During in vitro multiplication of Nidularium ‘Kertész Jubileum’, 20 g/l sucrose, 5 g/l agar, 100 mg/l inositol, and different concentrations of benzyladenine (BA), benzyladenine-riboside (BAR), kinetin (KIN), meta-topolin (mT) were added to the MKC (Knudson, 1946) basal medium. Furthermore, 0.1 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid was used to every... medium. Number of shoots, length of leaves, number and length of roots, chlorophyll (a+b) content were examined and evaluated with Ropstat statistical software. As compared to the other cytokinin, significantly most shoots were obtained in the case of applying BA. Increasing of BA-concentration (as far as 2 mg/l) enhanced shoot number (from 10.92 to 19.26) but 4 mg/l BA resulted only 6.63 shoot. The less efficient cytokinin was KIN, in most cases no more than about 2 shoot was achieved. Regarding the length of leaves, the higher level of BA effected averagely the shorter leaves (from 24,46 to 7.31 mm). KIN effected significantly the longest leaves (43.4-61.29) in inverse proportion to the concentration. The same cytokinin resulted the most (and the longest) roots with the highest rooting percentages, but more KIN decreased the number and length of roots (from 7.95 to 4.4 and from 38.49 to 22.73 mm). There were no definite correlation between cytokinin concentration and chlorophyll (a+b) content, but the highest doses resulted decreasing (except of meta-topolin which leads to the lowest values). Summarizing, BAR effected the highest contents (mostly more than 1400 μg/g), particularly in the case of 1 mg/l (1807.3 μg/g).
After different pre-culturing period (12, 23 or 34 days) on ½ MS medium with 1 mg l-1 paclobutrazol, 1 mg l-1 N6-benzyladenine and 0.1 mg l-1 1- naphthaleneacetic acid , 3 groups of Narcissus poeticus ssp. radiiflorus bulb scales were kept on the same medium without hormones. The results were evaluated monthly and the final one happened after...7 month. The best results were achieved due to the shortest pre-culturing period (12 days; Group 1), with 4.9 bulblets and 4.54% hyperhydricity. The result of the second treatment (pre-culturing period of 23 days; Group 2) was not different significantly but the number of bigger bulblet were higher (4.54 bulblets). After the longest pre-culturing period (34 days; Group 3), the number of bulblets was low (3.68) and more hyperhydricity (18.18%) was detected. The highest number of roots (13.91) was observed in this group
very likely due to the strong after-effect of paclobutrazol.
Mosses are traditionally used as ornamental plants, especially in Japan, USA, England (moss gardens) and Germany, French (green roofs). In shadow areas (where the members of Poaceae usually cannot grow well), mosses are potentially use as “grass”. The stocks of moss colonies maintain optimal microclimate and decrease desiccation of soils (l...ike mulch). Additionally, mosses are evergreen, attractive all year, during winter. In our study, 18 moss species were propagated by fragments (as mixture, with the use of 16 species) and transplantation of carpets (with Brachythecium rivulare and Calliergonella cuspidata) in Szentendre. The aim was to find the most durable species and the best way of propagation. In an outdoor, irrigated garden, propagation by fragments was effective (with 63% coveration) and higher values (93% and 76%) were obtained in the cases of non-irrigated stocks of Amblystegium serpens (in trays) and moss carpets. In vertical structures (moss picture-frames with the use of mixtures), protonema of 2 species (Hypnum cupressiforme and Eurhynchium hyans) covered 24 and 33% of the 0.5 x 0.5 m sized area.
Leucojum aestivum is a native, protected ornamental and medicinal plant in Hungary and in Ukraine too. The aim of our work was to establish in vitro cultures of this bulbous plant. Prior to surface sterilisation the old leaves and roots were dissected from the bulbs and they were stored in a refrigerator (2-3°C) for different periods...(1 week for the first starting experiment and 5 weeks for the second one). After sterilisation, bulbs, bulb scales and leaves of the bulbs were placed on Murashige and Skoog's (1962) medium with 1 mg/1 benzyl-adenine (BA) and 0,1 mg/1 naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). At the first starting experiment 81,3%, and at the second one 92,3% of the explants turned to be sterile. Bulblets and roots were developed on the explants in the case of using bulb plates together with bulb scales and leaves as inoculua. The best result was achieved after 5 weeks chilling and it was possible to gain little bulbs from the bulb leaves too.
