The effect of the preparation method was examined with regards to the physical and chemical characteristics of the propolis tincture, namely the extraction time and the ethanol content of the extraction solvent to the dry matter, polyphenol, flavonoid, phosphorus, calcium and copper concentration, respectively. The dry matter, the polyphenol an...d the flavonoid content were the lowest in the water extract of the propolis; however, significant increase was noticed depending on the extraction time. Significantly higher concentrations were found in 50 V/V% tinctures. The highest dry matter and flavonoid contents were analysed in 100 V/V% tinctures, whereas highest polyphenol content was found in 80 V/V% tinctures. However, the differences were not significant in several cases between latter tinctures. Moreover, the increase was not determined in some cases depending on the extraction time. Phosphorus and calcium concentrations were decreased depending on the increasing ethanol content, whereas copper concentration was increased up to 80 V/V%. Higher increase was found in the case of 0 and 50 V/V% extracts than in 80 and 100 V/V% tinctures. Moreover, in latter cases, no significant differences were found on several occasions, depending on the extraction time. There was no connection between the flavonoids and the calcium as well as the phosphorus content, whereas flavonoids may be made complex with copper. However, the amount of the possible complex was negligible.
The elemental content of 61 raw propolis samples from Pest, Zala and Bács-Kiskun county (Hungary) were analyzed by ICP-OES. The content of Al, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Sr and Zn were measured in the samples. Median is higher than mean in all cases based on the summarized results. It can be explained by the outliers, moreover it has...a non-normal distribution. The concentrations are in an extremely wide range, the ratio of the maximum and minimum is under 10 in case of six elements, between 10 and 35.1 in the case of other six elements,and more than 300 in case of Zn. Significant differences are between counties only in the case of B, K and P based on ANOVA. Other elements have no significant differences. The following order can be set up based on the mean concentrations and the wide ranges: K≥Ca>P≥S≥Fe≥Mg≥Al>Zn≥Na>Mn≥B>Cu≥Sr. Moreover it can be established, that the measured concentrations are near the same or in some cases lower than in other publications.
Aquaponics is the combined culture of fish and plants in recirculating aquaculture systems, an ecologically sustainable horticultural production technique with long traditions.
The objective of this study is to compare flood-and- drain, and the water crossflow system and examine the differences in the water quality, fish yi...eld and plant growth parameters for Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and basil (Ocimum basilicum). During the study, water quality parameters of two treatments were compared in temperatures, pH, EC and NO3¯N were significantly different (p <0.05). Leaf area of the basil plants grew to an average of 20.37 cm2 (± 9.02 cm2). The plants’ biomass production was significantly different (p< 0.05) in the two systems. The biomass production showed lower yield, 458.22 g (± 214.59 g) in the constant flow system that in the flood- and- drain system 692.9 g (± 175.82 g). Fish Growth parameters were better in constant flow system (FCR 5.48 g/g ± 0.19). However, the specific growth rate (SGR) demonstrated that fish grew faster in flood- and- drain system 1.38 %/day (± 0.29).
The common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is the most important fish species in Hungary, it is more than 70% of the total Hungarian fish production. The common carp production is important not only just in Hungary but in Middle-East Europe, as well as Southeast Asia. Majority of the production comes from fishpond culture. If the production secto...r wants to meet the increasing customer demands, there is need to intensify research on the intensive fish production opportunities for example all-female common carp technologies. The all-female technology is one of a genom-manipulation technology. Its production showed better growth rate than mixed-sex population in pond culture. Our experiment combined the recirculation aquaculture system (RAS) and the all-female common carp stocks intensification technologies. The reason for the experiment, is that there are no result about the growth of all-female common carp growth in RAS.
The experiment used the „Tatai grey scale type” common carp stocks. We propagated two all-female stocks (T2 and T3) and a control group (TK). Due to technological characteristics of RAS, the water quality parameters were the same for all treatments and corresponded to the technological tolerance of common carp.
The experimental period was from July 10, 2019 – November 20, 2019. Result of growth performance showed that the growth of mixed-sex stock was significantly higher than all-female stocks; (Control=3692.0±590.5g, T2=3438.8±415.4g, T3=3294.1±659.1g). Feed conversation ratio (Control=1.3±0.1 T2=1.5±0.2 T3=1.6±0.5) and SGR% (Control=0.8±0.0 T2=0.7±0.1 T3=0.7±0.1) were similar.
By the results it can be said the all-female common carp technology has neither advantages nor disadvantages compared to the mixed-sex stock. The all-female technology can be beneficial if the consumers need female common carps. It is worth continuing the experiment and examine how the stocks will perform above 3kg body weight.
The European perch (Perca fluviatilis) is a predatory fish species. Its aquaculture production is increasing worldwide. Feeding and the frequency of feeding are important elements of intensive fish rearing. The aim of our experiment was to examine the optimal distribution of the amount of feed, at the same feed rations. Th...e experiment lasted 42 days. Three treatments were applied in 4–4 replications. The first treatment was feeding twice per day (T2), the second treatment was feeding three times a day (T3), and the third group was fed four times a day (T4). 10 European perch juveniles were stocked per tank, with an individual mean body weight of 3.93 ± 0.06 g at the start of the experiment. The survival rate (S%) was above 90% for all treatments. The T2 treatments produced the most favourable harvest weight (13.96 ± 0.14 g) and specific growth rate (SGR = 3.08 ± 0.01% day-1), but no significant differences were observed between groups. In terms of feed conversion ratio, the best result was obtained by (T3) (FCR =1.06 ± 0.18 g g-1), but no significant difference was found for this indicator neither. The results of the trial indicate that the feeding frequency does not influence the production parameters.
