAPD technique and they were grouped according to the traditional taxonomic classification. RAPD patterns of the examined Pinot gris clones proved to be completely identical. Number of generations was reflected by the value of genetic distance of the examined hybrids. Genetic identity of parents and their offsprings was influenced by the selection applied in the process of plant breeding. Parental phenotypic and morphologic characteristics showed high degree of segregation in hybrids, but RAPD analysis revealed that their genetic similarity is considerable. The three Vitis anntrensis clones were properly discriminated from every cultivar and hybrid of Vitis vinifera, i.e. hybrids are much closer to the cultivated grapevine than to V. anzurensis due to the phenotypic selection carried out during the life-cycle of one or two generations.

  • Maceration affects mineral composition and pH of wines
    25-29.
    Views:
    241

    Mineral composition of wines is affected by many ecological and technological factors. These variables are mostly discussed focusing on certification of origin and human health. This paper gives data on possible changes in mineral composition and pH of wines due to 4 hours skin maceration (1st trial) and fermentation sur marc (2nd trial). Experimental site is situated on acidic sandy soil in middle east Hungary. The variety collection was established in 2003 with own rooted planting material in 3x1 m spacing, trained for single curtain training
    system. Mineral composition of wines was determined with ThermoFischer Scientific iCAP 6300 ICP-OES, pH was measured with pH10pen (VWR International) in field, and with SevenEasyTM pH meter (Mettler Toledo) in laboratory. 1st trial with 9 PIWI white wine grape varieties pointed to demonstrate effects of skin maceration, which is abundantly used to elevate aroma content. 2nd trial with the use of ‘Medina’ red PIWI grape variety aimed to demonstrate effects of double pasta skin maceration in rose and red wine technology. Data of 1st trial show, that K, Cu, Mn and P respective increase with skin maceration, despite Fe show considerable decrease. Data of 2nd trial show, that K, Mg, Mn, P, Sr and B increase with longer skin contact and higher fermentation temperature, despite Fe and Ba decrease with this technology. In regard to pH, data show, that skin maceration and fermentation sur marc increase K content with about 30-70% respectively, withstanding that pH also increase with a considerable 0,4-0,5 value. K content can be higher in the end product, despite to earlier higher level of tartrate formation. An attention should be driven to lower level of tartaric acid and consequently higher pH characteristic for wines produced with the application of skin maceration or fermentation sur marc.

  • Improvement of the grapevine variety ‘Kadarka’ by the selection of new clones
    57-63.
    Views:
    164

    Red wine culture in Hungary was developed due to the grapevine variety ‘Kadarka’, originated from the Balkans, from the 16th and 17th centuries. ‘Kadarka’ was the first grapevine variety cultivated on the largest area in Hungary until the 1950’s, but its production area has been reduced significantly in the past decades. In the period of Hungarian grapevine reconstruction (from the 1960’s), the selection of the grapevine varieties and clones was determined by the system of cultivation (large growing space, large load and mechanized technology) that was based on the aspects of quantity. It did not promote the majority of the autochton and regional grapevine varieties to remain competitive. ‘Kadarka’ is a grapevine variety having an extraordinary variability in forms; however, a considerable part of its old stocks has disappeared. Nowadays, only two of its high yield clones are cultivated. ‘Kadarka’ becomes more differentiated from other, red wine producing, grapevine varieties, more preferred and newly requested by the fine aroma, spice, unique harmony of its wine less rich in tannin. The new market and environmental challenges in the field of wine production necessitate the preservation and improvement of the biological basis. In 2001 the Institute of Viticulture and Enology Pécs analyzed an old stock having a variability in forms in order to preserve the development and variability of the biological basis of ‘Kadarka’. Clones of great biological value were selected from it, with which the quality and yield security of ‘Kadarka’ can be increased. In 2010 and in 2012, six clones were submitted for state approval.

  • The effect of cluster thinning, cluster tipping, cluster shredding and defoliation at the flowering on the vegetative and generative vine performance from Kékfrankos Cv.
    63-68.
    Views:
    202

    The cluster thinning is a method of the yield regulation.With the removal one part of the clusters, the yield pro leaf area will be lower, hereby the grape and wine quality will be improved. The regulation of the yield can lead to further advantages: the ratio of the vegetative and generative performance of the vines will improve, the condition of the plants will better, the number of the physiological diseases can be reduced and the growth of the shoots and roots can be promoted. The grape growers make the cluster thinning almost exclusive by creating one cluster shoots. Usually the upper clusters are removed, because the sugar content of these second or third clusters will be lower. The cluster thinning is an easy task, can be done without special skills. It is an effective method improving wine quality, but its use can lead to other problems. The grapes try to compensate the removed clusters. Therefore the clusters will be bigger and thicker, but more sensitive to bunch rot. Moreover the treatment is expensive, because it needs manual work. It is worth to get acquainted and try the new yield regulation methods, which can help to avoid the occurring problems. Our aim is to show the results of our experiment, which was carried out in Eger, examining the red grape cultivar Kékfrankos. During our 4 years long experiment we compared the effects of cluster thinning, cluster shredding, cluster tipping and defoliation at the flowering, on the vegetative and generative vine performance.