The Hungarian cultivar Sorbus redliana 'Burokvölgy' was proliferated on Murashige and Skoog (MS, 1962) medium with half-strength macroelements and 100 mg/1 meso-inositol, 20 g/1 sucrose, 11 g/1 agar-agar. Different combinations of kinetin (KIN), metatopolin (mT), benzyladenine (BA), benzyladenine-ribosid (BAR) and indolebutiric acid (IBA) were... tested, and pH was adjusted to 5.6 every case using KOH. The cultures were incubated at 20-24 °C in 8/16 hours dark/light photoperiod for 50-52 days. The main aim of our research was to find the optimal growth regulator and its optimum concentration. Purthermore, to determine the chlorophyll contents of the in vitro propagated plants' leaves. During the proliferation, the highest number of shoots were observed in the case of using BA + IBA, and on the medium containing 0.75 mg/I BA + 0.05 mg/1 IBA 8.93 shoots were found. The addition of KIN + IBA decreased the number of shoots and increased the sizes of leaves — the widest (11.2 mm) and longest (17.8 mm) leaves were obtained on the medium containing 1.00 mg/I KIN + 0.05 mg/1 IBA. The longest shoots (36.46 mm) were found in the case of applying 0.75 mg/1 BAR + 0.05 mg/I IBA. The BA + KIN + IBA combination resulted the shortest shoots. Sometimes not only shoot regeneration but spontaneous rooting was observed during the multiplication. The highest chlorophyll content (1.569 mg/g total chlorophyll, 1.132 mg/g chlorophyll-a, 0.437 mg/g chlorophyll-b) was obtained in the presence of 1.0 mg/I KIN + 0.05 mg/1 IBA.
Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn. 'Echo' Fl cultivars ('Echo White', 'Echo Rose', 'Echo Blue', 'Echo Blue Picotee') were used and multiplication of shoots was evaluated on Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium with 11 g/1 agar-agar and 20 g/1 sucrose. To test the effect of BA different concentrations were added: 0.10, 0.25 mg/1 and...a culture medium without BA. Differentiation of roots was examined on Jámbor-Benczúr and Marta (1990) basal medium with the same concentration of agar-agar and sucrose. To examine the effect on rooting, various concentrations of NAA were used: 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 mg/l. The pH was adjusted to 5.6 in every case using KOH. We studied the after-effect of different concentrations of BA during the acclimatisation. During the multiplication, the cultivar 'Echo White' formed the most shoots and the smallest leaves on the medium with 0.10 mg/1 BA. Fortunately, in the case of this cultivar, the number of shoots was reduced and the length of leaves was increased succesfully on the medium without BA. The other three cultivars developed the longest leaves on the medium containing 0.10 mg/1 BA. Sometimes not only shoot regeneration but spontaneous rooting was observed during the multiplication. Examining the rooting, the highest percent of roots was found on the medium with 1.0 mg/1 NAA, and the cultivar 'Echo Rose' formed the most roots on this medium. Higher concentration (2.0 and 3.0 mg/1) of NAA already reduced the number of roots in all of the cultivars. During the acclimatisation, the percentage of survival was 76.3% and the tallest plants with the longest leaves were found on the multiplication medium with 0.25 mg/1 BA. 'Echo Blue Picotee' gave the best results with the tallest pieces and longest leaves on this medium.
During in vitro multiplication and rooting of Vriesea splendens ’Fire’, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg l-1 benzyladenine (BAP), benzyladenine-riboside (BAPR), kinetin (KIN), meta-topoline (MT), indole-butyric acid (IBA) and naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA) were added to basal Murashige and Skoog (1962) MS medium. As comp...ared to the hormone-free control, plants developed significantly more shoots on medium supplemented with almost all cytokinins (excepting KIN), especially BAP resulted the highest multiplication up to almost 26 shoots. Enhancement of cytokinin concentrations increased shoot number (and in case of BAP, peroxidase activity) but decreased plant height and rooting parameters. Regarding root production, both auxins were definitely beneficial (0.2 mg l-1 NAA resulted more than 7.5 roots and higher auxin concentrations efficiently stimulate root elongation); however, KIN had similar effects. After a three-month duration time of acclimatization, we observed that plants which were previously cultured on medium containing certain cytokinins (KIN in all doses and 0.1 mg l-1 MT) or both auxins had greater survival, moreover, as negative after-effect, higher cytokinin concentrations reduced the number of survived specimens.
During in vitro multiplication of Hosta ‘Gold Drop’, 20 g l-1 sucrose, 5.5 g l-1 agar and 4 concentrations (0.1-0.8 ml l-1) of Ferbanat L, Kelpak, Pentakeep-V were added to half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium. As compared to the control and other biostimulators, plants with lower per...oxidase activity, larger fresh weight, more, longer shoots and roots, larger leaves were developed on medium containing Kelpak. The best concentration was 0.4 ml l-1 for in vitro rooting, shoot formation, plant weight and ex vitro chlorophyll, carotenoid level, peroxidase activity. Pentakeep was the less efficient biostimulator, increasing of its concentration mostly decreased root and shoot values (furthermore, abnormal callus formation was observed, as non-wanted effect), chlorophyll content and sizes (length, width) of leaves, not only during in vitro propagation but also (as after-effect) acclimatization because of the high mortality and weakly developed survivor plants.