Various abiotic stresses including high salinity strongly affect seed germination. Three Hungarian wheat landraces Gamási, Fóti and Kartali have been tested for seed germination, seedling growth and chemicals parameters when seeds were soaked in gibberellic acid (GA3) at the concentrations of 0, 75 and 150 ppm and at four levels of salinity s...tress 0, 5, 10 and 15 dSm-1. A laboratory experiment took place at Research Institute of Nyíregyháza. Factorial Experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in four replications has been conducted. Seed soaking in GA3 before sowing significantly affected germination characteristics, seedling properties and the results of chemical analysis. The highest germination as well as K+ content of seeds were observed at seed soaking into 150 ppm GA3. However, Na+ and proline contents in seedling were decreased. The behavior of the tested Hungarian wheat varieties was genotype-dependent. Increasing salinity stress up to 15 dSm-1 significantly affected germination characteristics, seedlings parameters and chemical analysis. Fóti variety turned out to be the best at 150 ppm GA3 compared to the other two varieties. Moreover, it had the lowest Na+ and proline contents and highest K+ content.
Our research work was carried out in the Westsik crop rotation field experiment in 2018. The main research purpose was to analyse the effect of the different organic and chemical fertilizers on parameters of rye. Our results revealed some differences between the different fertilization methods. One spike weight, grain weight of one spike, r...ye plant height, rye plant weight per m2 and 1000 seed weight in crop rotations VII, XV and VIII were different from the data of all crop rotations. This finding can be explained by the fact that crop rotations VII and XV were non-fertilized, only 23.3 t ha-1 straw manure (VII) or green lupine manure was applied as a second crop (XV). In addition, crop rotation VIII consists of four parts where we apply chemical fertilization with green lupine manure as a main and second crop. There is a positive close correlation between rye plant height and other studied characters (rye plant weight per m2, spike length, weight of one spike, grain weight per spike, spike weight per m2, grain weight per m2 and 1000 seed weight).
Combining ability estimation is an important genetic attribute for maize breeders in anticipating improvement in productivity via hybridization and selection. This research was carried out to investigate the genetic structure of the 27 F1 maize hybrids established from nine lines derived from Maize Research Department and three t...esters, to determine general combining ability (GCA), determine crosses showing specific combining ability (SCA) and superiority percentages for crosses. Nine lines, three testers, 27 F1 hybrids and two check commercial hybrids (SC162 and SC168) were studied in randomized complete block Design (RCBD) with three replications during 2016. The results of mean squares showed that significant and highly significant for most studied traits (days to 50% tasseling, days to 50% silking, plant and ear height, ear position, ear length, no. of kernels per row, 100-kernel weight and Grain yield). Estimates of variance due to GCA and SCA and their ratio revealed predominantly non-additive gene effects for all studied traits. Lines with the best GCA effects were: P2 (line 11) and P6 (line 21) for grain yield, for testers Gm174 and Gm1021 had significant GCA effects for grain yield. The hybrids P5×Gm1021, P6×Gm1021, P7×Gm1021, P8×Gm1002, P9×Gm1002 had significant and negative SCA effects for grain yield. Crosses P1×Gm174, P2×Gm1002, P5×Gm1021, P6×Gm174, P6×Gm1021, P7×Gm1021, P8×Gm1002, P9×Gm1021 were the best combinations manifested and significant superiority percentages over than check varieties (SC162 and SC168) for most studied traits. Therefore, these hybrids may be preferred for hybrid crop development.
Abbreviations: GCA general combining ability; SCA specific combining ability