Search

Published After
Published Before

Search Results

  • Ecotoxicological impact of DON toxin on maize (Zea mays L.) germination
    35-40
    Views:
    147

    Fusarium graminearum is one of the most significant arable pathogen in Hungary, and various types of trichothecene mycotoxins (mostly DON, deoxynivalenol) are detected most commonly in cereals (Biró et al., 2011). Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production could not be eliminated, and infected maize by Fusarium sp. cannot be exploited as food, seed, or animal feed. However it can be raw material of biogas production. In this research we would like to investigate the content and effect of the toxin in the end product of biogas production on plant germination. The Fusarium sp. can cause mildew and seedling mortality in seed of maize (Zea mays L.), so we examine the effect of this on germination. In preliminary examination Fusarium sp. was not detected in the bioreactor of the Institute after the retention time (30 day), however it can be assumed that during the hydrolysis of the fungus growth and mycotoxin production also increased exponentially. There were no appropriate tools to detect the toxin in the end product of biogas production so modelling of anaerobic hydrolysis was necessary. The effects of hydrolyzed product for germination were also detected.

  • Evaluation of automated anaerobic fermentation processes as in the case of mould infected maize
    81-86
    Views:
    146

    In Hungary the renewable energy utilization is planned to achieve 13% by 2020. Biogas production is one of the fields with the largest energy potential. Achieving high efficiency during continuous production despite the mixed and variable composition of input materials is the most common problem which the newly built biogas plants using agricultural raw materials have to deal with. The first experimental reactors at the Department of Water and Environmental Management were built 12 years ago. Control and automation of the four separated bioreactors were executed with ADVANTECH GENIE 3.0 software which granted pre-programmed measurement and points of intervention for pH, temperature, CH4, CO2, H2S, and NH3. The system became out-of-data, therefore in 2010 it has been redesigned and tested. The system is controlled by Compair Proview SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) software running on Linux platforms. The Fusarium infection caused serious yield-losses in cereal production in 2010. In the case of cereal products, which non-utilizable as forage seems an optimal solution is utilizing as biogas raw material. The raw material was based on the Fusarium infected maize. In the recent publication infotechnological and technological experiences of the pilot test period are evaluated as well as direction of future development is defined.

  • Examination of the efficacy of different fungicides against Macrophomina phaseolina and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in laboratory conditions
    21-24
    Views:
    187

    Macrophomina phaseolina and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum are two significant fungal pathogens of sunflower. M. phaseolina causes charcoal rot and ashy stem blight in several important crop species. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes white mold disease which can occur as middle stalk rot, head rot and premature plant death. Due to the wide host range of the two pathogens and their survival structures, crop rotation cannot provide sufficient protection against them. In our experiment, we selected two fungicides, Mirage and Prosaro, which are widely used in practice, and we tested their efficacy against the two pathogens. The efficiency of these fungicides was tested at a concentration of 10; 20; 50; 100 and 500 ppm. The Prosaro totally inhibited the mycelial growth of both pathogens at a concentration of 50 ppm, 100 ppm and 500 ppm. The Mirage caused total mycelial growth inhibition in all treatments against both pathogens.

  • Inhibition of the spread of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in aquaponics
    5-8
    Views:
    200

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which causes white mold, is a widespread pathogen. In 2020, a new host plant of this fungus, the watercress (Nasturtium officinale) was identified in Hungary in an aquaponic system. During the cultivation of watercress S. sclerotiorum was detected on the plant, the fungus caused a 30% yield loss. Fungicides should not be used against fungi in aquaponic systems. Non-chemical methods of integrated pest management should be used. These include biological control (resistant species, predators, pathogens, antagonist microorganisms), manipulation of physical barriers, traps, and the physical environment. In the aquaponic system, the removal of the growing medium (expanded clay aggregate pellets) solved the damage of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum 100%. By removing the expanded clay aggregate pellets, the environmental conditions became unfavorable for the development and further spread of the S. sclerotium fungus.

  • Applicability of reflectance to determine compost maturity
    31-35
    Views:
    104

    The utilisation of composts depends on their maturity and stability. A great part of the determination methods can be set in laboratory and needs complicated sample preparation. The aim of this paper was introduce an effective and fast method which based on the different reflectance of the different organic compounds.
    During our research we examined the degradation process of compost prisms based on sewage sludge, wood-clipping and straw with temperature and reflectance measurements.
    As a result, we came to the conclusion that the reflectance, measured at 645 nm or higher, is applicable to determine compost maturity if it is used with temperature measurements.

  • Risk effects of the spread route of mycotoxins
    90-95
    Views:
    89

    In Hungary the mycotoxin is a great problem, because there are many natural toxins in wheat and maize. These cereals can be found on
    considerable proportion of the country’s sowing area, and they are deterministic food for the population. The direct human and animal
    utilization of the contaminated cereals mean a serious risk in the food chain. In Hungary’s climate the soil is contaminated with pathogen
    moulds, particularly Fusarium species, which increase by respective temperature and moisture content in cereals. The Fusarium can
    decrease the quality of the wheat in different ways: decrease the germination capability and cause visible discoloration and appearance of
    mould, reduces the dry material and nutrient content of the grain. From the toxins produced by the Fusarium genus, the trichotecene (T-2,
    HT-2, deoxinivalenol, nivalenol, diacetoxyscxirpenol, Fusarenon-X) and the estrogenic zearalenon (F-2) are the most common in Hungary.
    The fumonisins (FB1, FB2, FB3) first identified in 1988, relatively newly discovered, are also important. Major proportion of mycotoxins in a
    healthy organization is metabolized by the enzyme system of liver and intestinal bacteria. The toxicity is reduced or even leaves off.
    However, more toxic and biologically active compounds can be formed. For the reduction of mycotoxin-contamination several possibilities
    are available in the case of storage, processing and feeding.

  • Mitigation of environment impact of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species
    159-164
    Views:
    139

    The Fusarium fungi hazards the grain quality of cereals, therefore significantly affects their utilization as animal feed or consumable product. The Fusarium can decrease the quality of wheat in different ways: decreases the germination capability, causes visible discoloration, mould may appear, reduces the dry material and nutrient content of the grain, causes mycotoxin infection – as a result given by its by-product. Micotoxins produced by Fusarium genus, as the trichotecenes (T-2, HT-2, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, Fusarenone-X) and the zearalenone (F-2) are the most common in Hungary. Occurrence of fumonisins first discovered in 1988 are must be identified carefully. About 20–30% of the overall worldwide production of cereals is infected with Fusarium and its toxins, which situation is similar in Hungary. This infection causes serious yield-losses in cereal production. In the case of cereal products, which non-utilizable as forage seems, an optimal solution is utilizing as biogas raw material, but it is also important to examine the effect of the infected cereal on the anaerobe digestion process.