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  • Regional economic achievements and reindustrialisation in Hajdú-Bihar county

    The North Great Plain region is one of the backward regions of Hungary. The low level of economic development is mainly due to the lack of industrial development. The region is poor in natural resources, its main resources are land, natural gas fields, carbon dioxide, thermal water and the clay mineral stock.
    The structure of GDP per capita of the county is different than the country average mainly because of the high proportion of agriculture.
    The proportion of the industry and the building industry is not significant. Of the various service provider sectors, trade, transport and telecommunications have a small proportion, while financial and economic service providers have even lower share, which is due to the fact that these sectors are mostly concentrated in Budapest. The share of public and human service prodivers is higher than average due to the University of Debrecen.
    The GDP which expresses the economic development of the county in a complex way increased four times its previous value in nominal value between 1995–2009. However, if the real value is considered, the increase is less than 25%, as opposed to the country average, which was less than 40%.
    The most complex index of the development level of an economy is GDP expressed either in nominal or real value. If expressed in dollars, GDP is suitable for international comparison with the correction based on the purchasing power parity per person.
    The county represents 4.3% of the people employed in the industrial sector in Hungary, while its share in industrial production is only 3.3% which is lower than the regional and population share of the county within Hungary. As regards industrial production per person, Hajdú-Bihar was the 10th county in Hungary; therefore, it is considered to be a less industrialised county.
    The product structure of GDP is suitable for drawing useful development conclusions, but the result is more reliable if the income creation ability is also analysed on the basis of the employment structure.

  • Effect of plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPRS) on yield and quality of processing tomato under water deficiency

    Chlorophyll fluorescence was measured of H1015 tomato hybrid with different bacterial treatments (B0–B1–B2–B3) and three irrigation treatments: regular irrigated (RI), deficit irrigated (DI) and non-irrigated conditions (I0). The aim of the experiments was to show the effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on the yield, dry matter and vitamin C content of processing tomato during different irrigation treatments, and measuring the chlorophyll fluorescence during the ripening and development stages. According to the results, none of the bacterial treatments had a statistical effect on the quantity and quality of the tomato and on the chlorophyll fluorescence, only the irrigation. Further studies are needed.

  • Investigations on Mud on Heavy Metal Contaminated Flood-Plain of Tisza

    At the beginning of the year 2000 subsequently to a mine accident high heavy metal content mud entered the catchment area of the Tisza and was transported through the whole Hungarian section of the river. The majority of the heavy metals had been bounded to the floating sediment that was deposited on the flood-plain soil during flood forming a new, 5-10 cm thick layer. In the mud samples collected after the flood there was a clearly visible dark grey layer with significantly higher heavy metal content that was formed by the pollution wave and it was sorruonded by a light layer. The upper layer of flood-plain soils are formed from this mud layer during the soil development process, so the amount of Lakanen-Erviö soluble heavy metals that correlate with bioavailable heavy metal content was examined as well. In this case only the lead content was significantly higher in the dark layer.
    New mud samples were collected after the 2001 flood. Separate layers could not have been identified, their colour was similar to those of the previous year’s light layers’. Comparing to this light layer the total Zn and Lakanen-Erivö soluble metal content was significantly lower in the mud samples of the year 2001. While the proportions of total and Lakanen-Erviö soluble metal concentrations were equal in both of the layers regarding the elements, these ratios have significantly changed next year regarding Pb and Zn: the amount of Lakanen-Erviö soluble metals considerably decreased.
    As a result of sequential extraction the heavy metal content was rather low in the water soluble and exchangeable and NaOH-soluble fractions, so heavy metals found in the mud could be released in greater amount only in case of a heavy acidification.

