Wheat production is significant branch of Hungarian crop production (with about 1 million hectares of sowing area). Weather anomalies resulted by climate change have increased the importance of biological basis in wheat production. Yield quality and quantity parameters of three wheat genotypes sown on chernozem soil type after maize pre-crop were studied in a long-term field experiment. Yield amount of the studied genotypes varied between 2894 and 8074 kg ha-1 in 2017 and between 5795 and 9547 kg ha-1 in 2018 depending on the applied treatments. Based on our results it can be stated that in both studied crop years the highest yield increment was realized by the application of the nutrient supply level of N30+PK. As the result of the application of the optimum mineral fertilizer level – in contrast to the control – resulted in significant yield increment in both crop years. The results of the long-term field experiment prove that water utilization of the studied wheat varieties / hybrids was improved by the application of the optimal nutrient supply. Furthermore, the water utilization of the latest genotypes was more favorable by both the control and the optimum nutrient supply level treatments. Analyzing the quality parameters of winter wheat using the NIR method it has been stated that the quality results of the well-known genotype (GK Öthalom) were better than those of the new genotypes. A negative correlation between winter wheat quality and quantity parameters has also been confirmed. As the result of the mineral fertilizer application protein and gluten content of winter wheat increased to a significant extent.
We examined the change of the time of water balance of soil in 25 years old experiment, on chernozem soil, in different croprotation systems (mono-, bi- and triculture) in two extreme cropyear in 2007 and 2009 in maizestock.
According to our findings the values of waterdeficit of soil of maizestock were about 100 mm before the sowing time that grew because of considerable deficit of precipitation and high average temperature in months of summer. Values of waterdeficit achieved at the end of August the maximum and lessed a little bit to end of crop time. Decrease of waterstock stopped because of irrigation treatments in irrigated plots but the difference between two irrigation treatments (Ö1-Ö3) vanishedat the end of summer, waterdeficit were higher with 17 mm in monoculture in irrigated plot than value of not-irrigated plot. Considerabler precipitation in Jun effected on waterbalance of soils of three of crop-rotation systems favourable, rapid waterloss starting to april began to lessenat the end of May and started to increase from early in July. Precipitation in Jun had positiv effect on yield also.
The authors examined the nutrition value of the meat of shot wild boars (wild pigs) (n=66) from three wild boar enclosures with different feeding intensity and also the technological properties of the meat. Samples were taken immediately after the evisceration. Considering the storing and processing properties of game meat the samples were taken from m. serratus anterior. As for dry matter examination results, the highest values were measured in case of semi-intensively fed wild boars, then followed the data from the samples of intensively and extensively fed wild boars. The fat content from the meat samples of intensively and extensively fed wild boars proved to be lower while in case of the semi-ntensively fed wild boars it was higher. In females the dry matter content, while in males the fat content was higher. As for the protein content there were no differences in either the feeding groups or in the genders. It was only the water holding capacity of the samples from the meat of the females from semi-intensive feeding intensity wild boar enclosure that fell in between normal values.
This study aimed to study the role of 2 mM salicylic acid and 0.2 mM methyl Jasmonic acid in reducing the chilling injuries on two different apricot varieties fruits (Bergarauge and Flavor cot). These treatments were applied for apricot fruit directly after harvest after measuring the zero time data. Then the fruit were stored at 1 oC for three weeks and were examined 7 day periodically, other group of fruit was stored at 1 oC for 15 days then transport to room temperature and examined after 4 and 8 days. The fruit samples were collected at each examination time, and the measurements containing the fruit firmness (Kg cm-2), chilling and decay index, membrane electrolyte leakage, total phenol content and phenylalanine ammonia lyase mechanism (PAL) activity. The results showed that there are no obvious differences between the tested varieties and the differences may back to genetic variations and they took the same trend for most of measurement after treated with SA and MJ. SA and/or MJ treated fruit achieved low percentage of fruit softening in comparison to water treated fruit. At the same time the chilling and decay index showed that the SA and/or MJ reduced the decay or breakdown symptoms in either tested varieties. The treated fruit with those elicitor help the fruit to keep about stable phenol content while water treated fruit lose the phenol content sharply at early storage and this stable level of phenol my because of the ability of those chemical to raise PAL activity in treated fruit.
