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Evaluation of automated anaerobic fermentation processes as in the case of mould infected maize
Published February 10, 2013
81-86

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In Hungary the renewable energy utilization is planned to achieve 13% by 2020. Biogas production is one of the fields with the largest energy potential. Achieving high efficiency during continuous production despite the mixed and variable composition of input materials is the most common problem which the newly built biogas plants using agricultural raw materials have to deal with. The first experimental reactors at the Department of Water and Environmental Management were built 12 years ago. Control and automation of the four separated bioreactors were executed with ADVANTECH GENIE 3.0 software which granted pre-programmed measurement and points of intervention for pH, temperature, CH4, CO2, H2S, and NH3. The system became out-of-data, therefore in 2010 it has been redesigned and tested. The system is controlled by Compair Proview SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) software running on Linux platforms. The Fusarium infection caused serious yield-losses in cereal production in 2010. In the case of cereal products, which non-utilizable as forage seems an optimal solution is utilizing as biogas raw material. The raw material was based on the Fusarium infected maize. In the recent publication infotechnological and technological experiences of the pilot test period are evaluated as well as direction of future development is defined.

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Study of the biodegradation of slaughterhause feather waste by Bradford method
Published February 25, 2014
77-81

The 15–20% of the by-products of meat- and poultry industry – that unsuitable for human consumption – contains keratin. The slaughter technology of poultry produces large amount of poultry feather with 50–70% moisture content. This means more million tons annually worldwide (Williams et al., 1991; Hegedűs et al., 1998). The keratin con...tent of feather can be difficulty digested, so physical, chemical and/or biological pre-treatment is needed in practice, which has to be set according to the utilization method. The microbiological and enzymatic degradation of feather to soluble protein and amino acids is a very favourable and relatively cheap opportunity to produce valuable products of the resulting feather. Our applied treatments were based on the determination of the most effective method, which is able to follow the biodegradation of waste poultry feather.

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Ecotoxicological impact of DON toxin on maize (Zea mays L.) germination
Published February 25, 2014
35-40

Fusarium graminearum is one of the most significant arable pathogen in Hungary, and various types of trichothecene mycotoxins (mostly DON, deoxynivalenol) are detected most commonly in cereals (Biró et al., 2011). Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production could not be eliminated, and infected maize by Fusarium sp. cannot be exploited as food..., seed, or animal feed. However it can be raw material of biogas production. In this research we would like to investigate the content and effect of the toxin in the end product of biogas production on plant germination. The Fusarium sp. can cause mildew and seedling mortality in seed of maize (Zea mays L.), so we examine the effect of this on germination. In preliminary examination Fusarium sp. was not detected in the bioreactor of the Institute after the retention time (30 day), however it can be assumed that during the hydrolysis of the fungus growth and mycotoxin production also increased exponentially. There were no appropriate tools to detect the toxin in the end product of biogas production so modelling of anaerobic hydrolysis was necessary. The effects of hydrolyzed product for germination were also detected.

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New methods of compost homogeneity determination in sewage sludge based compost prisms
Published October 20, 2009
49-52

There is no effective method of homogeneity measurement of compost prism. The most frequently used technology is the examination of the particle distribution. This method needs a lot of time and large number of samples. The aim of our research is establishing different effective methods to determine the homogeneity of compost prisms. During our... work, we examined the homogeneity of a prism made of sewage sludge and saw-dust mixture.
The measurements were based on the different properties of raw materials. According to this we examined the homogeneity by moisture content, heavy metal content and gas distribution measurements.
The most effective method is the measurement of gasconcentration. Although gas-concentration measurements it need special equipment it has more advantages than the other methods. The examination of gas-distribution compensates the problem of sampling because the measurement is direct. It provides the opportunity to estimate the amount of emitted toxic gases and to determine the maturity of the compost and the effectiveness of the degradation.

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Physical and chemical treatment of poultry feather from the slaughter-house
Published December 22, 2010
51-56

The 15-20% of the by-products of meat – and poultry industry – that unsuitable for human consumption – contains keratin. The slaughter technology of poultry produces large amount of poultry feather with 50-70% moisture content. This means more million tons annually worldwide (Williams et al., 1991; Hegedűs et al., 1998). The keratin cont...ent of feather can be difficulty digested, so physical, chemical and/or biological pretreatment is needed in practice, which has to be set according to the utilization method.
Our applied treatments were based on biogas production, which is a possible utilization method. In the IFA (TULLN) Environmental Biotechnology Institute the feather was homogenized, and – according to the previous examinations – the most effective 1:2 feather-distilled water ratio or 1% NaOH-solution was used, and then treated with microwave (70, 130, 160 °C) during 1 hour time period. DM% and oDM% content was analyzed in the original samples, and the pH, Carbon-, Nitrogen-content in the output, too. Based on the received correlation coefficients (R) and related significance values (Sig.) I concluded, that the C-, N-content and the pH values weren’t influenced by any of the additives. The temperature
affected all three tested factors. The temperature showed a strong coherency with the N-content and the pH value when distilled water was used and weak-medium coherency with the Carboncontent. With NaOH-solution treatment the temperature gave strong coherency with the C- and N-content, as well as medium coherency with the pH. Our objective was to determine the method with effectively the pre-treating of poultry feather for biogas production or composting and to prepare of the treated samples for N and C analyzing. Our next aims will be the elaboration of the technological parameters of heat pre-treatment and microbial digestion of poultry feather for biogas production. 