  • The analysis of the fair data of a solar energy power plant with SPSS

    The use of fossil energy sources greatly damages the environment. Moreover, the quantity of these energy sources is limited. Therefore, it is important to increase the share of renewable energy sources (solar, wind, water and biomass) in energy generation.
    Huge amounts of energy (1100-1300 kWh/m2 per year) arrive at the earth from the sun, and are utilized in passive and active ways. One of the active applications is photovoltaic current production, in the course of which electricity is produced directly with PV – panels. This can be fed into a grid. At the University of Debrecen is a solar energy power plant from September 2005 in operation. The electricity performance of the incorporated PV-panels (Kyocera, Dunasolar, and Siemens) are 8.64 kW. The are of PV – panels is 110 square meter. With the aid of the data storage, the tension, current, temperature of the PV-panels, global radiation, air temperature, wind speed, wind direction and the achievement is measured by the ac network.
    The effect of the shading on the performance of the PV – panels and the solar energy power plant is examined. The analysis and the graphic representation of the experiment results are carried out with SPSS per grief. We produced per grief.

  • Allelopathic effects of water extracts of pieces of wooly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa) on the seedlings of field crops

    In Hungary, the woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa [Thunb.] Kunth) endanger row crops (i.e. corn, sunflower). Its fast spreading based on some reason viz. long-lasting emergence, reduced sensitivity to many kinds of herbicides, vigorous competitional ability and fast initial growth. Allelopathy, ability of many plant species to produce one or more biochemicals wgich is used tocompete with each others. In this experiment we examined, whether the woolly cupgrass possesses allelopathy, and if so, how influences on the development of cultured crops like maize, sunflower and lettuce.

  • Effect of Copper, Zinc and Lead and Their Combinations on the Germination Capacity of Two Cereals

    The majority of researchers have studied the following group of microelements: B, Zn, Mn, Cu, Na, Co, Mo, I, Sn, Cl, Al, V, F, Cr, Hg, Cs, Li, Cd, As, Th, Rb, Cr, W, Ti, Sn, Se, Ba, Br. Sporadically, the following elements have been mentioned too: Au, Ra, Hg and Pb. In this study, the effects of copper treatments and their combination with zinc and lead microelements on the germination of maize and barley were investigated using different concentrations of these microelements. Six treatments were used: 1. Copper-sulphate (CuSO4) applied alone, 2. Zinc-sulphate (ZnSO4) applied alone, 3. Copper applied with zinc, 4. Lead-nitrate (Pb(NO3)2) applied alone, 5. Copper applied with lead and 6. Untreated control. Maize (Kiskun SC 297) and barley caryopsis were treated with copper and zinc solutions in the following concentrations: 0.03%, 0.003% and 0.0003%. Maize and barley caryopsis were treated with these solutions for 12 and 24 hours. Maize and barley caryopsis were also treated with lead solutions Pb(NO3)2 with different concentrations: 0.0005%, 0.005% and 0.05%. Maize and barley were treated with these solutions for 12 and 24 hours. In the combined treatments (3 and 5), the same concentration was used for each microelement as in treatments 1, 2 and 4. Control treatments were treated with water for both plant species. Our results showed that copper microelements significantly inhibit germination compared to the untreated control. The toxicity of copper is higher if concentration increases. Zinc microelements also inhibit germination, however its effect highly depends on the microelement concentration. Treatments of copper + zinc also inhibit germination. The two microelements applied together cause more phytotoxicity than they do alone. Lead is highly toxic to plants even in low concentrations. The toxic effect on germination dramatically increased when lead was applied with copper.

  • Using the principles of precision animal husbandry in fishbreeding

    Aquaculture species such as fish, crayfish, molluscs and plats are a wide range of products, with continuously growing demand worldwide. The reasons for this is that they are cheap and easy-toraise protein sources, thus having significance in food supply especially in developing countries in tropic regions, moreover, the premium category foodstuffs in developed high income countries are also belonging to this category. World annual total production of 164 million tons (2009) are made up of two sources: 1) marine and inland fisheries landings that are stagnating for several years and 2) aquaculture which is growing dynamically with annual 6% rate between 2000–2009. The latter is accounting for nearly 45% of the total supply due to the depleting marine stocks caused by overfishing. Aquaculture is growing continuously also because the production is safe and can
    be planned well. 
    Intensive fish production systems are the representatives of precision animal production, several types exist and widespread worldwide. The modern computerized temperate water recirculation plants with several thousand m3 capacity are widespread also in Europe because they make it possible to produce even the most valuable species whole year round. A key issue in the technical/feeding outlay is to meet the demands of the cultured species the best and the operation of the system is to be safe and cost-effective. One condition for this is intensification: enable to produce more product per unit resource input or effort. The facilities need significant amount of energy, thus renewable energy sources are to be favoured for which Hungary has comparative advantages.

