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  • The effects of the nanoselenium supplementation to the production parameters and the selenium retention of the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)
    43-48
    Views:
    236

    The selenium is an essential trace element with antioxidant effect, constituent of many enzymes, natural component of the body of the animals. The addition to the fish feed as micro element supplementation is generally accepted. Numerous animal experiments veryfied, that the antioxidant effect of the nanoselenium is higher than other selenium forms. But no much information is available of the usuage at fish.

    In the experiment were investigated the effects of the nanoselenium supplementation of a commercial fish feed were investigated to the production parameters and the body tissue composition. The correlation between the accumulated selenium content of the body and the treatment, and the feed conversation was also statistically analyzed beside the production parameters. Furthermore we were curious, if can be toxic the nanoselenium in higher doses.

    The experimental stock was placed into 12 plastic tanks (each 70 l water vol.) in a recirculation system for larval rearing. The salinity and the water temperature was constant during the 8 week long experiment. The feeding was ad libitum, 4 times a day. Beside the control five (1, 1.5, 2.5, 5.5, 10.5 mg Se kg-1) duplicated treatment were set.

    According to the results, from the production parameters only at the value of FCR and the survival was found significant difference (p<0.05) between the groups. However strong correlation (r=0.752–0.780, p<0.01) was determined between the treatment and the accumulated selenium levels. To analyzed the free fatty acid contentof the fish, we realized, that the selenium uptake significanly enhanced this level at all treatments. The greatest change was found in case of the type n-3 fatty acids.

    Established by the results, the higher intake than 0.5 mg Se kg-1 was not changed significantly the production parameters, nevertheless to increase the selenium content of commercial feeds to 1.5 mg Se kg-1 could be rewarding on the rearing of red drum.

  • SIM Samples Investigation by Statistical Methods
    194-197
    Views:
    76

    The assessment of the present condition of the soil is very important, because the accession of the number of the European Union members is in the near future. This can be the base of the modern agrarian environmental management programme. The assessment must be objective, detailed and analyse the processes in the soil.
    Respecting the above causes was decided to create an Environmental Information Monitoring System. This system consists of more parts. One of them is the Soil Information Monitoring System (SIM). This system started to work in 1992.
    This system has two functions. Creating and actuation is obligatory from the international contracts, on the other hand the public SIM has very important role in the conservation of the soil.
    The SIM territorial measuring grid consists of 1236 measuring points. These points are representatives. The distributions of the points by the types of soil attend the variety of the types of soil of the country.
    The investigated elements in 6 types of soil were in our experiment (the group of scandium and the lanthanide series elements). There are 6 elements above the detection limit (Gadolinium, Neodymium, Praseodymium, Scandium, Samarium, Yttrium).
    The Neodymium concentration is 2 times higher than the content of Gadolinium and Yttrium.
    The Neodymium concentration is 4 times higher than the content of Praseodymium, Scandium and Samarium.
    In the case of Dysprosium, Europium, Lutetium, Terbium, Ytterbium the concentrations were below 1 mg/kg.

  • A simple method for preparing elemental selenium nano- coating inside a silicone surface
    35-43
    Views:
    230

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) with a bright red colour have aroused worldwide attention due to their unique properties in selenium supplementation because of their low toxicity and favourable bioavailability. A simple method was developed for making a red selenium nanolayer on the inner surface of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and silicone tube. The selenium nanoparticles were produced by the reaction of sodium selenite and ascorbic acid. Red amorphous selenium nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by the reaction of 500 mg dm-3 Se (sodium selenite) solution with 10 g dm-3 ascorbic acid solution at room temperature, and morphology was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The coating density was compared on PVC and silicone surfaces by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis. The nanolayer with about 16 µm thickness on the silicone surface significantly evenly distributed compared to the PVC surface. The selenium coated silicone tube could be a good source of selenium for a continuous, low-level selenium supplementation of farm animals via drinking water.

