Corn breeding can be successful only on a broad base of genetic material. The expansion of breeding aims includes the research of germplasm materials. In our experiments, we examined 11 blue, purple and red exotic corn varieties on two locations in Hungary. We conducted a complex study to obtain more information. We studied several morphologica...l and phenological features and determined the most important qualitative parameters (protein, fat, ash). We applied the Tassel Area Index (TAI) under Hungarian conditions and compared it with the pollen producing ability of different genotypes. Results show that there are great opportunities in exotic corn varieties. Their quality exceeds that of the yellow ones in many cases. There are significant differences in yield and nutritional parameters. The favorable nutritional composition is not coupled with great productivity. Based on their flowering time and their agronomical features, they can be cultivated under Hungarian conditions as well. They match the new breeding aims, so they can be used as functional food or energy plants. With their high pollen producing ability and TAI, they can be utilized as markers in future pollen research.
Bioenergies (among them e.g. bioalcohol) can be solutions for the replacement of fossil fuels. For its production, plants with high sugar or starch content can be used. Juice pressed from the stalk of sugar sorghum has high sugar content (14-17%) that makes it suitable for bioethanol production. During our experiment, we examined 53 restorer ma...le lines; among them 22 were silo type sugar sorghum. We studied the following traits: plant height, breeding time, level of foliation, stalk diameter, characteristics of stalk medulla, juice content of stalk, sugar content of stalk juice. According to examined characteristics, we selected six restorer male lines for studies in the forthcoming years: RL 1, RL 2, RL 3, RL 4, RL 5, RL 9, RL 12, RL 15, RL 18. Their stalk medullas were wet, stalk diameters were medium-thick, sugar contents of juices varied between 17 and 24% at the end of milk mature. Harvest was made in September, they can be classified into early maturation group. Male sterile female lines were the following: SL 1, SL 2, SL 3, SL 4, SL 5. The maintainer male lines were: CL 1, CL 2, CL 3, CL 4, CL 5. In Hungary, there are only a few male sterile female
lines, so we will use these lines for hybrid production during the next years.
Potato production plays an important role in Hungary and the other countries of Europe. Consumption of potato products has increased to a large extent during the past several years. We can satisfy market demands with high quality and virus-free varieties.
Results of potato production depend on tolerance/resistance to abiotic stresses. In man...y cases, increased concentration of NaCl causes yield loss. Selection of salt tolerant varieties proved to be a difficult problem. Nowadays, the salt tolerance of potato varieties can be determined by cell/tissue/ protoplast techniques. Somaclonal variation provides a great potential for selection of lines resistant to salt stress. In vitro shoots and callus, derived plantlets selected for salt tolerance/resistance provide material for micropropagation.
In vitro shoot development of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Kuroda) was investigated under salt stress (40 mM, 80 mM, 120 mM NaCl) conditions. Shoot heights of plantlets cultured under salt conditions were lower than the control through the investigation. However, the shoot development of plantlets originated from in vitro meristems was almost at the same level as the control under 40 mM NaCl concentration.
There was no significant difference in the in vitro biomass production between control and treatment with 40 mM NaCl concentration. We measured a significant decrease in dry-matter mass under 120 mM NaCl concentration. There is a need for more investigation of different genotypes and for a conclusion as to whether in vitro tolerance could occur under in vivo circumstances in plants originated from somaclones as well.
Under in vitro conditions, we investigated shoot and leaf callus initiation using different culture media with different 2,4-D concentrations. Under dark conditions, callus induction of shoot/leaf decreased as the 2,4-D concentrations increased.
In light conditions, there was a little callus induction, while callus initiation from the shoot from 5 μM to 12 μM 2,4-D concentration showed a significant increase
Sweet sorghum can be utilized for bioethanol production because it has high sugar content (14-17%). We determined the most important nutritional values of 5 silo type sorghum lines in waxy and full maturation. The examined restorer lines were: RL 4, RL 9, RL 15, RL 18, K 1. The following nutritional parameters were examined: dry material conten...t, refractometric total sugar content, reducing sugar content. In waxy maturation 73.85-87.37% of dry matter in stalk juice makes the total sugar. Dry material content, total and reducing sugar content of stalk
decreases from waxy mature to full maturation.