During the rearing of mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) larvae, the optimisation of the growing substrate has a particular importance. The application of the appropriate substrate is a fundamental pillar for intensive and safe production. The requirements for substrate include the lack of toxins, high nutrient and micro-macro element content. The... aim of this study was the evaluation of the effects of different substrates on the production parameters, nutrient and mineral composition of the mealworm larvae. The experiment lasted through 14 days. 5 treatments were set up at, where the variable was the substrate. The test system consisted of 25 units (5 treatments and 5 replicates). 10 mealworm larvae per unit, (total of 250 larvae) were used at the beginning of the experiment. Regarding the substrates, our study included sweet potato (SP), may turnip tuber (MT) and may turnip leaf (ML). In addition to the plant by-products, wheat flour (WF) and wheat semolina (WS) were used as control substrates. Trace element uptake and production parameters of the larvae were determined at the end of the experiment. Regarding the production parameters, it can be stated that the wheat semolina (0.081 ± 0.005 g) and wheat flour (0.069 ± 0.007 g) substrate used as control gave the best results for the final body weight. In terms of plant raw materials and by-products, sweet potatoes (0.063 ± 0.007) can only be recommended as substrate, while may turnip tuber and may turnip leaf produced significantly lower final body weight results (MT=0.034 ± 0.002 g ; ML= 0.036 ± 0.002 g). The nutrient composition of the larvae was not affected by the substrate, these results confirmed the high protein and fat content reported in the literature. The results with the production parameters were contradicted by the micronutrient content. Larvae reared on may turnip leaf (ML) and tuber (MT) showed the highest values for most of the macro- and microelements (potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper) tested.
Different goldfish types play an important role both in ornamental fish farming and science. Considering its historical background, the goldfish is a suitable model animal for the study of artificial selection as well as for developmental biological studies. Sperm motility and cell density is an important parameter in determining sperm qual...ity. The aim of our study was to examine the effects of different goldfish types on the sperm quality. Several sperm motility parameters (progressive motility (pMOT, %), straight line velocity (VSL, μm s-1), curvilinear velocity (VCL, μm s-1), linearity (LIN, %), amplitude lateral Head Displacement (ALH, μm), Beat Cross Frequency (BCF, Hz)) of four different goldfish types (Common goldfish-“wild type” N=5, Shubunkin N=4, Black Moor N=4, Oranda N=5) was compared during 60 hours (at 12-hour intervals) at refrigerated storage (4 °C). The variability of sperm density was also investigated in all types. A similar cell concentration was determined in the four goldfish variants (Common goldfish 2.01*1010 ± 3.46*109; Shubunkin 1.71*1010 ± 3.25*109; Black Moor 1.66*1010 ± 3.02*109; Oranda 1.56*1010 ± 5.83*109). Statistically significant difference between the 4 goldfish types in the motility parameters and cell density was not noted. However, a decreasing tendency in Black Moor sperm motility parameters (pMOT, VCL and VSL) was observable, as well as a reduced spermatozoa density in Oranda was also recorded. Our results can contribute to the improvement of the common hatchery propagation of goldfish. Future studies can add more evidence of the possible effects of artificial selection on the reproduction in different goldfish types.
European perch (Perca fluviatilis) is a native predatory fish in Hungary, and a promising new species of fresh water aquaculture nowadays. The European perch can be characterized by a high stress sensitivity during the intensive rearing, thus the optimization of environmental conditions has significant importance in the early life...stages of fish. The aim of our study was to determine whether the light intensity and darkening of the water by humic acid affect the survival and growth performance of European perch juveniles. The experiment lasted for 28 days. Rectangular aquariums were arranged in 3 lines, the test environment consisted of 24 units. The experiment was set up with 10–10 fish per aquarium, total of 240 individuals. The average wet body weight of the fish at the start of the experiment was 1.69 grams. During the experiment, 6 treatments in 4 replicates were set up. In the first row, we set up 305.6±66.0 LUX (L), in the second row 118.0±24.4 LUX (C), and in the third row (D) 17.0±8.6 LUX illumination was set up. In each row the water of four aquariums were darkened by the addition of humic acid (H) (L, LH, C, CH, D, and DH). At the end of the experiment high survival rate was observed in all treatments. Examining the survival rate, the best results were found in the strongly illuminated treatments (L; LH- SR%=100±0.00). The observed mortality was caused by cannibalism. Regarding the individual body weight, the best results were shown by the treatments where the aquariums were illuminated with lower light intensity (C: 4.66±0.33 grams) and the aquarium water was darkened by humic acid (CH: 4.93±0.15 grams). The results of the C and CH groups were significantly better compared to the other treatments, however, they did not differ statistically from each other. The darkening of the water had a positive effect on the individual body weight of fish reared under full light (L: 3.73±0.28 grams; LH: 4.33±0.28 grams), whereas in the case of fish reared in the lowest illumination, the addition of humic acid did not affect the results (D: 3.78±0.15 grams; DH: 3.80±0.26 grams). In case of SGR (C: 3.64%/day and CH: 3.74%/day) and FCR (C: 0.84 g/g and CH: 0.78g/g) the best results were obtained by the C and CH treatments, also.