In arid areas, such as Hungary, most climate models forecast a rise in water scarcity. Irrigated land accounts for 2% of agricultural land in Hungary, with most irrigation technology being relatively outdated. The aim of this research was to lay the foundation for a combined traffic management system for a water-saving precision irrigation system on an 85-ha field in the Tisza River basin's reference region. High-precision soil maps were created to support the water-efficient variable-rate irrigation system by selecting and selecting areas for different agrotechnical implementations and precision farming zones.
The 15-20% of the by-products of meat – and poultry industry – that unsuitable for human consumption – contains keratin. The slaughter technology of poultry produces large amount of poultry feather with 50-70% moisture content. This means more million tons annually worldwide (Williams et al., 1991; Hegedűs et al., 1998). The keratin content of feather can be difficulty digested, so physical, chemical and/or biological pretreatment is needed in practice, which has to be set according to the utilization method.
Our applied treatments were based on biogas production, which is a possible utilization method. In the IFA (TULLN) Environmental Biotechnology Institute the feather was homogenized, and – according to the previous examinations – the most effective 1:2 feather-distilled water ratio or 1% NaOH-solution was used, and then treated with microwave (70, 130, 160 °C) during 1 hour time period. DM% and oDM% content was analyzed in the original samples, and the pH, Carbon-, Nitrogen-content in the output, too. Based on the received correlation coefficients (R) and related significance values (Sig.) I concluded, that the C-, N-content and the pH values weren’t influenced by any of the additives. The temperature
affected all three tested factors. The temperature showed a strong coherency with the N-content and the pH value when distilled water was used and weak-medium coherency with the Carboncontent. With NaOH-solution treatment the temperature gave strong coherency with the C- and N-content, as well as medium coherency with the pH. Our objective was to determine the method with effectively the pre-treating of poultry feather for biogas production or composting and to prepare of the treated samples for N and C analyzing. Our next aims will be the elaboration of the technological parameters of heat pre-treatment and microbial digestion of poultry feather for biogas production.
Nitrogen plays significant role in the life of plants, it could be the main limiting factor of plant growth. Sustainable plant nutrition pays attention to satisfy the plants’ nutrient demand without chemical fertilizers, e.g. by bounding the atmospheric nitrogen. The nitrogen fixing organizations play important role in supplying plants with nitrogenbecause the N2-fixingbacteria can fix high amounts of nitrogen.
Many effects of the sewage sludge compost extracts is known in the literature. We studied the effect of sewage sludge compost water extract in laboratory conditions on the growth of Rhizobium spp. isolated from green pea, while in a small plot experiment thepea-Rhizobium symbiosis were studied on sandy soil in the Nyírség region. The extract was produced under aerobic conditions. The compost extract was applied before and/or after sowing. In the laboratory experiments we used the sterile version of extract, in different doses.
In our work we present the effect of compost water extract on the number of green pea roots nodules, dry weight of the plant and reproduction of the Rhizobium bacteria.
The author summarizes the main new challenges facing animal agriculture: growing GDP in many countries increasing animal protein demand, bioenergy industry as a new player using potential food or feedstuffs, increasing demand, Growing water and land scarcity, weaking the position of plant agriculture, feed production. Forecasts are summarized regarding the magnitude of meat consumption increases, and the possible plant biomass quantities required additionally in the next 20 years to cover the needs of food, feed and biofuel on a global scale.
Efficiencies of various animal production sectors, poultry, pork, beef, mutton meat, milk and eggs and their environmental footprints are compared, summarizing the most important research results concerning UK, USA, OECD evaluations. Intensive systems using highly productive plant and animal population will play an even more important role in the future especially in poultry, pig, milk and aquaculture production system being efficient users of resources (feed, water, land) and the environmental foot print is smaller per unit product.
In practice of world agriculture a long ago the known problem of decline of harvests of agricultural cultures at their permanent growing, scientific explanation of this phenomenon became possible only with appearance of natural sciences. At first the declines of harvests bound to the toxic action of root excretions cultures on her repeated sowing, with development of humus theory of feed of plants of diminishing of harvests at the permanent sowing began to explain impoverishment of soil on a humus.
During a few centuries the known farmers development the looks in relation to forming of scientific bases of construction of replacement of plants crop rotations in the world systems of agriculture, set history of their development and improvement. The analysis of influence of possibility of optimal satiation of replacement of plants crop rotations is conducted by agricultural cultures on the level of fertility of soil, water and nourishing modes and their productivity. For the terms of the insufficient moistening a positive action is marked black pair on the improvement of the water mode of soil in crop rotations.