There are differences between lines in dry matter (SzD5%=0.76), total sugar (SzD5%=0.79), reducing sugar content (SzD5%=0.30). RL 4 performed a decrease in total sugar content from 10.07% to 10.02% during this period, reducing sugar also decreased from 4.01% to 2.47%. RL 9 performed a decrease in total sugar content from 11.76% to 11.08% during this period. Reducing sugar also decreased from 3.17% to 2.01% in the waxy
maturation. RL 15 showed a total sugar content decrease from 15.43 % to 15.36%. The reducing sugar also decreased from 3.23% to 1.71% in waxy maturation. In RL 18 total mean sugar content during waxy maturation was 13.78% which dropped to 13.26% approaching full maturation. Reducing sugar also decreased from 4.11% to 2.23% in waxy mature. K 1 performed a decrease in total sugar content from 9.35% to 6.15% during this period, while reducing sugar also decreased from 1.52% to 0.77%.
These lines upcoming for experiments are perspectives since having excellent stalk juice nutritional parameters they are of great or very great height and their stalks are thick-very thick, stalk medullas are wet.
Genetic manipulation may not replace any conventional method in crop breeding programs, but it can be an important adjunct to them. Plant regeneration via tissue culture is becoming increasingly more common in monocots such as corn (Zea mays L.). In vitro culturability and regeneration ability of corn decreased as homozigosity increased, which ...suggested that these two attributes were controlled primarily by dominant gene action. Pollen (gametophytic) selection for resistance to aflatoxin in corn can greatly facilitate recurrent selection and screening of germplasm for resistance at a much less cost and shorter time than field testing. Integration of in vivo and in vitro techniques in maize breeding program has been developed to obtain desirable agronomic attributes, speed up the breeding process and enhance the genes responsible for them. The efficiency of anther and tissue cultures in most cereals such as maize and wheat have reached the stage where it can be used in breeding programs to some extent and many new cultivars produced by genetic manipulation have now reached the market.
Knowledge of genetic diversity in breeding material is fundamental for hybrid selection programs and for germplasm preservation as well. Research has been done with nine irradiated (fast neutron) and four non-treated inbred lines. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the degree of genetic variability detected with morphological descri...ption (based on CPVO TP/2/2) in these materials, (2) to compare the genetic changes among irradiated and non-irradiated maize inbred lines (based on some quantitative features). The irradiation did not change any of the characteristics clearly in positive or negative way, which can be related to the fact that the effect of induced mutation on genetic structure cannot be controlled. From the irradiated lines we have managed to select plants with earlier ripening times and better phenotypes. We could distinguish 3 main groups by the morphological features; these results match our expectations based on pedigree data. Markers distinguishable on the phenotypic level (e.g. antocyanin colouration, length of tassels) were significant in all lines.
The large biomass production and the low necessary input fertilizer make Miscanthus an interesting, potential non-food crop with broad applications, e.g. for fuel and energy, for thatching, fiber production, for the paper and car industries, as well as for ethanol production.
Axillary buds of Miscanthus x giganteus were placed on a shoot ind...ucing nutrient solution (modified Murashige and Skoog, 1962), basic medium supplemented with 0,3 mg l-1 6-Benzylaminopurin. After 40 days of culturing, the axillary buds produced three times more shoots than could normally be harvested. The nutrient content (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) was measured several times during culturing. The results showed that, after 35 days, nitrogen and phosphate were nearly completely taken up. From that time, shoot growth was not observed.
After shoot propagation, the plants were transfered into a nutrient solution for root formation (modified Murashige and Skoog, 1962), basic medium supplemented with 0,5 mg l-1 Indole- 3-Butyric acid, and could be potted in soil after about 14 days.
The use of molecular markers to enhance plant breeding efforts is being widely studied. DNA-based fingerprinting technologies (RAPD and AFLP) have proven useful in genetic similarity studies. We estimated different maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and hybrids originated from mutant ones based on their genetic differences.
