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  • The effects of drought stress on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) growth, physiology and quality – Review

    Abiotic stresses are one of the most limiting factors inhibit plant's growth, leading to a serious production loss. Drought stress is one of the most destructive abiotic stresses and is still increasing year after year resulting in serious yield losses in many regions of the world,
    consequently, affecting world’s food security for the increasing world population. Soybean is an important grain legume. It is one of the five major crops in the world, an essential source of oil, protein, macronutrients and minerals, and it is known as the main source of plant oil and protein. Harvested area of soybean is increasing globally year after year. However, soybean is the highest drought stress sensitive crop, the water deficit influences the physiology, production and seed composition of this crop. We introduce a review for literatures concerning the changes of the above traits of soybean exposed to drought stress, with past explanations for these changes.

  • Physiological traits and yield of three soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes as affected by water deficiency

    Soybean is a very important legume; it has the highest protein content, and it is a very important source of vegetable oil. Soybean is droughtsusceptible, and drought is one of the major abiotic stresses that has been increasing over the past decades as a result of the global climatic changes. To evaluate the influence of drought stress, three soybean genotypes were grown under rainfed conditions, and compared to irrigated controls. The obtained results showed that the chlorophyll content, leaf area index and plant height decreased under drought stress conditions, which led to noticeable and sometimes significant yield reduction. Our results suggest more specific studies on the physiological changes of the local soybean genotypes under drought stress to better select the adopted ones.

  • Does drought stress always negatively affect the yield and quality of soybean in Hungary?

    Globally-fluctuating climate imposed serious abiotic stresses on the agricultural sector, leading to noticeable, and sometimes disastrous, losses in yields and/or quality of crops; however, in certain cases, plants could survive stress with relatively low reductions, and sometimes even with some enhancements as a reaction to changed environment, especially in the case of mild stress. An experiment was conducted in 2017 and 2018 in Debrecen, Hungary to evaluate the mild drought stress influence on the yield and quality of three soybean cultivars. The results showed that both ES Pallador and Pedro cultivars could achieve more yield when subjected to mild drought conditions; however, protein concentration was enhanced in ES Pallador whereas slightly degraded in Pedro under drought. The cultivar Pannonia Kincse followed different trend; both yield and protein concentration were reduced under drought. Oil concentration of the three cultivars did not show significant changes; however, it always followed opposite trend to that of protein concentration. It could be concluded that both ES Pallador and Pedro are recommended to be grown under rain fed conditions in Debrecen, whereas Pannonia Kincse is recommended under irrigation conditions.

  • Investigating the above-ground biomass values of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas)

    The role of sweet potato tubers in human nutrition is not new. The above-ground biomass of sweet potatoes is not used for nutritional purposes in most countries, but it has a high biological value. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the production of press fibre from above ground biomass by wet fractionation. Two sweet potato varieties (purple- and white-fleshed sweet potato) and two types of irrigation system were used: bubbling water flow system (BWS) and continuous water flow system (CWS). Glucan, xylan, arabinan were analysed by HPLC and elemental content was measured by ICP-OES. Our results show that the total carbohydrate content in the pressed fibre of the leaf blades (27.64–29.88 %w/w) is lower than in the stem with petiole (51.14–57.36 %w/w). No significant difference in glucan, xylan and arabinan content was observed in the leaf blade. In the stem with petiole, significant differences were observed for xylan and arabinan contents. For elemental content, generally higher values were measured in the leaf blade than in the stem with petiole. This information may be relevant for the selection of the appropriate variety and treatment, even for the production of functional food.

  • Evaluation of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in response to salinity stress

    Soil salinity is a severe and expanding soil degradation problem that affects 80 million ha of arable lands globally. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is very sensitive to saline conditions; the most susceptible genotypes may die in just 25 mM NaCl in hydroponics. Approximately 8–10% yield loss in chickpea production is estimated due to salinity stress. However, it is still not established why chickpea is so susceptible to salt affection. Salinity (NaCl) impedes germination of seeds, though chickpea varieties considerably differ from one another in this respect. Some chickpea genotypes are more tolerant in the stage of germination, tolerating even 320 mM NaCl. The reasons of this variation are unrevealed; there is a shortage of knowledge about the germination abilities of chickpea genotypes in saline conditions. Nevertheless, the effect of salt stress on vegetative growth can be analysed in hydroponics, in pot or field conditions, regardless the experimental environment, the ranking of genotypes regarding salt resistance is coherent. Chickpea genotypes can be different in their ability to retain water, maybe under salt affection; the more salt tolerant lines can maintain higher water content in the shoots, while the more sensitive ones cannot. The identification of salt tolerant chickpea landraces based on developing genetic variability is a suitable strategy to combat against salinity problems arising in arid and semi-arid areas.

  • Seedling morphology of different wheat genotypes at early stages under hydrocultural conditions

    Consuming “sprouted seeds” is one of the most important factors of a healthy diet. An experiment was conducted in the University of Debrecen, Research Centre of Nyíregyháza (Hungary) in 2014 to analyse some morphological traits of four winter wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.) and one spelt (T. spelta) variety. Our results showed that the spelt wheat variety “Franckenkorn” could maintain higher root length throughout the experimental period. On average, both “Perbetei” and “Franckenkorn” varieties could maintain higher root number compared to the other varieties. The extensive breeding line “1401 HK” had the highest shoot length throughout the whole experiment, being significantly higher than the landrace variety “Perbetei” and both of the varieties “KG Bendegúz” and “KG Kunhalom”. It could be concluded that “KG Bendegúz” cultivar and “Perbetei” landrace seem to be the most suitable for aquaculture techniques. In addition, “1401 HK” breeding line can be the most suitable for the production of juice since the minimal required shoot length (12 cm) was achieved within the shortest period of time after sowing (9 days). This breeding line and “Franckenkorn” can also be suitable for production of “wheatgrass”, because it is consumed without roots. Further research is needed to evaluate nutritional values of these genotypes.