  • The effect of hybrid, nutrient-supply and irrigation on the grain moisture content at harvest and the starch-content of maize (Zea mays L.)

    Maize is a worldwide dominant plant. According to nowadays plant production principles it is important to investigate and optimize the site-specific nutrient-supply and other production factors, such as hybrid and irrigation, in the case of this plant as well.
    At the Research Institute of the University of Debrecen, Center of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, at Látókép the effect of nutrient-supply and irrigation on the quantity and quality parameters of different hybrids were investigated in a small plot long-term field experiment. In this paper we introduce the results regarding the corn moisture-content and the starch content of the yield.
    We have chosen three maize hybrids – that have been bread in Martonvásár – for our investigations. The effect of macronutrients is investigated in this experiment on five levels. The half of the experimental area can be irrigated during the vegetation period – whenever it is needed – by linear irrigation equipment, but on the other half only the water amount originating from the precipitation can be used by plants.
    In the year 2008 the hybrid affected the grain moisture content at P=0.1% level, while nutrient-supply had an effect at P=10% significance level. We haven’t revealed either any effect of irrigation or of interrelationship between production factors. It can be stated that there are differences between the hybrids on each nutrient-supply and on both irrigation levels. The grain moisture content increased parallel to the longer vegetation
    The starch content of maize is mostly affected by the hybrid,
    so on P=0.1% significance level. Regarding our results, it can be
    stated, that the starch content shows a decreasing tendency
    parallel to the longer vegetation periods.

  • Comparison of the sample preparation methods worked out for the examination of the element content of wine

    The examination of the potentially toxic elements content of the wines is not easy task, because the most elements are in little concentration (mg kg-1 or μg kg-1) in the wine and the wines contain great amount of organic matrix. The efficient sample preparation is essential for the accurate determination of element content. The eim of our research was to determine which sample preparation method will be the most efficient in examination of wines with ICP technology. The examined wine sample was a 2008 Chardonnay from the Eger wine region. We did the sample preparation and analysis examination in University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Institute of Food Science, Quality Assurance and Microbiology.
    We did the analysis examinations with ICP- MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy). We always did the sample preparations and the examinations in three times rehearsal. The applied sample preparation methods: dilution with distilled water, open digestion and microwave digestion. 
    We were able to measure B, Al, Mn, Fe and Zn with only dilution and open sample preparation. In the smaller quantity present Sr and Ba were measurable in the wine in the case of all three methods well. We were able to measure the Co with dilution and open digestion method,  while Cr, Ni, and Te with only dilution method. In the case of arsenic we were not able to measure reliable result with dilution and open digestion method because of organic matrix and other components
    (alcohols, monosaccharides, polysaccharides, polyalcohols and inorganic salts). On the whole we are able to say that in the case of certain elements (B, Mn, Fe, Zn, Sr, Ba) the open digestion and dilution sample preparation is applicable well, however, in the case of certain elements (As, Al, V, Cr, Se, Mo, Cd, Hg, Pb) we have to develop the methods. It may be development of one of the way, if we develop sample preparation methods to examined element specifically and not
    to wine generally.