  • Qualitative detection of genetically modified organisms in plant samples
    309-313
    Views:
    121

    We analysed the GMO content of corn samples by polymerase chain reaction following the appropriate optimization of the reaction. The analysis included two main steps: extraction of DNA from the sample, and detection of the GMO content by polymerase chain reaction. The polymerase chain reaction is an in vitro method to multiply chromosomatic or cloned DNA (cDNA) sequences through the enzymatic pathway. The reaction is sensitive enough to produce DNA in sufficient amount for the analysis from a single DNA. We identified the PCR products by agarose gel electrophoresis. When optimizing the reaction, the MgCl2 concentration, reaction time and temperature have to be taken into consideration. The temperature of the anellation has to be increased until the highest specificity and yield is reached. If the temperature of the anellation is too high, the primer is linked to non-specific sites as well; in the gel visualization, more lines can be seen at one sample. If the temperature of the anellation is too high, the primer is insufficiently linked or is not linked at all (too few lines in the gel visualization). After optimization, the GMO content in the unknown sample can be determined along with the appropriate positive and negative controls.

  • The effect of sous-vide cooking on the antioxidant properties of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus L.)
    177-184
    Views:
    57

    Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus L.) are renowned for their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and prebiotic properties. This study explores the antioxidant characteristics, activity, and β-glucan content in freeze-dried mushroom samples, investigating the influence of sous-vide cooking. Uncooked freeze-dried P. ostreatus and three pre-cooked freeze-dried samples (70, 80, 90 °C through 4 hours) were analysed for Total Polyphenol Content (TPC), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC), Radical Scavenging (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), and β-glucans content via HPLC and Total Dietary Fiber (TDF) via enzymatic gravimetric method. Results indicate that uncooked mushroom powder exhibited superior antioxidant capabilities compared to cooked samples. The sous-vide cooked (80 °C) mushrooms displayed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content. Moreover, pre-cooked (70 °C) mushroom powder demonstrated the highest β-glucan content, significantly surpassing the uncooked control sample. Notably, pre-cooked groups (80, 90 °C) demonstrated significantly higher TDF levels compared to uncooked sample. This research offers valuable insights into the potential use of mushrooms as high-antioxidant, antimicrobial, and prebiotic food or feed supplements, with broad implications across various fields.

  • The Effect of Grazing Intensities on Magnesium Contents
    8-13
    Views:
    197

    Research was carried out on two areas of grassland in Hortobágy National Park, Hungary. Two herds of Hungarian Grey Cattle were kept in free range grazing and the effects of grazing pressure on the magnesium content of soil and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L) were determined.
    Changes of plant available and total soil magnesium content under different grazing intensities did not show any evident tendency on the investigated grasslands. Different amounts of cattle faeces, urine and trampling had no effect on the magnesium concentration of ryegrass. We conclude that the magnesium content of ryegrass on both grassland sites as moderate grazing and overgrazing matches the requirements of cattle. Symptoms of magnesium deficiency of cattle will likely not appear.

  • Investigation of Chromium(III)-Picolinate Adsorption on Some Soil Types
    190-193
    Views:
    65

    In the experiment adsorption characteristics of different soil types (humic sand, meadow soil, leached chernozem and meadow solonec) was examined on the basis of adsorption isotherms for Cr(III)-picolinate. The Langmuir equation was used to describe the isotherms by which the amounts of metal ions actually and maximally adsorbed by the soils were determined concerning the given complex. A comparison was made among the organically bound Cr(III)-picolinate, an inorganic Cr(III) compound and a Cr(VI) form examined in a previous study. Based on the adsorption isotherms, adsorption capacity of the Cr(III)-picolinate was found 20 times smaller on sandy soil and 50 times smaller on the chernozem comparing to that of the inorganic Cr(III)-chloride, thus, the bio-availability of the chromium for the plants is 20 and 50 times higher in case of the given soil types. For the well-known toxic Cr(VI)-form, the adsorption was 2 times higher in case of sandy soil and 5 times higher for chernozem than in case of the organic Cr(III)-complex compound.

