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  • Strategic Steps in the Sheep and Goat Branches

    The balance of the sheep and goat branches can be summarised as follows:
    If the increase in stock size, specific yields, genetic improvement and modernisation are not realised, several thousand shepherds will lose their jobs and possibilities to work, and their families will lose their only source of livelihood.
    Several hundred hectares of grassland will become weedy and the costs of crop protection will increase in these regions. Pollen pollution, the number of allergic ailments and medical costs will increase, mentioning only the main disadvantages. Its financial requirement is nearly equal to the one required for development without any essential compensation or production.
    In order to develop a competitive branch, a subsidisation of 10-20 billion HUF is needed until the accession of Hungary to the EU, depending on the scale and progressivity of development. The subsidisation and realisation of the strategic steps would result in:
    – the establishment of a registered livestock with 1.5 million ewes, which would ensure better market position for the branch in the EU (5%),
    – the establishment of a competitive and marketable branch with a production value of 15-25 billion HUF, calculated using the present price level (after accession, the branch would be self-operating and profitable, with the 6-8 billion HUF/year normative subsidisation by the EU),
    – the establishment of a genetic potential which would ensure our participation in profitable international breeding animal market, which provides extra profit,
    – the establishment of a sheep husbandry with better genetic potential and phenotypic performance, producing a quality of international level,
    – the maintenance of the workplace of more than 10.000 people (saving 3-5 billion HUF/year of the budget),
    – the maintenance of the condition of growing areas of grasslands with their advantages (crop protection and public health) whose financial effect is considerable.

  • Preliminary results of the combined production of duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in an aquaponic system

    As a result of population growth, increasin amount of food is needed, and agriculture is under an increasing burden to meet these needs. Traditional agriculture is often attacked due to its environmental impact. We must find alternative, environmentally friendly ways to produce more food. Aquaponics is a closed system in which we can produce both fish and plants at the same time. Duckweed species are small, aquatic, floating plants belonging to angiosperms. It can potentially be an alternative protein source, due to its high protein content, good amino acid supply, and rapid growth. Under suitable conditions, it doubles its weight in 2–4 days, and can reach a yield of 30 t ha-1 year-1in dry matter. It forms a carpet on top of the water and can be found in slow-moving or still waters. Since they are resistant to a wide range of nutrient concentrations, they are also suitable for cleaning wastewater (such as eutrophicated lakes, sewage reservoirs, liquid manure storage). Fish feed is the primary nutrient source for aquaponic systems, which usually contains fishmeal. If duckweed can be used as an alternative for fishmeal in the feed, it could improve the sustainability of the aquaponic and aquaculture systems. In this study, the aim was to develop an optimal harvesting protocol for duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza under aquaponic conditions. In a four weeks experiments, four harvesting protocols were set up, a control where only biomass measurements were made, a 25% group where 25% of the biomass at the time of measurement was harvested, and a 50% and a 75% group where at the time of measurement 50% and 75% of the biomass was harvested. Three replicates were used per treatment. We weighed the biomass every week and removed the amount corresponding to the group. Based on the preliminary results, it can be said that more biomass was obtained in the groups with the 25% harvesting protocol and the control group.

  • Comparison of the technological background of aquaponic systems

    Aquaponics is the combined culture of fish and plants in recirculating aquaculture systems, an ecologically sustainable horticultural production technique with long traditions.

    The objective of this study is to compare flood-and- drain, and the water crossflow system and examine the differences in the water quality, fish yield and plant growth parameters for Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and basil (Ocimum basilicum). During the study, water quality parameters of two treatments were compared in temperatures, pH, EC and NON were significantly different (p <0.05). Leaf area of the basil plants grew to an average of 20.37 cm2 (± 9.02 cm2). The plants’ biomass production was significantly different (p< 0.05) in the two systems. The biomass production showed lower yield, 458.22 g (± 214.59 g) in the constant flow system that in the flood- and- drain system 692.9 g (± 175.82 g). Fish Growth parameters were better in constant flow system (FCR 5.48 g/g ± 0.19). However, the specific growth rate (SGR) demonstrated that fish grew faster in flood- and- drain system 1.38 %/day (± 0.29).

  • Comparision of growth of mature all-female and mixed-sex Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) stocks in RAS

    The common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is the most important fish species in Hungary, it is more than 70% of the total Hungarian fish production. The common carp production is important not only just in Hungary but in Middle-East Europe, as well as Southeast Asia. Majority of the production comes from fishpond culture. If the production sector wants to meet the increasing customer demands, there is need to intensify research on the intensive fish production opportunities for example all-female common carp technologies. The all-female technology is one of a genom-manipulation technology. Its production showed better growth rate than mixed-sex population in pond culture. Our experiment combined the recirculation aquaculture system (RAS) and the all-female common carp stocks intensification technologies. The reason for the experiment, is that there are no result about the growth of all-female common carp growth in RAS.

    The experiment used the „Tatai grey scale type” common carp stocks. We propagated two all-female stocks (T2 and T3) and a control group (TK). Due to technological characteristics of RAS, the water quality parameters were the same for all treatments and corresponded to the technological tolerance of common carp.

    The experimental period was from July 10, 2019 – November 20, 2019. Result of growth performance showed that the growth of mixed-sex stock was significantly higher than all-female stocks; (Control=3692.0±590.5g, T2=3438.8±415.4g, T3=3294.1±659.1g). Feed conversation ratio (Control=1.3±0.1 T2=1.5±0.2 T3=1.6±0.5) and SGR% (Control=0.8±0.0 T2=0.7±0.1 T3=0.7±0.1) were similar.

    By the results it can be said the all-female common carp technology has neither advantages nor disadvantages compared to the mixed-sex stock. The all-female technology can be beneficial if the consumers need female common carps. It is worth continuing the experiment and examine how the stocks will perform above 3kg body weight.

  • The effect of the dates of shoot selection and shoot tip removal on the growth of William’s pear trees

    Increasing the intensity of production in the case of pear can be the solution to satisfy the market demand forr high-quality fruit. The aims in this technology are the canopy treatments and the maintainance of consistently high quality yields in the long run. The experiments were performed with cv. William’s pear, a cultivar grown on large areas in Hungary. To create the optimal canopy shape for earlier fruiting, we performed shoot selection and the cutting back of shoot tips. Our results show, that both pruning methods – applied at 3 different dates – decreased the number of short fruiting parts (spurs), and increased the number of vegetative shoots. The sole exception was from this the effect of shoot tip removal when done at the earliest date.

  • Condensed tannin content and antioxidant activity of Hungarian sorghum varieties grown at Research Institute in Karcag

    Cereal-based products are one of our main energy sources, and are consumed on a daily basis. One of the weaknesses of wheat based products is their low antioxidant content. Sorghum is a minor cereal, mostly consumed in Africa and Asia. Amongst other phenolic components it contains tannins, which are potent antioxidants and have other positive effect on human health, for example anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral/bacterial effect. We evaluated the tannin content (vanillin-HCL) and antioxidant capacity (DPPH) of sorghum varieties (Alföldi1, Zádor, Foehn, Albita, Albanus) grown in Hungary, with two type of agronomy technology.. Red varieties especially Alföldi1 and Zádor had higher tannin contents than white varieties. The highest condensed tannin content was 1470±73 mg 100g-1 (Control, Alföldi1), 1810±154 mg 100g-1 (Fertilized, Alföldi1), and the highest total antioxidant capacity was 2099±19 mg 100g-1 (Control, Alföldi1) and 2117±26 mg 100g-1 (Fertilized, Alföldi) We found that sorghum type, variety and color influence their tannin and antioxidant contents in general.