  • Early evaluation of use of fermented chicken manure products in practice of apple nutrient management

    According to the Green Deal efforts, the importance and relevance of organic fertilization will increase in the near future. Therefore, the investigation of the effects of different organic fertilizers on soil productivity and nutrient supply is a priority area of agricultural research. Organic fertilizer experiment was conducted in an eight-year-old apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchard at Debrecen-Pallag. In the trial Pinova cultivar was used. In this study, two different fermented chicken manure products were added to the soil (in 20 cm depth) to test their effects on soil nutrient status, plant uptake and fruit quality. It was found that the applied treatments slightly increased the pH and nutrient levels in almost all cases, but significant effect was not observed in all treatments compared to the control. Leaf nutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) were measured in the experiment. Leaf nutrient status was not affected by the fermented chicken manure treatments. However, used treatments had strong effects on the fruit characteristics and inner parameters, such as fruit diameter and Brix value. Moreover, it was established that the applied organic fertilizers increased the yield significantly.

  • Effect of Irrigation on Maize Yield (Zea mays L.)

    We have been continually examining the fertilizer and irrigation reaction of commonly cultivated maize hybrids for nearly twenty years at the Látókép experimental station of the Center for Agricultural Sciences, Debrecen University.
    Upon evaluating the results, it can be established that year significantly influences the size of yield. Between the years of 1999 and 2002, in the average of applied fertilizers the difference is 3,4 t/ha, but even in irrigated treatments it reaches 3 t/ha. This is more than the effect of irrigation. Of the applied agrotechnical elements, the yield increasing effect of fertilization is the greatest and can even be greater than the effect of year. The yield increasing effect of fertilization can be reliably detected with small and medium doses, but at higher doses a plateau section is reached, where it is not worth applying more nutrients. Cultivation with irrigation can only be done with appropriate nutrient supply, due to the positive correlation of the two factors. The positive correlation also means that if the water supply of the plant declines, less fertilizer is needed for safe production. The two factors (irrigation and fertilization) have to be increased or decreased at the same time.
    According to the experiment, in unirrigated treatments, 90 kg/ha nitrogen and the related phosphorus and potassium are enough, while in irrigated treatments this was 120 kg.

  • Heat treatment and microbial digestion of poulty feather for biogas production

    The aim of this research was the elaboration of the technological parameters of heat pre-treatment and microbial digestion of poultry feathers for biogas production. Feathers were treated at 70, 100, 140 °C, and subsequently digested by Bacillus licheniformis, or keratin disintegrator bacteria. Investigations focused on the optimalization of parameters influencing poultry feather biodegradation. The optimal range of pH, temperature,
    feather size and bacillus:feather ratio were determined in the experiments, as well as the analysis of relationship between the examined parameters. In order to be able to track the dynamics of the biodegradation, we determined the extinction level of the liquid phase of the biodegraded material in the different experimental treatments. The results showed that the rate of hydrolysis was significantly higher in the treatments with bacteria than in the treatments without it. Regarding the pretreatments at 70, 100 and 140 °C, the digestion of feather was the most intensive at 70 °C. The most extensive digestion was observed in case of 1:3 feather:water ratio. The highest intensity of feather digestion was
    detected in the treatment with 1% microbe ratio.  

  • Performance of agricultural factors on yield of  sweet corn (Zea mays L. Saccharata ) - A review

     Sweet corn producers and industries require more reliable cultivars which could be accomplished by hybrid breeding. However, progressive phenological growth may be affected by different factors. In this paper, we analyze the key factors that determine the growth and yield of sweet corn. Environmental factors such as temperature and photoperiod were strong determinants of dates of flowering and harvest which are often crucial to yield in diverse climates and agricultural systems, besides the country's pedological conditions, especially soil fertility, affected phenological development. The effectiveness of fertilization in improving sweet corn growth performance was significantly influenced by the soil characteristics, the water supply, the genotype, and the agrotechnological factors. Therefore, genetic improvement of hybrids should be incorporated into the climate and soil elements to stabilize sweet corn yields in various agroecosystems. Decisions made in the sowing period are very significant, as up to 30% of the obtained yield may depend on making the proper choice. Deviation from the optimum date (either early or late sowing) may decrease yield. When deciding about the sowing date of maize, one needs to consider climate, soil quality, geographical location, temperature, weed infestation, sowing seed quality, and the ripening time of the hybrid to be produced.