  • Introduction of DNA-based Methods to Agriculture Through Molecular Taxonomic Examination of Poa Species
    139-142
    Views:
    97

    biological methods, one among them is AFLP that is well applicable for taxonomic research. Bluegrass species, that are important components of meadow associations, thus their thorough knowledge is necessary in maintaining biodiversity, were examined with bringing this method to perfection.
    Taxonomic relationship of the members of Poa pratensis aggregation is a controversial issue. Present study aimes to identify the members of this group, with a developed AFLP method through molecular taxonomic examination of Poa species in meadows nearby Debrecen, revealing their genetical distances. Species of the aggregation show a great genetic variability, but their genetic proximity approves the use of the term aggregation. Results established wider geographical investigation of three species of the aggregation. The distinctness of the species based on their morphological features was confirmed according to their genetical basis as well. The method overall turned out to be appropriate for the taxonomic research of bluegrass species like Poa pratensis and its aggregation.

  • The importance of selenium in the living world and in the scientific research
    278-286
    Views:
    175

    Presently, selenium (Se) is one of the most investigated microelements. It has an important proven role in many vital processes. Directly or indirectly, selenium deficiency can play a role in the development of many diseases. On the other hand, the concentration range in which selenium is essential is narrow; there is a narrow gap between necessary and toxic content in dietary intake. In this context, selenium contamination poses a further health risk for people if they live near the industrial areas and mining activity.
    In this paper, we comprehensively introduce the very important trace element selenium. We studied the base parameters, deposit, analytic and deficiencies, problem of contamination and also the solution of contamination problems of selenium.

  • Effect of selenium supplement on proteome of chicken liver
    9-13
    Views:
    151

    The aims of the present study were to optimize a two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method to chicken liver proteome and to determine the changes of protein expression caused by selenium. Twelve broiler chicken were used in this experiment. The selenium intake was 0,2 mg/kg in the control group (6 chicken) and 4,25 mg/kg in the experimental group (6 chicken). Using the optimized proteomic approach, we have succesfully separated 747 proteins in the experimental group and 741 proteins in the control group. We found six proteins, wich expressed only in the samples of experimental group. Further investigations need to determine these six proteins with mass spectrometry (MS) and look for the correlation between the physiological effects of selenium and the expression of these proteins.

  • Selenium-speciation experiments from soil samples by accept of ionchromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS) method
    106-111
    Views:
    163

    In these days, selenium is one of the most investigated microelements. It has an important proven role in many vital processes. Selenium deficiency can play a role in the contraction of many diseases (e.g. cancer, heart diseases, etc.) and in the aggravation of their clinical aspect directly or indirectly. In this paper, we study the soil samples of an outdoor experiment for the conversion of the inorganic selenium salt that was spread out in different doses. The danger of the wash-out effect was also investigated. Our experiments showed, that most of the inorganic selenite transforms to selenate form during the years, and in this selenate form it moves to the deeper layers of soil.

  • Application of the Collision Cell (CCT) in the ICP-MS Analytical System
    120-125
    Views:
    164

    Our laboratory has seen a sharp rise in the number of requests for the analysis of smaller and smaller concentrations of elements from foods, plants, soil, organic fertiliser, irrigation and ground water, sewage, sewage sludge, raw material of food, as well as human and animal origin samples. From the above elements the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer is capable of analysing the smallest concentration of elements. Our method of analysis is to use our ICP-MS instrument, together with a ICP-MS with Collision Cell Technology (CCT). The CCT method has better detection limit, with 1-3 magnitudes, compared to the normal ICP-MS analytical method. The CCT has better detection limits mainly for the following elements in the periodical system: analysis of arsenic, selenium, germanium, vanadium and chromium. Additionally a collision cell can be applied for the analysis of silicium, sulphur, zink, copper, iron, calcium, magnesium and potassium in smaller concentrations.

  • Following-up organic pollutants in the course of producing foods
    244-248
    Views:
    130

    We analysed the raw materials in various food products, including additives, carrier solvents and end product for several selected organic pollutants. We analysed these food products for the type of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and other currently used pesticides.
    We analysed three product categories: bakery products, canned mushroom and meat products. The analysis of the bakery products and of the canned mushroom did not conclude in positive findings, which means that these products contained the agents given during the production of the product and the environmental pollutants in undetectable low concentration.
    However, the results for meat and fish products indicate that polychlorinated compounds are persistent and are of a lipophyl character, as some of these components have been detected in these food products, the concentration of the PCBs were detected in the range of 9.8-24 μg/kg.