In historiography the problem of introduction and mastering of replacement of plants crop rotations for the decision of scientific and practical tasks of agricultural production is represented in many-sided aspects, worked out and the recommended replacement of plants crop rotations that are base on zonal principle of development of world agriculture that passed the protracted term of test and counted on various specialization of economies. But for today development of scientific and technical progress requires intensification of agricultural production with the use of intensive crop rotations and growing of high-performance cultures.
Hereupon there was a necessity of realization of analysis of the systems of historical value of scientifically-practical knowledge about development and improvement of replacement of plants crop rotations, as it gives an opportunity to work out to recommending a production with the use of the most effective elements of the past on modern agrarian business and allows to forecast them on the future.
The DIRECTIVE 2000/60/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL orders the measurement of the state of natural and artifical waters. We therefore applied environmental qualification methods, which allow inductions of the searched area in environmental management, conservation and water quality protection points of view. These methods are accepted in interdisciplinary sciences, and are in use in Hungarian and international practice. We applied the range data measured along the Berettyó River, and ratified by the remote sensing, to count hydrological-hydraulical attributes of the stream, by the framework of the Hec-Ras programme. We processed the physical, chemical and biochemical water qualifications, determined the MMCP-index (the point-system of the Hungarian macrozoobenthos taxons), and estimated the Spencer index-numbers, which were based on complex environmental qualification and bioindication. Appointed, that the different results of researches are not inconsistent. This results together the spatial analysis reveal the natural and anthroponetic specialities of the river and the landscape, which determine the environmental flavours and biodiversity. The bioindicators represent better environmental status, than the physical, chemical and biochemical parameters. The natural conservationist importance of drainage canal network of Bihari-Plain is appreciated by these facts.
Highly specific and sensitive, the proposed fluorometric method for determining α-tocopherol is robust and fairly fast. It
has been tested in parallel with a conventional thin layer chromatographic method on foods and feeds. The only necessary
cleanup is the usual saponification. The unsaponificable fraction can be extracted with ethyl ether or, preferably, with
Extrelut columns. Reagents and their solvents are added to the isooctane solution before each successive reaction and are
then eliminated by partition with water. The α-tocopherol (α-T) derivative always remains in isooctane. The first step is
nitrosation and elimination of tocopherols and tocotrienols other than α-isomers. α-T is then oxidized to α-tocored (α-TR)
with a mixture of sulfuric acid, ferric chloride, and iodine bromide. Α-TR is then condensed to a new reagent: 4,5-dimethylo-
phenylenediamine. The phenazine formed is strongly fluorescent. Iodine and bromine add to the double bonds of α-
tocotrienol present and quench the fluorescence of its phenazine.
Subcarpathia is one of the richest regions in surface waters in the Ukraine. Due to its geographical, relief and climatic conditions, it belongs to the active precipitation zone, where great floods frequently occur. As a result of many years of observation, it can be concluded that the interactions of many natural factors can lead to various floods in the catchment area of the river Tisza. These are mostly hydro-meteorological factors, which can lead to great floods with the characteristics of the formed flow. Human activity also significantly influences the occurance of floods: clearing, which can accelerate the process of the runoff, ploughing in the catchment area, which can lead to erosion and the utilisation of areas endangered by floods for various economic sectors.
A series of questions arose in recent years regarding the formation of floods: what could be the causes of floods and what actions need to be made to prevent them. The evaluation of floods made us conclude that passive protection by using dams does not always ensure protection against floods as these were constructed in different times for different water levels. Many factors can affect the whole process which cannot be foreseen, therefore the development of new solutions and new technologies is necessary in flood protection.
In this present study, we prepared selenium-enriched pea and wheat sprouts. During our research we aimed not only to measure the total selenium content of the sprouts but to identify different selenium species.
Scientifical researches show why the analytical examination of different selenium (Se) species is necessary: consumption of all kind of Se-species is useful for a person who suffers in selenium deficit, while there is significant difference between effects of different Se-species on person, in whose body the Se-level is just satisfactory. Biological availability, capitalization, accumulation, toxicity of Se-species are different, but the main difference was manifested in the anti-cancer effect of selenium.