  • Establishing regional cultivating districts on the basis of the Kreybig practical soil mapping system

    With the help of this report evaluating the current situation of the region, characteristics of the development in agricultural production and regional differences can be clarified. By mapping out the regional soil, land use and climatic conditions and organizing these into a geographical information system, one can easily determine which plants are the most ideal to cultivate in that particular region. Moreover, it is a useful tool that enables us to
    establish the most favorable land use structure suited to ecological demands and also helps to determine the methods of soil protection.
    During our work, we chose administrative units in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, based on the latest aspects of regional cultivation.
    Our pilot areas are: the small regions of Nyíregyháza, Nyírbátor, Nagykálló, Mátészalka and Csenger.
    Using the database, we separated and uncovered the soil conditions of the pilot areas: the chemical and physical properties of the soil layer which is exploited by the roots of the plants, the humus content, the nutrient supply, the thickness of the cultivated layer and the water management conditions.
    We separated the districts of regional cultivation, where the basic elements of the traditional Kreybig color systems were applied (light yellow, dark yellow, light brown, dark green, blue, pink, red, gray, greenish brown, reddish purple, light purple, dark purple, light green).
    By using the data collected from the pilot areas, we compiled a map database, which is suitable to illustrate the plant cultivating characteristics of the region. We made recommendations to determine the most favorable plants to cultivate in the specific region with the given meteorological and soil conditions, as well as for the shifting of crops.
    Our recommendations were also illustrated in a map with a resolution of 1:25000. 

  • European Funds and the Evaluation of Their Application in the Northern Great Plain Region

    Presently, the process of regionalization is slowly progressing in Hungary. The regional institutional system is young and the institutional experiences are limited. The Hungarian regional development agencies are operated with a limited number of personnel and their budget is only a fraction of EU regional agencies of similar size. There is no unequivocal cooperation between regional development agencies and county development agencies. In the absence of these, the strategical objectives of the region cannot be aligned and the application of consistent development policies cannot be achieved. In the past five-six years the supports from EU Pre-Accession Funds, along with the new tools of regional development policies, have all contributed to the development of the North Great Plain Region. Phare projects – beside supporting development – have played a significant role in forming the approach of individuals who are actively involved in regional development, in promoting cooperation among cross-border and other regions, as well as in preparing the regions to accept EU structural funds. Prior to the May 1st, 2004 EU accession of Hungary, the North Great Plain Region received 24-25% in direct regional development funds in the Nineties. The support per capita in the case of TFC, TEKI and CÉDE has exceeded the national average. The North Great Plain Region has received support from investment type agricultural supports, the Employment Fund and the Touristical Directives that well exceeded the national average, from the sectoral resource funds. However, the applicants of the North Great Plain Region have received little support in the case of environmental, water management and especially road development supports. About 200 applications have been submitted for the SAPARD calls nationally, 32 of these were from the North Great Plain Region. The significance of cooperation among sub-regions is demonstrated by the fact that, except for 15 settlements in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, all have submitted an application. The efforts of inhabitants is highlighted by the high number of submitted applications, as well as by the significant degree of own contribution. Still, the GDP of the North Great Plain Region has not increased, the rate and tendency of unemployment does not sufficiently reflect the positive effect of supports. The Regional Development Directive has provided support for the development of many small- and medium size enterprises, but their effect did not ensure a sustained economic growth.
    The greatest difficulty is that the number of dedicated professionals who are skilled in regional politics and regional development is few. However, advantages of our EU accession can only be exploited if a group of highly skilled professionals is provided on local, county, regional and national level as well. Thus, we need a group of professionals who are informed about the European Union, the EU support forms and most of all about the operation of Structural Funds and Cohesion Funds to establish the suitable institutional background for professionally handling the funds obtained from the EU, to prepare the professional documents to access the funds and to generate development projects to efficiently use the funds as well as establishing connections with the institutions of the EU. Appropriate share from funds coming from the EU is only possible if the country, certain regions, counties and sub-regions can achieve rapid results in the areas listed above.

