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Analyses of a few physiological parameters of hybrid wheat in the case of different nitrogen supply levels
Published February 18, 2016

The winter wheat is one of the most determinant crops because its role was always important in human’s life. To increase the average yield there are several possibilities, which are still not clear fields of agricultural plant production. Our main goal was to examine the responses of winter wheat genotypes to different amounts of nitrogen sup...plies. The sowing area of hybrid wheats are increasing, they may have different nutrient nitrogen utilization compared to varieties, and the question arose if it is possible to achieve same yield at lower nitrogen fertilizer application or not.

The present study analyzes the results of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from tillering growing stage. Under controlled conditions three different wheat hybrids were grown (Hywin, Hystar, Hybiza) with two different amounts of nitrogen supplies (optimal and the fourth part). The dry matter accumulation, relative chlorophyll content and nitrogen content were measured in order to draw conclusions from the different supplies of nitrogen for winter wheat genotypes and their physiological plasticity.

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Behavior of some Hungarian wheat varieties to seed soaking in gibberellic acid under salt stress
Published May 16, 2017

Various abiotic stresses including high salinity strongly affect seed germination. Three Hungarian wheat landraces Gamási, Fóti and Kartali have been tested for seed germination, seedling growth and chemicals parameters when seeds were soaked in gibberellic acid (GA3) at the concentrations of 0, 75 and 150 ppm and at four levels of salinity s...tress 0, 5, 10 and 15 dSm-1. A laboratory experiment took place at Research Institute of Nyíregyháza. Factorial Experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in four replications has been conducted. Seed soaking in GA3 before sowing significantly affected germination characteristics, seedling properties and the results of chemical analysis. The highest germination as well as K+ content of seeds were observed at seed soaking into 150 ppm GA3. However, Na+ and proline contents in seedling were decreased. The behavior of the tested Hungarian wheat varieties was genotype-dependent. Increasing salinity stress up to 15 dSm-1 significantly affected germination characteristics, seedlings parameters and chemical analysis. Fóti variety turned out to be the best at 150 ppm GA3 compared to the other two varieties. Moreover, it had the lowest Na+ and proline contents and highest K+ content.

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Change of cultivation parameters of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) on different nutrient systems
Published September 18, 2014

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The experiments were conducted at the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza, Research Institutes and Study Farm, Centre for Agricultural Sciences, University of Debrecen. We have studied the shoot number, plant height and fold thickness os asparagus for 3 years. We have set a fertilization experiment on 1500 m2 of plantations in 2013. We applied fertilizer, manure and sheet manure compost. The set yield we achieved by using fertilizer treatment. The Vitalim produced the largest crop, then the Cumulus and the lowest yield Grolim. We was produced by highest green mass was observed in Vitalim and Cumulus hybrids in each year. The Grolim hybrid produced the smallest shoot and plant height but the fold thickness was longer in the other two hybrids. Overall, the Vitalim hybrid has the best production parameters and each season.

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Water relations composition among Egyptian cotton genotypes under water deficit
Published December 8, 2021

Background: water shortage is one of the major factor effects on growth characters and yield of most crops. Objective: this study was conducted to get to know the reactions of some Egyptian cotton genotypes to water deficit. Methods: The genetic materials used in this study included thirteen cotton genotypes belonging to Gossypium barbadens...e L., from the Cotton Research Institute (CRI), which was devoted to establishing the experimental materials for this investigation. Results: the ratio of GCA/SCA was less than unity for all studied indices, indicating predominance of non-additive gene action (dominance and epistasis), which is an important in exploitation of heterosis through hybrid breeding. Results: The data showed significant reduction in water relationship characters for all parental genotypes under stress conditions. The Egyptian variety Giza 68 gave high values for most water relationship characters. Data revealed that the greater the value of tolerance index is, the larger the yield reduction is under water deficit conditions and the higher the stress sensitivity is becoming. The parental genotypes Giza 96 showed the highest reduction in yield under water deficit conditions. At the same time, the cross combination Minufy x Australy showed higher values of yield reduction followed by the combinations Giza 67 x Australy. Of the male parents, the Russian genotype 10229 recorded the best GCA values for most water relationship characters. At the same time, the female parents, the old Egyptian genotype Giza 67 recorded the best values and exhibited good general combined for most water relationship characters. The cross combinations Giza 86 x Pima S6, Giza 77 x Pima S6, Giza 94 x Dandra and Giza 96 x Australy showed significant desirable SCA effect for most characters. Conclusion: relative water content %, osmotic pressure, chlorophyll and carotenoids content indicates better availability of water in the cell, which increases the photosynthetic rate. Also, the higher level of proline accumulation in the leaves which was recorded under deficit water suggests that the production of proline is probably a common response of plant under water deficit conditions.

