Distribution of the American grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus Ball 1932) in surroundings of Nagyvárad (Oradea, West Romania) and Debrecen (East Hungary)39-44Views:149
The first European appearance of american grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus), which is the vector of Grapevine Flavescence Dorée phytoplasma (‘Ca. Phytoplasma vitis’), were detected in France in 1924. The leafhopper has been distributed since 2006 in Hungary and now it occurs in the whole country, while the first record of the phytoplasma was published in 2013.
We studied the distribution of the leafhopper in surroundings of Nagyvárad (Oradea, West Romania) in 2015 and surroundings of Debrecen (East Hungary) in 2016. During the studies 17 sites were sampled. The leafhoppers were found in six Romanian places with relatively low abundances while it occurs in all studied Hungarian sites and two of them showed extremely high frequenncy.
Occurence and spreading of box tree moth (Cydalima perspectalis Walker 1859) on the North-East region of Great Hungarian Plain45-50Views:150
Box tree moth shows (Cydalima perspectalis) rapid spread in Europe. In Hungary it appeared first near to the western border of the country in 2011. In the eastern part of Hungary the first specimen was caught in 2015 with blacklight trap. Here we summarize its distribution in northern part of the Alföld (Great Hungarian Plain) on the basis of blacklight, pheromone and feeding attractant traps. We publish five new distribution data from northern part (4 from Hungary, 1 from Transcarpathia) and two from southern part of the Alföld. Beyond that the flight of three generations was observed both in the year 2015 and 2016.
Studies on the development of food attractants catching noctuid mouths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)86-91Views:140
The monitoring of the most dangerous noctuid pests (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) can be performed by species specific pheromone traps. Recently the development of traps catching female moths became the main objective of the studies. We studied the synergistic effect of vine and beer as natural additive on the effectiveness of baits containing isoamyl alcohol and acetic acid in Forró and Debrecen-Ondód. The addition of vine and beer had positive effect on catches and it was significant in case of two dangerous pest species Agrotis segetum and Lacanobia oleracea. The synergistic effect was also significant with regard to the number of detected species especially in case of lower abundances and rare species.
Preliminary data on the effect of semi-synthetic baits for Noctuidae (Lepidoptera) on the non-target Lepidoptera species71-80Views:178
Noctuidae are one of the most important Lepidoptera groups containing dangerous pest species. Monitoring and detection of these pest species is routinely performed by traps baited with sex-pheromones. Baits that attract both males and females were developed for improved pest management. First the effectiveness of different synthetic compounds was evaluated. We also tested semi-synthetic baits that contained both synthetic and natural components (wine and beer). These were more attractive for moths considering species richness and abundance. Disadvantage of this increased effectiveness is that the traps catch more non target, rare and even protected species. In this study we analysed the effect of semi-synthetic baits developed for Noctuid moths containing wine on other non-target Lepidopterans. In the six sampling sites traps caught 17158 individuals of 183 Lepidoptera species. The number of Noctuidae species was 124, while their proportion was 84.4%. The traps caught 813 individuals of 9 protected and 20 valuable species, which was only 4.7% of all Lepidopterans. In contrast the mean proportion of 33 dangerous and potential pest species was 31.3% (5375 individuals). Number and abundance of both protected and pest species were affected by landscape structure. The risks of catching non-target species was higher in species rich natural and semi-natural landscape. In homogenous arable lands the number and proportion of valuable Lepidopterans was not significant.
Examination of the American grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus Ball) in Debrecen and Micske (Misca, West Romania)77-81Views:127
Grapevine flavescence dorée (FD) was detected first in Hungary in 2013 in Zala County (South-West-Hungary). The disease is a serious danger for grapevine growing and grapevine propagating production. In 2014, the pathogen has been found in several new places in Hungary, viz. in Vas and Fejér Counties, and it was also detected in the former location in Zala County. The american grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus) is the main vector of the disease. This pest was detected first in Hungary in 2006 and then it has spread all over the country. Since we have not detailed distribution data of this pest in surroundings of Debrecen, therefore we made observations in this region in 2014. The presence of the pest was confirmed by yellow sticky cards in two locations in Debrecen and another site in West Romania near to Hungarian border. We found that S. titanus is present in each sampled sites that cause serious potential danger for the appearance and spread of Grapevine flavescence dorée (FD) in this region.