  • Study of plant production modells with different intensity in winter wheat production

    The effects of crop rotation, nutrient supply and plant protection technologies were examined on the yield of Mv PÁLMA winter wheat variety and on the most important diseases of ear and leaf. Our experiments were carried out on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság in 2006 and 2007, and three plant protection technologies (extensive, average, intensive) and three irrigation variations (without irrigation, irrigated with 50 mm, irrigated with
    100 mm) were applied in different crop rotation systems. 
    In the triculture crop rotation a higher rate of infection was observed than in the biculture crop rotation, because the vegetative growth was more expressed after pea and these microclimatic factors were favourable for the development of pathogens.
    In the triculture crop rotation (pea – wheat – maize) the powdery mildew, DTR and leaf rust of wheat were present in both examined years (powdery mildew 5-15%, DTR 14-42%, leaf rust 8-37% in cropyear 2005/2006, powdery mildew 12-32%, DTR 9-29%, leaf rust 8-26% in cropyear 2006/2007). Fusaria could be observed in 2006 (depending on the plant protection technologies and nutrient supply in the biculture 7-27% and in the
    triculture 5-19%). With higher amounts of fertilizers the rate of infection increased and reached its maximum at the highest dose of nutrient supply (N200 +PK).
    We observed the highest rate of infection by ear and leaf diseases in the case of the extensive technology, while this rate could be considerably reduced by the application of the intensive technology.
    Both in 2006 and 2007, yields were the highest at the N100-200+PK levels in the triculture after pea (6028-7939 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2006, 6578-8690 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2007 depending on plant protection technologies), and at the N150-200+PK levels in the biculture after maize (6096-7653 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2006, 4974-8123 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2007 depending on the plant protection technologies). The highest yield maximums were
    reached when pea was the forecrop. The yields on the experimental plots of the intensive plant protection technology was 224-2198 kg ha-1 higher (depending on the forecrop) compared to the plots where the extensive technology was used.
    The highest yield without irrigation was at the N150+PK both in biculture and triculture crop rotation. Among the irrigated variations Ö2 and Ö3 at N200+PK fertilisation resulted in the highest yield in the biculture crop rotation, while the N100+PK level in triculture system. In the biculture crop rotation the extra yield was 14-51% higher (575-1225 kg ha-1 depending on plant protection technology) when 50 mm water was irrigated, and
    15-54% higher (778-2480 kg ha-1) if 100 mm irrigation was applied comparing to the non-irrigated versions. The yield was  7-17% higher (560-1086 kg ha-1) in the Ö2 irrigation variation, and 8-23% (691-1446 kg ha-1) higher in the Ö3 irrigation variation compared to Ö1 irrigation variation (non-irrigated).
    A correlation analysis was made to reveal the connection between the yield, the amount of fertilizers, the rate of infection, the plant protection technologies and the forecrops. Strong positive correlation (0.846) was found between year and fusaria infection. Strong positive correlation was observed between fertilization and powdery mildew infection (0.525), fertilization and DTR (0.528), fertilization and yield quantity (0.683). Lower
    correlation was found between fertilization and leaf rust infection (0.409), and forecrop and yield (0.472), recpectively. Negative correlation was calcutated between plant protection technologies and DTR (-0.611), and plant protection technologies and leaf rust (-0.649).

  • Characterization of two rust fungi related to biological control concept in Hungary

    Weeds cause serious problems in agriculture on a global scale. These plants reduce yield and the quality of crops by competing for water, nutrients and sunlight. The improper or excessive usage of herbicides have led to development of resistance in some weed species while contaminating the environment; therefore, biological control has an increasing role as an alternative method for controlling special weed species.

    The aim of this study is to make a brief review of biological control of weeds by pathogens and to characterize two rust fungi (Puccinia lagenophorae and Puccinia xanthii) which are broadly examined recently in a biological control concept and have been found on their hosts, such as common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris L.) and common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.), two common and difficult to manage weeds both in horticultural and agricultural lands also in Hungary.