During our research selenium was used in form of sodium selenite and sodium selenate, the concentration of the solutions used for germination was 10 mg dm-3. Control treatment meant germination in distilled water. Total selenium content of sprout samples was measured after microwave digestion by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Different extraction solvents were applied during sample preparation in order to separate different Se-species (0.1 M and 0.2 M HCl or 10 mM citric acid buffer). We wanted the following question to be answered: Which extraction solvent resulted the best extraction efficiency? Selenium speciation analysis of sprout sample extracts was performed by high performance liquid chromatography with anion exchange column, detection of selenium species was performed by ICP-MS.
Evaluating our experimental results we have been found that significant amount of selenium of inorganic forms used during germination transformed into organic selenium compounds. There was difference between the amount of Se-species in pea and wheat sprouts and selenium uptake and repartition of selenium species were depended on Se-form used during germination. In addition the chromatogram analysis made us clear as well, that the citric acid solvent proved to be the most effective extraction solvent during sample preparation int he view of organic Se species.
Literature experience was utilised to develop a method for the extensograph analog testing of paste with a QTS25 Texture Analyser. 54 wheat flour samples from the same variety from variety-preservation experiments at the Szeged were tested with this method. A study was made to establish whether the method is suitable for the estimation of results derived by traditional classification (trial baking, farinograph and gluten tests).
A close and significant correlation was found between the hardness and area data measured with a QTS25 micro-extensograph, the farinograph values and the gluten spreading data, and also between the stretching index (BC/AC) and the water uptake capacity. These correlations correspond well with the findings from a previous experimental series on industrial flour samples. A close and significant correlation was likewise observed between the grain hardness established by the MININFRA method and all the QTS25 micro-extensograph data. In contrast with earlier QTS25 data, however a close correlation was not found between the QTS25 data and the loaf characteristics.
With the use of micro-extensograph data, the estimation of the baking industry value has been improved through stepwise variable selection, with the inclusion of several variables. The estimation of loaf volume could also be solved by means of stepwise variable selection with the inclusion of QTS25 and MININFRA data.
Variety selection is one of the most important, determinative elements of sustainable winter wheat production. Yield potential, and yield stability are the most important elements in the variety selection of winter wheat, but baking quality parameters play an important role, too.
Several winter wheat varieties were tested for yield and yield stability on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság (in the eastern part of Hungary), in the 2001-2002-2003-2004 cropyears. The management factors were the same for all cropyears. 15 varieties in early the maturity group, 14 varieties in the middle maturity group and 4 varieties in the late maturity group were tested in the above mentioned cropyears. The climatic conditions were average in 2001, dry in 2002, extremely dry in 2003, and very favourable in 2004.
We obtained 5298-6183 kgha-1 yield from early maturity varieties, 5683-6495 kgha-1 from middle, 5694-6031 kgha-1 from late ones in the average of four years. The cropyears had strong influence on the yields, even on chernozem soil, and were characterized by excellent water – and nutrient – husbandry. Averaging of cropyears and genotypes, we obtained 6984 kgha-1 in 2001 (average cropyear), 5452 kgha-1 in 2002 (dry cropyear), 3120 kgha-1 in 2003 (extremely dry cropyear) and 8400 kgha-1 in 2004 (optimum cropyear), respectively. The yield differences between the minimum and maximum yields were 885 kgha-1 in early varieties, 812 kgha-1 in middle and 337 kgha-1 in late maturity varieties, respectively. The varieties characterized by high yield potential and the varieties characterized by good yield stability were different, so in variety selection we have to take both genetic traits into consideration. There were positive, significant correlations among the yields of winter wheat varieties (early, middle, late), the temperature of spring months. (March-April), and the rainfall of spring months (March-April) (R2=0,703**-0,768** and R2=0,681**-0,749**, respectively). We found a high negative correlation between the temperature of early summer months (May-June) and the yields of wheat varieties (R2= -0,856**- -0,918**).
According to the results of our experiment, it is very important to harmonize yield potential and yield stability in the variety selection of winter wheat.
Our botanical survey at the great pasture of Hajdúbagos is a part of a broad research that aims to predict the production of the grass at the given area. As the mentioned pasture is a nature conservation area, the usage of artificial fertilizers or other classic grassland management methods in its handling are prohibited. Thus grazing is an important tool for the management of this area, however the not suitably regulated grazing order and the poorly calculated carrying capacity cause serious problems at some parts of the pasture. The prediction of the grass yield is essential to
avoid both over- and both under-grazing and for determining the optimal number of the grazing animal stock and the grazing method, thus the most suitable management strategy.