Comparison of different pheromone traps for monitoring of click beetle Agriotes ustulatus (Coleoptera Elateridae)155-159Views:119
The effectiveness of two trap types (YATLORf and VARb3 with CSALOMON® sex pheromone bait) for monitoring click beetle Agriotes ustu latus was compared near Karcag (East Hungary) in 2016. Additionally effectiveness of YATLORf traps placed on ground and placed on a 25 cm high mound was also compared. Contrary to our expectations traps caught very few individuals thus our study could provide only preliminary results. Between traps and methods there were not significant differences but YATLORf traps placed on mounds caught more individuals than others. The swarming imagos of A. ustulatus were also detected two weeks earlier in 2016 than as usual. To prove the effect of the way of usage on the effectiveness of YATLORf traps new studies should be made.
Pest species of Macrolepidoptera in the Game Reserve of Velyka Dobron’ (Transcarpathia, Ukraine)58-64Views:202
The Game Reserve of Nagydobrony extends on a marginal area of a former peatland and is covered with extended hardwood gallery forests and oak-hornbeam forests and is surrounded by a mosaic-like agricultural landscape. Due to its richness of nature-like and semi-natural habitats it supports a diverse insect assemblage. By light and bait trapping 383 species of macro-moths were recorded from which larvae of 85 species are feeding either on forest trees and scrubs or on cultivated plants thus these can be considered as potential pest species. Thirteen species (mostly Geometridae and Erebidae: Lymantriinae) have a special significance for forestry due to defoliating activity in gradation periods. Considering the habitat connections, the composition of moth assemblage is dominated by generalist species with broad spectrum of ecological tolerance but the species connected with humid forested habitats are also richly represented. The bulk of species consists of widely distributed Euro-Siberian species, but also some Holo-Mediterranean species with more southern character and Mediterranean-Subtropical migrant species were registered. The bait trapping provided significant results on the phenology of the dominant species. The faunistically significant and/or protected species were observed in a low number of individuals only, thus the applied trapping methods did not damage the faunal composition.
Distribution of the American grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus ball 1932) in west Romania127-130Views:140
The vector of Grapevine Flavescens Dorée phytoplasma, the American grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus) has been in Europe since 1924. In Romania, the first populations were detected in 2009 in the central, eastern and southern part of the country. Later, the leafhopper was found also in West Romania in 2014. In 2015 and 2017, altogether, 14 sampling sites were studied in two vine regions of this area. The Scaphoideus titanus could be detected in 10 of them with relatively small abundances. During the studies, the yellow sticky traps proved more effective methods than sweep netting. To prevent vineyards from disease, we should do everything against the vector from prevention to chemical protection.
Data on the Orthoptera fauna of characteristic agricultural landscape in the Carpathian Lowland25-34Views:135
Orthoptera fauna and assemblages of natural and semi-natural grasslands of the Hungarian Lowland are well-known, however, little is known about assemblages living in agricultural and anthropogenic habitats such as arable lands, roadsides, hedges, and riverbanks. Due to climate change, intensification of agriculture, and change of habitat use, these habitat types become increasingly important.
To collect data on these mainly unknown habitat types, a three-year study was carried out on the Orthoptera fauna and assemblages of the firth region of the Tisza and Sajó rivers. This area was mainly unknown, and our research contributes to increasing knowledge and provides a base for further investigations.
In the 40 sampling sites of the studied region, an occurrence of 30 Orthoptera species was recorded based on 2241 sampled individuals. In this study, we provide 540 new distribution data records of orthopterans that means an almost eightfold increase of the known data. Orthoptera assemblages of different agricultural habitat types showed significant differences considering both species richness and composition. Data suggested that non-cultivated habitat patches of dirt-roads, roadsides and stubble fields and even extensively used pastures, hayfields and alfalfa, red clover, and even wheat fields can preserve relatively species-rich Orthoptera assemblages. Contrary weedy sites of these cultivars and intensively used arable lands (maize, sunflower and rape fields) showed extremely low species diversity.
The role of cultivar susceptibility and vineyard age in GTD: examples from the Carpathian Basin57-63Views:153
Grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs) are among the most severe problems in viticulture worldwide. The exact etiology and the role of endophytic microorganisms is not known yet and there is no adequate protection or curative treatment against the disease. Hungarian wine regions are also affected by the disease, and there is restricted information about the rate of infection nation-wide and about the susceptibility of the Hungarian cultivars.