  • Effect of the fertilization on some quality parameters of winter wheat

    We studied the different mineral fertilizer rates effect on the baking quality of five different winter wheat genotypes (GK Öthalom, Lupus, KG Széphalom, GK Békés, Mv Mazurka) on chernozom soil in 2008.
    The bigger fertilizer doses increased the wet gluten content, gluten elasticity and the protein content. The high doses of fertilization has got a moderate effect on the valorigaph value, water absorption, and falling number. The optimum level of the fertilizer doses were the N90-120+PK.
    The Pearson’s correlation analysis proved strong relationships between the fertilization and gluten content, the quality of the gluten, a valorigraph value, and the protein content. The analysis verified a strong correlation between genotype and falling number, and the protein content.
    The variety Mv Mazurka has got the best baking quality parameters.

  • Spectral analysis of stress symptoms caused by apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha

    An orchard can be examined on the basis of spectral data, using methods with which the reflected radiation can be divided into a large number of (several hundreds) small spectral channel (some nm). Calculated on the basis of such hyperspectral data from different index numbers the water supply of foliage conditions can be well characterized.

    The research site is an intensive apple orchard, which located in University of Debrecen, Agricultural Sciences Centre, Farm and Regional Research Institute at Pallag. During my experiments the preliminary evaluation of spectral, non-invasive measurement method are carried out for detecting stress symptoms caused by Podosphaera leucotricha.

    Based on the results narrow band greenness indices (NDVI705, mNDVI705, mSR705 and REP) can be used for determination of diseased canopy and for the detection of stress symptoms of Podosphaera leucotricha,. These statements can be utilized in precision plant protection systems, since it can be a basis for such integrated active sensors with LED or laser light source, measuring reflectance at the certain spectral range, which can facilitate real time status assessment of orchards and can control precision fungicide utilization.

  • The examination of poultry feather digestility for biogas production

    The aim of this research was the elaboration of the technological parameters of biological digestion and biogas production from poultry feather produced in large quantities by slaughterhouses. Feather protein was digested by Bacillus licheniformis, keratin desintegrator bacteria. Investigations focused on the optimalization of parameters influencing poultry feather biodegradation. The optimal range of pH, temperature, feather size and bacillus:feather ratio were determined in the experiments as well as the analysis of relationship between the examined parameters. In order to be able to track the dinamics of the biodegradation, we determined the extintion level of the liquid phase of the biodegraded material in the different experimental treatments. The results showed that the rate of hydrolisis was significantly higher in the treatments with bacteria than in the treatments without it. The most extensive digestion were observed in case of 1:3 feather:water ratio. The highest intensity of feather digestion were detected in the treatment with 1% microbe ratio.

  • Effect of cultivation factors on the yield and yield security of maize

    Cultivation factors have a significant effect on the yield and yield security of maize. Ensuring a suitable green crop is important. Tricultural crop rotation (pea–wheat–maize) in the average of 25 years provided a 2 t ha-1 higher yield compared to monocultural cultivation. A harmonious NPK nutriment supply determines yield and yield security, which can be especially realized by means of the application of precision cultivation technologies. Under average circumstances N 80 kg ha-1, P2O5 50 kg ha-1, K20 60 kg ha-1 active ingredient is the agro-ecological dosage of artificial fertilizer.
    Plant density is a factor that determines yield. Optimal plant density – beside the genetic characteristics of the hybrid – is mostly influenced by the level of water and nutriment supply.

  • Renewable energy resources in the EU (Policy scenario)

    The use of renewable energies has a long past, even though its share of the total energy use is rather low in European terms. However, the tendencies are definitely favourable which is further strengthened by the dedication of the European Union to sustainable development and combat against climate change. The European Union is on the right track in achieving its goal which is to be able to cover 20% its energy need from renewable energy resources by 2020. The increased use of wind, solar, water, tidal, geothermal and biomass energy will reduce the energy import dependence of the European Union and it will stimulate innovation.