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Seedling morphology of different wheat genotypes at early stages under hydrocultural conditions
Published June 1, 2021

Consuming “sprouted seeds” is one of the most important factors of a healthy diet. An experiment was conducted in the University of Debrecen, Research Centre of Nyíregyháza (Hungary) in 2014 to analyse some morphological traits of four winter wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.) and one spelt (T. spelta) variety. Our results showed ...that the spelt wheat variety “Franckenkorn” could maintain higher root length throughout the experimental period. On average, both “Perbetei” and “Franckenkorn” varieties could maintain higher root number compared to the other varieties. The extensive breeding line “1401 HK” had the highest shoot length throughout the whole experiment, being significantly higher than the landrace variety “Perbetei” and both of the varieties “KG Bendegúz” and “KG Kunhalom”. It could be concluded that “KG Bendegúz” cultivar and “Perbetei” landrace seem to be the most suitable for aquaculture techniques. In addition, “1401 HK” breeding line can be the most suitable for the production of juice since the minimal required shoot length (12 cm) was achieved within the shortest period of time after sowing (9 days). This breeding line and “Franckenkorn” can also be suitable for production of “wheatgrass”, because it is consumed without roots. Further research is needed to evaluate nutritional values of these genotypes.

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Impact of the integration of lupine (Lupinus albus) into crop rotation on the extent of soil compaction in the Westsik longterm field trial
Published September 5, 2018

In order to reduce or eliminate soil compaction, rational crop rotation and appropriate sequence of crops have an increasingly important role in addition to mechanical and tillage solutions. In this respect, introduction of greening in recent years has been a major step, which focuses on aspects of environmentally conscious, soil conserving far...ming and the improvement of biodiversity. The cornerstone of this strategy is the cultivation of crops that have a beneficial effect on soil properties, such as the use of nitrogen-fixing plants and green manure plants in the cultivation system that have a beneficial effect on soil structure. In our examinations, penetrometer measurements were carried out in the second longest crop rotation-based field experiment in Europe in order to quantify the effects of green crops and crop rotation strategies on soil resistance. Our aim was to evaluate and compare the impact of lupine (Lupinus albus) on the penetration resistance of soil on sour sandy soils. At the time of the penetration resistance measurement, different crop rotations had a significant effect on the development of the parameter in the examined soil layer. The most favourable penetration resistance values were found in the crop rotation, which included lupine as a green manure. The favourable effect is dominant below the cultivated layer (0–40 cm), which is statistically verified. The values of penetration resistance of the cultivated soil layer of lupine sown as primary green manure did not differ significantly from the values measured in the case of the fallowing-based crop rotation. Therefore, the use of lupine green manure instead of fallowing could be worth considering by practical application due to its favourable effects on soil penetration resistance. The use of lupine green manure after the production of rye cultivation resulted in penetration parameters similar to fallowing, irrespective of the green crop and the applied amount of nitrogen fertilizer, which justifies the cultivation of the crop as green manure. In the case of potato cultivating, recorded compaction within the cultivated layer is an obvious consequence of mechanical compaction during harvest; therefore, machinery operations are decisive for the development of penetration resistance values of the cultivated layer. In addition to the beneficial effect of lupine as a green manure crop on soil condition, its nitrogen-fixing ability is also important; it stresses the utilisation of the crop of sour sandy soils for the sake of proper soil management. 

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Comparison of the physiological responses of an oil-pumpkin cultivar and hybrid under different nitrogen supply conditions
Published December 15, 2019

Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca is known as a medicinal crop among other cucurbits. The benefits of cucurbits fruits are very important in terms of human health, purification of blood, removal of constipation, digestion and supplying energy. The mutant styrian oil-pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. convar. Pepo var. styriaca Greb.) exposes a complete lack... of lignification of the seed testa. For this reason, this kind of naked pumpkin seed is more consumable as snack than other seeds. The vegetative growth of plants is crucial for fruit production. Nitrogen is the most imperative element for the proper vegetative growth and development of plants which significantly increases and enhances yield and its quality by playing a vital role in the biochemical and physiological functions of plants.

Field studies were conducted to study the effect of nitrogen nutrition on certain physiological parameters and their differences between the styrian oil pumpkin hybrid and cultivar (Gleisdorfi Classic cultivar and GL Rustical hybrid). The small block experiment was carried out based on a factorial experiment with a completely randomised block design and four replications in the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza during the summer period of 2017 and 2018. Three different concentrations of nitrogen fertiliser was applied at sowing. Photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a, -b and carotenoids) were analysed as one of the basic factor of efficient photosynthesis. The yields of two genotypes were also measured in all treatments as seed-weight. The contents of photosynthetic pigments were higher in the oil-pumpkin hybrid, mainly the carotenoids in 2018. The vegetation period of 2018 was drier than in 2017, the hybrid oil-pupmkin was more efficient in stress tolerance than the cultivar with higher carotenoids pool. The obtained yield was more pronounced in the oil-pumpkin hybrid than the cultivar in all examined years. The hybrid GL Rustical was more sensitive to nitrogen treatment than the cultivar Gleisdorfi Classic.