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Mitigation of environment impact of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species
Published December 16, 2012
159-164

The Fusarium fungi hazards the grain quality of cereals, therefore significantly affects their utilization as animal feed or consumable product. The Fusarium can decrease the quality of wheat in different ways: decreases the germination capability, causes visible discoloration, mould may appear, reduces the dry material and nutrient content of ...the grain, causes mycotoxin infection – as a result given by its by-product. Micotoxins produced by Fusarium genus, as the trichotecenes (T-2, HT-2, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, Fusarenone-X) and the zearalenone (F-2) are the most common in Hungary. Occurrence of fumonisins first discovered in 1988 are must be identified carefully. About 20–30% of the overall worldwide production of cereals is infected with Fusarium and its toxins, which situation is similar in Hungary. This infection causes serious yield-losses in cereal production. In the case of cereal products, which non-utilizable as forage seems, an optimal solution is utilizing as biogas raw material, but it is also important to examine the effect of the infected cereal on the anaerobe digestion process.

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Heat treatment and microbial digestion of poulty feather for biogas production
Published November 15, 2007
215-219

The aim of this research was the elaboration of the technological parameters of heat pre-treatment and microbial digestion of poultry feathers for biogas production. Feathers were treated at 70, 100, 140 °C, and subsequently digested by Bacillus licheniformis, or keratin disintegrator bacteria. Investigations focused on the optimalization of p...arameters influencing poultry feather biodegradation. The optimal range of pH, temperature,
feather size and bacillus:feather ratio were determined in the experiments, as well as the analysis of relationship between the examined parameters. In order to be able to track the dynamics of the biodegradation, we determined the extinction level of the liquid phase of the biodegraded material in the different experimental treatments. The results showed that the rate of hydrolysis was significantly higher in the treatments with bacteria than in the treatments without it. Regarding the pretreatments at 70, 100 and 140 °C, the digestion of feather was the most intensive at 70 °C. The most extensive digestion was observed in case of 1:3 feather:water ratio. The highest intensity of feather digestion was
detected in the treatment with 1% microbe ratio.  

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Anaerobe degradation of maize infected by Fusarium graminearum
Published July 18, 2012
57-61

Last year intense rainfalls and moisture conditions were beneficial for the Fusarium sp. in Hungary. Fusarium strains decrease cereal quality (for example maize), furthermore may cause yield loss. Due to the toxin production, the fungi have a dangerous animal and human pathogen effect (Placinta et al., 1999).The effects of the Fusarium infectio...n and its mycotoxin production haven’t been perfectly eliminated. Fusariumgraminearum
is the most common agricultural pathogen in Hungary. The utilization of infected maize as an alternative biogas raw material may be an efficient and environmentally friendly disposal method. In this case, Fusarium-, and mycotoxin-content of the maize have to be analyzed as well as the impact of these factors’ on the biogas production process. Our experience was based on the raw material basis of a biogas plant. Different amount of Fusarium free and infected maize grits have been added to the regular raw material mixture. The detection of Fusarium fungi has been analyzed
in experimental digesters throughout the different stages of mesophilic digestion. In the biogas liquid end product the Fusarium was detected by breeding and by microscope. According to our results, the Fusarium sp. was not detectable in the liquid end product after 30 days.

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The examination of poultry feather digestility for biogas production
Published July 16, 2007
113-118

The aim of this research was the elaboration of the technological parameters of biological digestion and biogas production from poultry feather produced in large quantities by slaughterhouses. Feather protein was digested by Bacillus licheniformis, keratin desintegrator bacteria. Investigations focused on the optimalization of parameters influe...ncing poultry feather biodegradation. The optimal range of pH, temperature, feather size and bacillus:feather ratio were determined in the experiments as well as the analysis of relationship between the examined parameters. In order to be able to track the dinamics of the biodegradation, we determined the extintion level of the liquid phase of the biodegraded material in the different experimental treatments. The results showed that the rate of hydrolisis was significantly higher in the treatments with bacteria than in the treatments without it. The most extensive digestion were observed in case of 1:3 feather:water ratio. The highest intensity of feather digestion were detected in the treatment with 1% microbe ratio.

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Pre-treatment of wastes containing keratin in industrial conditions
Published October 10, 2008
59-64

The aim of the research was a development of a featherdegradation technology in industrial circumstances. During the experiments we determined the parameters of the critical environmental and technological limitation factors. Because of the high keratin-content the degradation (and composting) of the feather is difficult. With the developed tec...hnology huge mass of feather can be used fast and easily in biogas production and in the adjustment of the optimal element ratio of biomass. The industrial experiments were implemented in a 6m3 heatable double-walled
tank with stirring-shovels and aeration-system. The degradation process was followed with extinction measurements.
According to the experiments that were done the best results were given at the case which was heat-treated at 70°C, was injected with 1% bacteria concentration, and where 1:3 feather:water ratio was set if we consider the effectiveness of degradation and the hydraulical retention time.

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The examination of relation between the C/N ratio and the biogas yields in the Regional Biogas Plant of Nyírbátor
Published October 20, 2009
63-68

The Regional Biogas Plant of Nyírbátor was built by the Bátortrade Ltd. The biogas plant contains 6 mezophil and 6 thermophil fermentation tanks, because the biogas production is based on mixed compositions. The regional plant is a multifunctional system. It produces agricultural products and biogas with high methane content. The utilization... of biogas is also accomplished here; gas-engines transform it to electricity and
heat-energy. The product electricity is used by the local plants, the surplus is sold. 
The aim of the research is the examination of the quality and quantity of the input materials that put into the mixers and follow the seasonal, periodical and optional changes of the input materials. The analyzation of the quality and quantity data can give an answer to the optional changes of biogas production because the input materials determine the composition of the examined recipe. The C/N ratio was between 11-13, the maximal value of the biogas yield was observed by 12.35 C/N ratio.

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