We carried out RAPD... analysis with different primers and the 707 (CCCAACACCC) and 792 (CAACCCACAC) primers with 50% similarities provided quite good DNA fragments. By applying the DNA based-AFLP technique, we had very dense DNA fingerprinting. We differentiated 15-32 polymorphic bands, the highest number of bands were found in P-T/H-CA (32). AFLP seems to be the more efficient method of comparing genetic similarities/differences among different genotypes.
Due to climatic barriers, the genetic variability of Sorghum varieties decreases away from the gene centre, therefore hybrids cultivated in Hungary are restricted to a relatively limited genetic basis. This limited genetic basis results in a lower rate of genetic improvement, so the genetic basis of cytoplasm factors are to be extended. We enha...nced the diversity of primary materials by fast neutron treatment. As a result of this treatment we detected sterile, deformed specimens with double panicles in the stock treated with a dose of 12.5 Gy in the M1 generation. Agronomically useful
specimens were found in the stock treated with 10 Gy and 7.5 Gy doses, where the leaf area index (LAI) and Harvest- index gave higher values than those of the control group. In the stock treated with 5 Gy dose, variations were less significant. In the reseeded M2 generation we detected albino specimens with extreme chlorophyll defects in the 10 Gy Zádor stock.
Knowledge of genetic diversity among available parental lines is fundamental for successful hybrid maize breeding. The aims of this study were to estimate (1) genetic similarity (GS) and genetic distance (GD) (based on Jaccard index) in four maize inbreed lines; (2) to classify the lines according to their GD and GS; (3) to determine hybrid per...formance based on GD and heterosis for yield ability in 4x4 full diallel system. We used morphological description and AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphisms) for estimation genetic polymorphism in four maize inbred lines. We estimated the applicability of genetic similarity in SC and reciproc hybrids for prediction of their performance.
Three primer combinations were used to obtain AFLP markers, producing 207 bands, 70 of whit were polimorphic. The dendogram based on genetic similarities (GS) and genetic distance (GD) and morphological description separated four inbred lines into well-defined groups. Morphological description just with AFLP analysis showed reliable results. In view of genetic distance, the UDL 1 line and their linear and reciprocal crosses showed significant heterosis effect, which was confirmed by heterosis calculation based on grain yield.
Most domestic maize production products are sold on markets abroad. Among the increasingly restrictive quality requirements, the demand for the measurement of test weight has also appeared. This measurement is not unfamiliar in the case of other cereals, such as wheat and barley, but it has not been applied widely in maize. It is likely for thi...s reason that we have such little information and research available on this topic. In this study, we show the current state of this field with references from domestic and international literature.
The density of maize is the weight of a particular volume and the most frequent unit is the test weight (kg/hl). This physical quality factor plays important roles in the storage, transport and mill industries. The value of test weight is influenced by many factors. The most important ones are the moisture content of grains, drying temperature, drought, precipitation, early frost, and the hybrid characters of a given genotype (grain type, FAO number). In general, the grain with higher moisture content has lower test weight and the higher temperature during (above 82°C) desiccation also leads to unfavourable values. Factors such as a drought interval after flowering, early frost in the case of hybrids with higher FAO numbers, injuries by insects, as well as fungal infections also influence the structure and moisture content of the maize grain.
In the future, broader studies (hybrid testing, application of new agrotechnical elements) will be needed for understanding of the factors effecting test weight.
The cultivation of alternative crops has an important role in world agriculture. Their market share is continuously growing in the food industry sector. In the present study, we show the cultivation and breeding perspectives of ornamental and blue corn. There exists possibility to cultivate ornamental corn in Hungary. There are many cultivars o...f ornamental corn, with various kernel colors, husks, stalks and leave colors. Blue corn is unique among other corns. Blue corn higher in protein, iron and zinc than commercial dent corn. Pests affective ornamental and blue corn are the same as those of other commercial corns. Ornamental and blue corns need to be grown a minimum of 500 m away from commercial yellow dent corn to minimize any cross pollination which may result in off-color kernel. Our aim in the presentation of this review was to broaden Hungarian literature.