Box tree moth shows (Cydalima perspectalis) rapid spread in Europe. In Hungary it appeared first near to the western border of the country in 2011. In the eastern part of Hungary the first specimen was caught in 2015 with blacklight trap. Here we summarize its distribution in northern part of the Alföld (Great Hungarian Plain) on the basis of ...blacklight, pheromone and feeding attractant traps. We publish five new distribution data from northern part (4 from Hungary, 1 from Transcarpathia) and two from southern part of the Alföld. Beyond that the flight of three generations was observed both in the year 2015 and 2016.
The 15–20% of the by-products of meat- and poultry industry – that unsuitable for human consumption – contains keratin. The slaughter technology of poultry produces large amount of poultry feather with 50–70% moisture content. This means more million tons annually worldwide (Williams et al., 1991; Hegedűs et al., 1998). The keratin con...tent of feather can be difficulty digested, so physical, chemical and/or biological pre-treatment is needed in practice, which has to be set according to the utilization method. The microbiological and enzymatic degradation of feather to soluble protein and amino acids is a very favourable and relatively cheap opportunity to produce valuable products of the resulting feather. Our applied treatments were based on the determination of the most effective method, which is able to follow the biodegradation of waste poultry feather.
Noctuidae are one of the most important Lepidoptera groups containing dangerous pest species. Monitoring and detection of these pest species is routinely performed by traps baited with sex-pheromones. Baits that attract both males and females were developed for improved pest management. First the effectiveness of different synthetic compounds w...as evaluated. We also tested semi-synthetic baits that contained both synthetic and natural components (wine and beer). These were more attractive for moths considering species richness and abundance. Disadvantage of this increased effectiveness is that the traps catch more non target, rare and even protected species. In this study we analysed the effect of semi-synthetic baits developed for Noctuid moths containing wine on other non-target Lepidopterans. In the six sampling sites traps caught 17158 individuals of 183 Lepidoptera species. The number of Noctuidae species was 124, while their proportion was 84.4%. The traps caught 813 individuals of 9 protected and 20 valuable species, which was only 4.7% of all Lepidopterans. In contrast the mean proportion of 33 dangerous and potential pest species was 31.3% (5375 individuals). Number and abundance of both protected and pest species were affected by landscape structure. The risks of catching non-target species was higher in species rich natural and semi-natural landscape. In homogenous arable lands the number and proportion of valuable Lepidopterans was not significant.
The Game Reserve of Nagydobrony extends on a marginal area of a former peatland and is covered with extended hardwood gallery forests and oak-hornbeam forests and is surrounded by a mosaic-like agricultural landscape. Due to its richness of nature-like and semi-natural habitats it supports a diverse insect assemblage. By light and bait trapping... 383 species of macro-moths were recorded from which larvae of 85 species are feeding either on forest trees and scrubs or on cultivated plants thus these can be considered as potential pest species. Thirteen species (mostly Geometridae and Erebidae: Lymantriinae) have a special significance for forestry due to defoliating activity in gradation periods. Considering the habitat connections, the composition of moth assemblage is dominated by generalist species with broad spectrum of ecological tolerance but the species connected with humid forested habitats are also richly represented. The bulk of species consists of widely distributed Euro-Siberian species, but also some Holo-Mediterranean species with more southern character and Mediterranean-Subtropical migrant species were registered. The bait trapping provided significant results on the phenology of the dominant species. The faunistically significant and/or protected species were observed in a low number of individuals only, thus the applied trapping methods did not damage the faunal composition.
The effect of the preparation method was examined with regards to the physical and chemical characteristics of the propolis tincture, namely the extraction time and the ethanol content of the extraction solvent to the dry matter, polyphenol, flavonoid, phosphorus, calcium and copper concentration, respectively. The dry matter, the polyphenol an...d the flavonoid content were the lowest in the water extract of the propolis; however, significant increase was noticed depending on the extraction time. Significantly higher concentrations were found in 50 V/V% tinctures. The highest dry matter and flavonoid contents were analysed in 100 V/V% tinctures, whereas highest polyphenol content was found in 80 V/V% tinctures. However, the differences were not significant in several cases between latter tinctures. Moreover, the increase was not determined in some cases depending on the extraction time. Phosphorus and calcium concentrations were decreased depending on the increasing ethanol content, whereas copper concentration was increased up to 80 V/V%. Higher increase was found in the case of 0 and 50 V/V% extracts than in 80 and 100 V/V% tinctures. Moreover, in latter cases, no significant differences were found on several occasions, depending on the extraction time. There was no connection between the flavonoids and the calcium as well as the phosphorus content, whereas flavonoids may be made complex with copper. However, the amount of the possible complex was negligible.
The elemental content of 61 raw propolis samples from Pest, Zala and Bács-Kiskun county (Hungary) were analyzed by ICP-OES. The content of Al, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Sr and Zn were measured in the samples. Median is higher than mean in all cases based on the summarized results. It can be explained by the outliers, moreover it has ...a non-normal distribution. The concentrations are in an extremely wide range, the ratio of the maximum and minimum is under 10 in case of six elements, between 10 and 35.1 in the case of other six elements,and more than 300 in case of Zn. Significant differences are between counties only in the case of B, K and P based on ANOVA. Other elements have no significant differences. The following order can be set up based on the mean concentrations and the wide ranges: K≥Ca>P≥S≥Fe≥Mg≥Al>Zn≥Na>Mn≥B>Cu≥Sr. Moreover it can be established, that the measured concentrations are near the same or in some cases lower than in other publications.