The potential grass yield is easily calculable with a computer model that will be established as a basis for determining the grass production. For the sake of getting an accurate view of the plant associations of the pasture, we created examination quadrates and determined all plant species found in the quadrates. After plant determination, we compiled a coenological table in which we marked besides the scientific name and families, the life forms of each species that refer to the structure, morphology and thus the adaptability of plants to their environment. We determined the
TWR, so the thermoclimate, water and soil reaction values, the nature conservation values, as well as the covering values of each plant species (DB), and the total coverage of the examination quadrates (B%).
According to the covering values, grasses proved to be characteristic plants at the examined pasture, thus we need to consider them influential in calculating the animal carrying capacity and with the rest of the information, we need to supply the model.
The life forms and TWR indicators, all together with the nature conservation values provide further important data to the development of the management suggestion of the protected pasture. By examining these values to different parts of the area, we could get an exact view on the measure of the degradation effects. This promotes the determination of grazing methods and the forming of the boundaries of certain pasture sections, to avoid those harmful anthropogenic effects that seriously endanger this extensive sandy pasture.
The research of the Great Hungarian Plain has been going on for a long time and there are a lot of information could be used by environmental protection too. The connection between the two topics are diversified, that is why it is necessary to choose a few subject to explain. The chosen subjects are:
The protection of the geological media cannot be solved, either practically and legally, with the protection of the separated elements of that, just if we see it as a system.
The prevention, which is the most effective (and also the most inexpensive) way of environmental protection, can be supported by the compilation of vulnerability- and risk maps (i.e. risk of inland water, erosion vulnerability, deflation vulnerability, contamination sensibility).
Survey on the environmental state containing indispensable geological information for the optimal land use and country planning of a region, county or settlement.
Marking out of the possible areas for waste depositing.
Arsenic contamination of the fields and groundwater is a global problem. Alföld is the most affected area in Hungary. Irrigation witharsenic contaminated water, and crop production on the contaminated soil can cause a food safety problem, because arsenic is easy taken up by the cell of the plant roots. To prevent this, very important to monitoring the arsenic content of soils and plants. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a fast, easy method to determined the concentration of minerals in the case of plant and soil samples The analytical methods can give reliable, results if the analytical process, including the sample preparation method, is the best. The objective of this study was to compare 3 type of sample preparation method which was dry ashing, wet digestion in open system, and microwave digestion. As a result of our experiement shows the microwave digestion is the appropriate method to determined the arsenic content of soil samples. In the case of plant samples we can use wet digestion in open system or microwave digestion as a samle preparation method.
Over the period 2003-2005 we made ichthyologic research in the basin of the Lapus river. During the sampling we noticed that in some area the water was polluted. In those areas fishweretotallyorpartiallymissing.
The main pollution sources are those related to nonferrous metal extraction and processing, but there is also pollution from organic substances resulted from the communal residual waters, as well as the “tuica”(alcoholic drink) distilleries.
Confronting the spots of the pollution sources with the results of the ichthyologic research.we noticed a significantcorrespondencebetween the qualitative and quantitative component of the ichthyofauna and the presence of these sources.
We could, therefore prove the effect of the process of self-purificationofthewater,aswellastheexistenceofsomespeciesoffishshowing a great degree of tolerance towards pollution.
Environmental, natural, social and economic processes undergoing both in Europe and in the world predict such a 21st century that is characterised by increasing resource-crisis from both economic and ecological aspects. Therefore, it is very important for Hungary to see what happens to its natural resources, epecially to its agricultural land, water reserves as well as the biodiversity of the local unique flora and fauna. One of the most significant issues of the rural areas of Hungary is whether we can preserve the natural habitats and the various biodiversity of the related species, the favourable biological background of agriculture. In addition, whether we are able to provide high quality food for the country as well as for the broader reagion, whether we are able to produce energy from the resources available as well as to provide sufficient opportunities for the population to live and work. These can be considered as the most significant issuesof the coming decades which determine the strategy of the Hungarian rural economies in long term.
The North Great Plain region is one of the backward regions of Hungary. The low level of economic development is mainly due to the lack of industrial development. The region is poor in natural resources, its main resources are land, natural gas fields, carbon dioxide, thermal water and the clay mineral stock.
The structure of GDP per capita of the county is different than the country average mainly because of the high proportion of agriculture.