  • Preliminary test: Evaluation and selection of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) varieties resistant to drought and powdery mildew

    Powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica) and (Oidium neolycopersici) are two harmful fungi that invade the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plant and grow in dry conditions. Under the influence of polyethylene glycol 6000 at a concentration of 12%, the total seedlings fresh weight, total seedlings dry weight, seedling growth rate of one seedling, seedling length, and tissue water content percentage for three tomato varieties were assessed. Despite the superiority of the (Mobil) tomato variety in terms of numerical values, the results revealed no significant differences between varieties. As a result, (Mobil) has greater vigor under environmental drought stress of lower osmotic stress than other tomato varieties. More work is required to evaluate the research selection of varieties resistant to biotic stresses in dry areas, such as powdery mildew disease.

  • The impact of applying foliar fertilizers on the health condition of maize


    The nutrient supply of plants is becoming more important in plant protection since the appropriate condition of plants can be ensured by optimal and satisfactory nutrient supply to avoid nutritional deficiency diseases. Due to the extreme weather conditions, plants are forced to face several stress factors, which leads to deterioration of the plant health. The increasing occurrence of droughts poses threat to nutrient uptake through the roots since all the nutrients can be accessible to the plants only if they are in dissolved form in the soil – which is not possible in the absence of water. Therefore, the importance of foliar fertilizer is becoming a more and more significant part of the nutrient supply, because with the help of this technology the development of any nutrient deficiency can be prevented.

    In this experiment, we focused on the efficiency of two different foliar fertilizers on maize.  Foliar fertilizers were applied two times, once in the stage with 8 leaves and tasseling phenophase of the maize. To verify the efficiency of the foliar fertilizers, the chlorophyll content of untreated and treated plant’s leaves was measured after each application. Moreover, the length and diameter of maize cobs, thousand kernel weight, protein, oil and starch content were also measured, and the results were compared to the untreated (control) ones. According to the results, in all aspects significant differences were observed and due to the laboratory analysis of leaves, in the case of magnesium and zinc supply the foliar fertilizers were able to prevent the development of nutrient deficiency.

  • Site and hybrid-specific agrotechnical models in sweet corn production

    The effect of three agrotechnical factors (sowing time, fertilization, plant density) and two genotypes on the crop yield of sweet corn was examined on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság region in two different crop years. Compared to the 30-year average, the climate was dry and warm in 2009 and humid in 2010. The experiments were conducted at the Látókép Research Site of the University of Debrecen. In the experiments we applied two sowing times (end of April, end of May), six fertilization levels (control, N30+PK, N60+PK, N90+PK, N120+PK, N150+PK) and two crop density levels (45 thousand ha-1, 65 thousand ha-1). The hybrids we used were Jumbo and Enterprise. As regards the requirements of sweet corn production, the crop year of 2009 was dry and warm. The effect of moisture deficiency was more adverse on the crop yields with the second sowing time. On the contrary, the other examined year (2010) was significantly humid; the precipitation was 184 mm above the 30-year average and the temperature was average.
    In the dry and hot crop year, the best yields were obtained with the hybrid Jumbo (25677 kg-1) at 65 thousand ha-1 plant density level on the average of the fertilization levels. The crop yields of Enterprise were also the highest at high plant density level (24444 kg ha-1). With the second sowing time the highest yields were obtained at the higher plant density level (65 thousand ha-1) with both hybrids (Jumbo 18978 kg ha-1, Enterprise 18991 kg ha-1), which confirmed the good adaptation capability of these hybrids at high plant density level. In humid crop year with early sowing time the highest yielding hybrid was Enterprise (at 45 thousand ha-1 crop density level 20757 kg-1), at the same time, Jumbo was best yielding at the higher plant density level (18781 kg-1). With the second sowing time the highest crop yield was obtained with Enterprise again (20628 kg ha-1 at 65 thousand ha-1 plant density level). With this sowing time the average yields of Jumbo, was 18914 kg ha-1 respectively. We found that dry crop year and early sowing time provided the best conditions for sweet corn production; the highest yields were obtained under these circumstances, which might be the results of the outstanding water management of chernozem  soils.