  • The study of headspace sampling for the measurement of Volatile Organic Compounds byGC-MS
    35-38
    Views:
    124

    Headspace sampling was studied for GC-MS measurements. A quick, direct method was developed for the measurement of petrol, gasoline and volatile organic solvent contamination of soil. According to our results this method is suitable for quick qualitative analysis of VOC contamination of soil, and helps to make decisions about further measurements. We concluded that an accurate quantitative measurement is not possible.

  • Utilization and examination of red, elemental selenium nano spheres, produced by fermentation technology, in animal tests
    245-247
    Views:
    126

    In our experiments we tested the toxicity of Nano-Se and LactoMicroSel® compared with other organic and inorganic selenium forms, in case of a subakut animal test. We produced the Nano-Se and LactoMicroSel® by probiotic lactic acid bacteria in our laboratory. (Prokisch et al., 2010; Eszenyi et al., 2011). We mixed the inorganic selenium forms, selenite and selenate, the organic form, Sel-Plex® and our products, Nano-Se and LactoMicroSel® into the standard food of laboratory mice and we fed them for two consecutive weeks. After the extermination we observed mortality, the change of body mass,and measured the blood antioxidant capacity with FRAP method.

  • Investigation of genetic diversity in irradiated maize lines and its relation to hybrid performance
    20-26
    Views:
    187

    Knowledge of genetic diversity among available parental lines is fundamental for successful hybrid maize breeding. The aims of this study were to estimate (1) genetic similarity (GS) and genetic distance (GD) (based on Jaccard index) in four maize inbreed lines; (2) to classify the lines according to their GD and GS; (3) to determine hybrid performance based on GD and heterosis for yield ability in 4x4 full diallel system. We used morphological description and AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphisms) for estimation genetic polymorphism in four maize inbred lines. We estimated the applicability of genetic similarity in SC and reciproc hybrids for prediction of their performance.
    Three primer combinations were used to obtain AFLP markers, producing 207 bands, 70 of whit were polimorphic. The dendogram based on genetic similarities (GS) and genetic distance (GD) and morphological description separated four inbred lines into well-defined groups. Morphological description just with AFLP analysis showed reliable results. In view of genetic distance, the UDL 1 line and their linear and reciprocal crosses showed significant heterosis effect, which was confirmed by heterosis calculation based on grain yield.

  • Studying of quality parameters of Hungarian and Greek honey samples
    147-153
    Views:
    184

    Honey has been a valuable food for mankind since ancient times. It was the only sweetener until the start of industrial sugar mass production. Honey plays an important role in our nutrition and its positive effects on health are well-known. The quality of Hungarian honey is perfect, so it is very important to safeguard and monitor its quality continuously and to build up a good traceability and quality assurance system. For such a system, it is necessary to study the nutritional properties and the origin of different honey samples. In our study, we study Hungarian and Greek honey.

  • Molecular Biological Approach of Crocus sativus L. and its Allies
    112-115
    Views:
    148

    The hay saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is a sterile triploid plant, known in human culture only, with no fertile seeds produced. The origin of saffron is still a mist, however it is assumed to be an autopoliploid mutant or a hybrid. The recent classification and most of the former taxonomic publications define C. sativus to be derived from C. cartwrightianus, a wild species. Because of the sterility of hay saffron it seemed to be reasonable to apply molecular biological methods to complete classical taxonomic studies in examining its relations. The DNA polymorphism based AFLP method has confirmed the close relationship between these species.

  • Application of AFLP-Method in Plant Sample Identification
    207-213
    Views:
    79

    One possible method for the determination of DNA-polymorphism is the PCR-based AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism). This method had been succesfully introduced to the Department of Botany at University of Debrecen in 2000-2001 with the examination of hay saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its allies. Hay saffron is grown as a spice for some thousand years producing the most expensive spice in the world. This plant is sterile, triploid reproduces only vegetatively with no fertile seeds. However its origin is unknown it exists only in cultivation and it is a mutated variety of another species or an artificial or natural hybrid. Usual methods for the systematic examination are restricted hence it seemed to be reasonable to apply molecular biological methods in its case. Results of this work include the introduction and many fold application of the method beside ensuring the consequences of science literature with determining the C. cartwrightianus to give the most similar genetical pattern to C. sativus.