  • Flower bud differentiation in apricot
    19-21.
    Views:
    197

    The flower bud development is an especially complex process from initiation to blooming. Our main objective was to analyze paradormancy; the first stage of this process in our collection of varieties in the vicinity of Budapest, in Hungary. We have analyzed three varieties with different winter hardiness. `Ceglédi bíborkajszi' is one of the most frost susceptible in our collection of varieties, when the flower bud differentiation started in early August, and all flower organ initials evolved in beginning of September. The flower bud differentiation of the most winter hardy variety, `Rózsakajszi C.1406' started in the end of August, and all flower organs were noticed at middle of September. `Gönci magyar kajszi' is a medium frost hardiness apricot variety, its phenological process composes transition between two mentioned above varieties.

  • Content of mineral- and sulphur compounds in Hungarian and French garlic varieties
    61-65.
    Views:
    213

    In our days about 2 million tons of garlic are grown in the world. Garlic was used as medicine already in ancient Egypt. It contains approx 33 sulfur compounds, several enzymes, 17 amino acids and minerals. We determined the content of diallyl sulfone, boron, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, natrium, phosphorus and zinc in fi ve garlic varieties (3 French, 2 Hungarian). We searched if there were signiffi cant differences between the varieties.

  • Stress physiology of palm trees II. The effect of heavy metals and high irradiance on the photosynthesis of palm Trachycarpus fortunei
    84-88.
    Views:
    152

    A study was carried out to analyse the individual and combined effects of heavy metal toxicity and high irradiance on the photosynthetic characteristics of young, fully expanded leaves of palm seedling Trachycarpus fortunei under laboratory conditions. Heavy metals were found to inhibit both the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis and the inhibition was more affected in the light than in the dark. Single photoinhibitory conditions caused a 60 % decrease in the electron transport activity after 120 min of light exposure which was completely reversible in the dark. In contrast, the combined effect of high light and heavy metal treatment resulted in a 90 % decrease in the activity, but no reversible recovery in the dark could be detected. This indicated that the simultaneous effect of these two stress factors led to irreversible damages of the photosynthetic machinery and as a consequence caused the general destruction of the plant.

    Abbreviations and symbols: Fo: initial chlorophyll fluorescence; Fm: maximum total fluorescence; Fv: variable fluorescence; AFi: intermediate level of fluorescence induction; PSII: photosystem 2.

     

  • Development of microsatellite markers for Rhodiola rosea
    37-42.
    Views:
    201

    Rhodiola rosea L. is an important adaptogen medicinal plant. In this study two new microsatellite markers were developed. The assessment of the genetic diversity of R. rosea has recently started with molecular markers, but only a few species-specific microsatellite markers have been published so far. However the small number of markers allows only a limited insight into the genetic variability of the species therefore the aim of our work was to develop new microsatellite markers for R. rosea with a microsatellite enrichment library technique. Genomic DNA was cleaved with an endonuclease enzyme followed by adaptor ligation and PCR amplification. DNA fragments that contained microsatellites were first isolated using a biotin-streptavidin linkage based magnetic selection and then cloned into plasmids. Out of forty-three sequenced clones three contained  microsatellites, in these cases primers were designed for the amplification of the microsatellite repeats. The newly developed primer pairs were tested on individuals from distant R. rosea populations and the variability of the amplified fragments was estimated by fragment-length analysis. The locus RhpB14a was found to be monomorphic while RhpB14b and RhpB13 were polymorphic. As a result of the present study, two novel variable microsatellite loci were identified in the genome of R. rosea.

  • Effect of frost damage on leaf macronutrient status of eight apple cultivars in integrated apple orchard in Eastern-Hungary
    37-40.
    Views:
    204

    The year of 2007 was critical for fruit growers in the region of Easter-Hungary. Several orchards were suffered frost damages. Significant frost damage was also happened in the orchard of Tedej Rt., which caused total fruit failure in the orchard. Our study was conducted in the integrated apple orchard (Malus domestics Borkh.) established on a lowland chemozem soil in East-Hungary, to investigate how frost changes the mineral content of different apple species. Leaf samples were collected 100 days after full bloom both in 2006 and 2007. The concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium and magnesium were measured in leaves. The absence of fruits caused a smaller accumulation of nitrogen and magnesium in leaves. Falling down of flowers and fruit sets hindered the translocation of the uptaken phosphorous, potassium and calcium towards fruit sets. Due to fruit failure the vegetative processes became dominant. Leaves larger amount of phosphorous, potassium and calcium stored. Besides the absolute element content, the ratio of the different elements was also determined. Majority of calculated ratios were removed from optimal values due to frost. Both absolute content of nutrients and their ratios pointed out that the frost damage significantly affected the uptake of nutrients and their storing processes.