The proportion of the industry and the building industry is not significant. Of the various service provider sectors, trade, transport and telecommunications have a small proportion, while financial and economic service providers have even lower share, which is due to the fact that these sectors are mostly concentrated in Budapest. The share of public and human service prodivers is higher than average due to the University of Debrecen.
The GDP which expresses the economic development of the county in a complex way increased four times its previous value in nominal value between 1995–2009. However, if the real value is considered, the increase is less than 25%, as opposed to the country average, which was less than 40%.
The most complex index of the development level of an economy is GDP expressed either in nominal or real value. If expressed in dollars, GDP is suitable for international comparison with the correction based on the purchasing power parity per person.
The county represents 4.3% of the people employed in the industrial sector in Hungary, while its share in industrial production is only 3.3% which is lower than the regional and population share of the county within Hungary. As regards industrial production per person, Hajdú-Bihar was the 10th county in Hungary; therefore, it is considered to be a less industrialised county.
The product structure of GDP is suitable for drawing useful development conclusions, but the result is more reliable if the income creation ability is also analysed on the basis of the employment structure.
Chlorophyll fluorescence was measured of H1015 tomato hybrid with different bacterial treatments (B0–B1–B2–B3) and three irrigation treatments: regular irrigated (RI), deficit irrigated (DI) and non-irrigated conditions (I0). The aim of the experiments was to show the effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on the yield, dry matter and vitamin C content of processing tomato during different irrigation treatments, and measuring the chlorophyll fluorescence during the ripening and development stages. According to the results, none of the bacterial treatments had a statistical effect on the quantity and quality of the tomato and on the chlorophyll fluorescence, only the irrigation. Further studies are needed.
At the beginning of the year 2000 subsequently to a mine accident high heavy metal content mud entered the catchment area of the Tisza and was transported through the whole Hungarian section of the river. The majority of the heavy metals had been bounded to the floating sediment that was deposited on the flood-plain soil during flood forming a new, 5-10 cm thick layer. In the mud samples collected after the flood there was a clearly visible dark grey layer with significantly higher heavy metal content that was formed by the pollution wave and it was sorruonded by a light layer. The upper layer of flood-plain soils are formed from this mud layer during the soil development process, so the amount of Lakanen-Erviö soluble heavy metals that correlate with bioavailable heavy metal content was examined as well. In this case only the lead content was significantly higher in the dark layer.
New mud samples were collected after the 2001 flood. Separate layers could not have been identified, their colour was similar to those of the previous year’s light layers’. Comparing to this light layer the total Zn and Lakanen-Erivö soluble metal content was significantly lower in the mud samples of the year 2001. While the proportions of total and Lakanen-Erviö soluble metal concentrations were equal in both of the layers regarding the elements, these ratios have significantly changed next year regarding Pb and Zn: the amount of Lakanen-Erviö soluble metals considerably decreased.
As a result of sequential extraction the heavy metal content was rather low in the water soluble and exchangeable and NaOH-soluble fractions, so heavy metals found in the mud could be released in greater amount only in case of a heavy acidification.
The use of fossil energy sources greatly damages the environment. Moreover, the quantity of these energy sources is limited. Therefore, it is important to increase the share of renewable energy sources (solar, wind, water and biomass) in energy generation.
Huge amounts of energy (1100-1300 kWh/m2 per year) arrive at the earth from the sun, and are utilized in passive and active ways. One of the active applications is photovoltaic current production, in the course of which electricity is produced directly with PV – panels. This can be fed into a grid. At the University of Debrecen is a solar energy power plant from September 2005 in operation. The electricity performance of the incorporated PV-panels (Kyocera, Dunasolar, and Siemens) are 8.64 kW. The are of PV – panels is 110 square meter. With the aid of the data storage, the tension, current, temperature of the PV-panels, global radiation, air temperature, wind speed, wind direction and the achievement is measured by the ac network.
The effect of the shading on the performance of the PV – panels and the solar energy power plant is examined. The analysis and the graphic representation of the experiment results are carried out with SPSS per grief. We produced per grief.
In Hungary, the woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa [Thunb.] Kunth) endanger row crops (i.e. corn, sunflower). Its fast spreading based on some reason viz. long-lasting emergence, reduced sensitivity to many kinds of herbicides, vigorous competitional ability and fast initial growth. Allelopathy, ability of many plant species to produce one or more biochemicals wgich is used tocompete with each others. In this experiment we examined, whether the woolly cupgrass possesses allelopathy, and if so, how influences on the development of cultured crops like maize, sunflower and lettuce.