Review of the biology of plant psyllid (Cacopsylla pruni, Scopoli 1763), and its role in the spreading of European stone fruit yellows, ESFY-phytoplasma with Hungarian data25-33Views:289
The European stone fruit yellows (ESFY) phytoplasma disease caused by pathogen ’Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum’ induces serious damages in cherry, sour cherry, peach, and apricot orchards mostly in Europe. Its known vector is the plum psyllid (Cacopsylla pruni). Many articles report on the biology (morphology, taxonomy, life cycle etc.) and the method of transmission of the pathogen by the vector, and the possibilities of their control. This paper reviews our knowledge about the vector, and summarises the results of an inland research carried out in a northeastern Hungarian apricot orchards. Our goal was to show some important data for the farmers or anyone who is interested in this disease and its vector. And give some known method that we can protect our orchards against them to prevent the appearance of the disease. As the psyllid that became infected with the pathogen can hold its infectionous capacity during their lifetime, it is very important to have enough knowledge about their lifecycle, that we can determine the right time and method to control them. We also have to know how to identify them; therefore, this paper lists several important data which can be helpful. The most important keys of identification are their wing color, which dark borwn in the apex and brown is in the remaining part of the forewing. The length of the antennae is also an important factor, since other genuse’s species have longer antennae than twice the width of the head. C. pruni has as long antennae as twice the width of the head. They return to Prunus species in early spring and we have to protect our orhards in this period against them. We have to use preparations with a knock down effect on them to prevent the inoculation of the pathogen into the trees in our orchards.
Examination of different fungicides against Macrophomina phaseolina in laboratory conditions65-69Views:121
In Hungary, sunflower is the third most important arable crop, which has a lot of pathogenic fungi. One of these fungi is the Macrophomina phaseolina, which is a well-known fungus in all over the world, since this pathogen has more than 700 host plants. In Hungary, several host plants can be found as well. The M. phaseolina produces microsclerotia, which can survive in the soil and residues for almost 10 years. For now, there is no efficient treatment against this pathogen because of this fungus, since it is extremely resistant and cannot be destroyed easily. The only effective treatment against the fungus is genetic defence. In this study, three different fungicides were tested in vitro against the fungus. The Mirage (prochloraz) seemed to be the most effective fungicide as it completely arrested the hyphal growth. In contrast, the Amistar Xtra (azoxystrobin and ciprochonazol) has only a minor effect on the growth of M. phaseolina. Thirdly, the Retengo (pyrachlostrobin) arrested the hyhpal growth of the fungus with 71% at 100 ppm, in other words, the use of this fungicide seems promising.
Investigation of the mycelial compatibility of Macrophomina phaseolina in the Carpatian Basin25-28Views:99
Macrophomina phaseolina is a globally widespread fungal pathogen. The fungus has a very wide range of hosts. Under optimal conditions, M. phaseolina can cause serious damage tothe host plants. In this study, the mycelial compatibility of different M. phaseolina isolates was investigated. From 2019 to 2021, 12 sunflower samples were collected from different regions of the Carpathian Basin, 9 samples from Hungary, 1 sample from Austria, and 2 samples from Slovakia. The genetic variability of the pathogen is a critical problem in plant protection. Two compatible pathogen strains can easily exchange their genetic material for each other, which can lead to the development of resistance. All collected samples (12) were tested to examine their compatibility. Isolates from all tested samples were paired with isolates from all other samples thus, a total of 66 pairings were made. During the examinations of mycelial compatibility, only 20 pairs of all possible pairings were found to be incompatible, and all others (46) were found to be compatible.
Examination of the efficacy of different fungicides against Macrophomina phaseolina and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in laboratory conditions21-24Views:183
Macrophomina phaseolina and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum are two significant fungal pathogens of sunflower. M. phaseolina causes charcoal rot and ashy stem blight in several important crop species. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes white mold disease which can occur as middle stalk rot, head rot and premature plant death. Due to the wide host range of the two pathogens and their survival structures, crop rotation cannot provide sufficient protection against them. In our experiment, we selected two fungicides, Mirage and Prosaro, which are widely used in practice, and we tested their efficacy against the two pathogens. The efficiency of these fungicides was tested at a concentration of 10; 20; 50; 100 and 500 ppm. The Prosaro totally inhibited the mycelial growth of both pathogens at a concentration of 50 ppm, 100 ppm and 500 ppm. The Mirage caused total mycelial growth inhibition in all treatments against both pathogens.
Inhibition of the spread of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in aquaponics5-8Views:196
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which causes white mold, is a widespread pathogen. In 2020, a new host plant of this fungus, the watercress (Nasturtium officinale) was identified in Hungary in an aquaponic system. During the cultivation of watercress S. sclerotiorum was detected on the plant, the fungus caused a 30% yield loss. Fungicides should not be used against fungi in aquaponic systems. Non-chemical methods of integrated pest management should be used. These include biological control (resistant species, predators, pathogens, antagonist microorganisms), manipulation of physical barriers, traps, and the physical environment. In the aquaponic system, the removal of the growing medium (expanded clay aggregate pellets) solved the damage of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum 100%. By removing the expanded clay aggregate pellets, the environmental conditions became unfavorable for the development and further spread of the S. sclerotium fungus.