Background: water shortage is one of the major factor effects on growth characters and yield of most crops. Objective: this study was conducted to get to know the reactions of some Egyptian cotton genotypes to water deficit. Methods: The genetic materials used in this study included thirteen cotton genotypes belonging to Gossypium barbadens...e L., from the Cotton Research Institute (CRI), which was devoted to establishing the experimental materials for this investigation. Results: the ratio of GCA/SCA was less than unity for all studied indices, indicating predominance of non-additive gene action (dominance and epistasis), which is an important in exploitation of heterosis through hybrid breeding. Results: The data showed significant reduction in water relationship characters for all parental genotypes under stress conditions. The Egyptian variety Giza 68 gave high values for most water relationship characters. Data revealed that the greater the value of tolerance index is, the larger the yield reduction is under water deficit conditions and the higher the stress sensitivity is becoming. The parental genotypes Giza 96 showed the highest reduction in yield under water deficit conditions. At the same time, the cross combination Minufy x Australy showed higher values of yield reduction followed by the combinations Giza 67 x Australy. Of the male parents, the Russian genotype 10229 recorded the best GCA values for most water relationship characters. At the same time, the female parents, the old Egyptian genotype Giza 67 recorded the best values and exhibited good general combined for most water relationship characters. The cross combinations Giza 86 x Pima S6, Giza 77 x Pima S6, Giza 94 x Dandra and Giza 96 x Australy showed significant desirable SCA effect for most characters. Conclusion: relative water content %, osmotic pressure, chlorophyll and carotenoids content indicates better availability of water in the cell, which increases the photosynthetic rate. Also, the higher level of proline accumulation in the leaves which was recorded under deficit water suggests that the production of proline is probably a common response of plant under water deficit conditions.
Two field experiments were carried out during the 2014 and 2015 seasons to evaluate certain genotypes of Egyptian cotton under well irrigated and water stress conditions. The cross combination Giza 69 x Australy recorded the best values for better parent heterosis for all physiological measurements and earliness index under well irrigated a...nd deficit conditions. Of the female parents, Giza 86 was found to be a good general combiner for most yield characters under both normal and stress conditions, followed by Giza 94. Data illustrated that Giza 45 was the best general combiner for most fiber quality traits under both conditions. The cross combinations Giza 86 x Dandra and Giza 69 x Pima S6 showed significant positive SCA values for seed cotton and lint yield/plant under well irrigated and water deficit conditions. However, the combinations Giza 77 x PimaS6 and Giza 94 x 10229 recorded significant positive SCA effects for seed cotton yield/plant under stress. Whilst, the cross Giza 68 x 10229 recorded significant desirable SCA effects for most fiber quality properties. In this context, the estimates significant positive general and specific combining ability effects indicated that the epistasis and/or dominance effects for F1 hybrid in cotton could be important to a certain extent.
Our research work was carried out in the Westsik crop rotation field experiment in 2018. The main research purpose was to analyse the effect of the different organic and chemical fertilizers on parameters of rye. Our results revealed some differences between the different fertilization methods. One spike weight, grain weight of one spike, r...ye plant height, rye plant weight per m2 and 1000 seed weight in crop rotations VII, XV and VIII were different from the data of all crop rotations. This finding can be explained by the fact that crop rotations VII and XV were non-fertilized, only 23.3 t ha-1 straw manure (VII) or green lupine manure was applied as a second crop (XV). In addition, crop rotation VIII consists of four parts where we apply chemical fertilization with green lupine manure as a main and second crop. There is a positive close correlation between rye plant height and other studied characters (rye plant weight per m2, spike length, weight of one spike, grain weight per spike, spike weight per m2, grain weight per m2 and 1000 seed weight).
Combining ability estimation is an important genetic attribute for maize breeders in anticipating improvement in productivity via hybridization and selection. This research was carried out to investigate the genetic structure of the 27 F1 maize hybrids established from nine lines derived from Maize Research Department and three t...esters, to determine general combining ability (GCA), determine crosses showing specific combining ability (SCA) and superiority percentages for crosses. Nine lines, three testers, 27 F1 hybrids and two check commercial hybrids (SC162 and SC168) were studied in randomized complete block Design (RCBD) with three replications during 2016. The results of mean squares showed that significant and highly significant for most studied traits (days to 50% tasseling, days to 50% silking, plant and ear height, ear position, ear length, no. of kernels per row, 100-kernel weight and Grain yield). Estimates of variance due to GCA and SCA and their ratio revealed predominantly non-additive gene effects for all studied traits. Lines with the best GCA effects were: P2 (line 11) and P6 (line 21) for grain yield, for testers Gm174 and Gm1021 had significant GCA effects for grain yield. The hybrids P5×Gm1021, P6×Gm1021, P7×Gm1021, P8×Gm1002, P9×Gm1002 had significant and negative SCA effects for grain yield. Crosses P1×Gm174, P2×Gm1002, P5×Gm1021, P6×Gm174, P6×Gm1021, P7×Gm1021, P8×Gm1002, P9×Gm1021 were the best combinations manifested and significant superiority percentages over than check varieties (SC162 and SC168) for most studied traits. Therefore, these hybrids may be preferred for hybrid crop development.
Abbreviations: GCA general combining ability; SCA specific combining ability