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Changes in the Diaporthe helianthi Infection of Sunflower Hybrids Between 1998 and 2002
Published May 11, 2003

Plant protection, and especially the efficiency of protection against mycosis, is a very important production technological element concerning sunflower. The efficiency of production can be increased on the basis of a thorough pathological survey and its results carried out in a wide variety of hybrids, as the features of hybrids, the reactions... of genetic bases to pathogens can be found out under domestic conditions.
The tests were carried out at variety-test lots of OMMI for hybrids used for food or oil and other sunflower varieties admitted by the state at the Experimental Site DTTI Látókép, Centre of Agricultural Sciences, University of Debrecen between 1998 and 2002. The number of the tested hybrids was 49 in 1998, 45 in 1999, 49 in 2000, 55 in 2001, and 44 in 2002.
Due to the infection source of high amounts remained from 1997 and the favourable weather conditions for the pathogens, an infection of high degree was experienced in the tested stands. The lowest infection index in the hybrids with a very short vegetative period was experienced with Beni hybrids. Comparing to the average of the hybridgroup with short vegetative period, a low infection index characterised the Baleno, Trident, IBH-166, Hysun 321, Resia, Alexandra, Cergold and Pixel hybrids. In 1999, among hybrids with medium vegetative period, Zoltán, Zsuzsa and Util hybrids could be highlighted because of their low infection index. In 1998, among confentionary hybrids, Marica-2 hybrid had the most favourable index values (2,55).
During our trials, the experienced infection dynamics were compared in the event of hybrids with higher and lower susceptibility under different sowing technological elements. The results call for the fact that when a hybrid with higher susceptibility is produced, production technological elements, such as the time of sowing, influence considerably the damage caused by the pathogen, therefore it must not be ignored when its determination takes place. In the event of hybrids with lower susceptibility the change of the tested production technological elements within the biological optimum does not lead to the increased risk of the damage caused by Diaporthe helianthi.

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Evaluation of the role of common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) green manure in crop rotations
Published May 26, 2022

Common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) is an annual legume, grown as green manure provide rapid soil cover, can increase soil moisture and organic matter content and reduce soil erosion during fall. During the fallow period, legumes grown as catch crops are known by releasing large amounts of mineral nitrogen (N) for the subsequent crop. By taking ...advantage of these benefits, it is possible to increase the yield of the next crop in an environmentally friendly and sustainable way. The goal of this study was to determine the value of common vetch as a green manure, considering its effect on soil conditions and the yield of next crops. We examined three different common vetch seed rate as a green manure in a crop rotation with triticale, oat and corn. Next to the green manured treatments, we used fertilized and bare fallow control treatment for comparison. In our study we evaluated the aboveground biomass weight of spring vetch green manure and its effect on the moisture content of the soil. We examined the green manure’s effect on the next crops plant height and yield. We found that the moisture content of the green manured plots was significantly higher during summer drought. On the green manured plots, 37.9% higher triticale yield, 50% higher oat yield and 44% higher corn yield were measured compared to the control plots. The insertion of spring vetch green manuring into crop rotations could be a good alternative to sustainable nutrient replenishment methods. It can be used to reduce the input needs of farming, reduce carbon footprint, contribute to the protection of soils and increase the organic matter content of the soil.

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The Effect of Plant Density on the Yield of Sunflower Hybrid’s in 2001-2002
Published May 11, 2003

Nowadays, for increasing efficiency of sunflower production treating hybrid-specific technologies was required. Increasing of hybrid choice gave reasons for trials in respects of critical factors, as well as in case of genotype-enviroment interactions. The effect of changing plant density show up as determinant factor which affects on yield as ...well as on plant hygienic conditions. Trials were established on calcareous chernozem soil (Hajdú-Bihar county), in 2001-2002. The field trials were randomized, in four repetition on small parcels. The plant density trials were established in 35.000-75.000 plant/hectar interval using a scale of 10.000 plant/hectar. 10 hybrids were used in both year.
In 2001, 55.000 plant/hectar density was the optimal, in case of most of the hybrids. The yield of tested hybrids did not show significant difference. Yield decreasing effect of using less than optimal density was more significant than in case of using optimal plant density. In 2002, the optimal density was in 45.000-65.000 plant/hectar interval, there was no possibility to find narrower optimum.
Presence of Diaporthe helianthi and the damage caused by the pathogen was significant in 1997-1999, whereas in 2001-2002 the large-scale appearance of the pathogen did not occur. In 2001, the affect of high plant density on disease caused by Diaporthe helianthi showed just tendency-like appearance, in 2002, the infection showed up just in the end of the vegetation period, without significant damage. In spite of the low infection level, the difference between the infection of the diverse plant density treatment was significant. Increasing plant density made increase the frequency of the Diaporthe helianthi infection. The rate of the flower diseases was around 3-16% in 2001, the highest infection level emerged in 65.000-75.000 plant/hectar density, whereas in 2002, the rate of infection level was less than 10%. The increasing plant density helped the development of flower diseases.

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