The main objectives of our research are to measure the symptom expression and the damage caused by GTDs, to understand the epidemiology and etiology of the disease to establish a foundation of a proper disease management.
Cultivar susceptibility groups were created with the aim to allocate some Hungarian cultivars and the role of vineyard age was also examined in symptom expression.
Distribution and relative abundance of the economically important click beetles (Elateridae: Agriotes sp.) in Hungary53-60Views:85
Click beetle (Elateridae: Agriotes sp.) species of 24 sites in different regions of Hungary were studied in 2010. A. brevis, A. sputator, A. obscurus, A. lineatus, A. rufipalpis and A. ustulatus were sampled by pheromone traps in maize fields. During the study more than 80000 beetles were caught. The three most common species were A. ustulatus, A. sputator and A. rufipalpis. The distribution of the studied species was uneven. In south Hungary A. ustulatus, A, rufipalpis and A. sputator were the three most abundant species. In the Transdanubia A. sputator was the most abundant. A. ustulatus reached higher abundance in only three sites (3/12). A. obscurus occurred only in west Hungary (Transdanubia). In eastern Hungary the abundance of studied species was higher. In this reason we have to monitor the populations of these pests and if it is necessary we have to take actions against them. In Transdanubia the abundance were generally lower but in many cases reached the threshold of significant damage. Beyond that 13 additional species were sampled so the total number of sampled species was 19.
Study on distribution and relative abundance of click beetle pests (Elateridae: Agriotes sp.) in Hungarian maize fields107-113Views:80
Click beetle pests (Elateridae: Agriotes sp.) of 24 sites in different regions of Hungary were studied in 2011. A. brevis, A. sputator, A.
obscurus, A. lineatus, A. rufipalpis and A. ustulatus were sampled by pheromone traps in maize fields. During the study 65895 beetles were
caught. A. ustulatus and A. sputator were the most abundant species. Beyond that 23 additional species were trapped so the total number of sampled species was 29. The distribution of the six studied species was uneven. In east Hungary A. ustulatus were the most abundant, while
in the Transdanubia A. sputator was dominant in the most studied sites. A. obscurus occurred mostly in Transdanubia (western Hungary), and it occurred only in one site of eastern Hungary.
The abundance of one or simultaneously two species reached the threshold of significant damage in 14 sites. Additionally there were three sites where the total abundance of the two most dominant species reached the threshold. There were only six sites where we should not expect significant damage. In this reason we have to monitor the populations of these pests and if it is necessary we have to take actions against them.
Data on the bumblebee assemblages (Apidae: Bombus spp.) lives in lands under agri-environment commitment31-35Views:189
The goal of agri-environmental schemes (AES) and greening programs are protecting and increasing biodiversity in agricultural lands. The evaluation of effectiveness of AES needs further investigations. For the purpose of investigations, species and species groups should be selected which can indicate the effects of changes in landscape use on biodiversity. Bumblebees are good indicators for this purpose.
The role of bumblebees in pollination is well studied but in the case of different crops, much less detailed data are available. In 2018, bumblebee assemblages of 44 sites belonged to 8 different agricultural and semi-natural habitat types were studied in the surroundings of Sajószöged, Tiszaújváros and Derecske.
This study provides new distribution data of 8 bumblebee species in three 10×10 km UTM cells covering the sampling area. According to our results, the alfalfa and red clover fields and semi-natural grasslands has more species rich and abundant bumblebee assemblages than different crop fields (sunflower, oilseed radish and vegetable morrow) and can help protect bumblebee assemblages of agricultural lands. Based on the collected distribution and abundance data, the role of the bumblebees in pollination of the studied crops should be re-evaluated.
The distribution of brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys (Stål, 1855); Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in the Northeast part of the Carpathian Lowland (West Ukraine)191-194Views:146
Halyomorpha halys (Stål, 1855) spread rapidly during the last five years and became common and abundant in Central Europe, especially in the urban environment. In the Carpathian basin, the West Ukrainian Transcarpathia county was the last region where this species has not been found yet. The first specimens of this invasive pest were sampled in Velyka Dobron’ in 2018 and in 2019 it was found in another neighbouring village and cities of Chop, Berehove and Uzhhorod. The data provided here is the first for West Ukraine and the second for the country following the published record from Odessa (SE Ukraine). Although H. halys is still less abundant and occupied mainly urban habitats, it will certainly cause nuisance for peoples and damages for farmers in the near future.