Investigation of the β-casein (CSN2) gene polymorphism in goat breed – Review69-73Views:214
Milk plays an important role in the human nutrition as an important protein and energy source. Β-casein is the most abundant casein fraction in the goat milk. The β-casein gene has at least 9 polymorphism in goat breed (A, A1, B, C, C1, D, E, 0 and 0’). The most important alleles are the zero (0) and zero’ (0’) alleles, because they decrease the quantity of β-casein protein in milk. The lower quantity of the β-casein changes the properties of the coagulation and the allergenin milk. This review is about the β-casein gene polymorphism in goat breed.
Strategic Steps in the Sheep and Goat Branches61-68Views:120
The balance of the sheep and goat branches can be summarised as follows:
If the increase in stock size, specific yields, genetic improvement and modernisation are not realised, several thousand shepherds will lose their jobs and possibilities to work, and their families will lose their only source of livelihood.
Several hundred hectares of grassland will become weedy and the costs of crop protection will increase in these regions. Pollen pollution, the number of allergic ailments and medical costs will increase, mentioning only the main disadvantages. Its financial requirement is nearly equal to the one required for development without any essential compensation or production.
In order to develop a competitive branch, a subsidisation of 10-20 billion HUF is needed until the accession of Hungary to the EU, depending on the scale and progressivity of development. The subsidisation and realisation of the strategic steps would result in:
– the establishment of a registered livestock with 1.5 million ewes, which would ensure better market position for the branch in the EU (5%),
– the establishment of a competitive and marketable branch with a production value of 15-25 billion HUF, calculated using the present price level (after accession, the branch would be self-operating and profitable, with the 6-8 billion HUF/year normative subsidisation by the EU),
– the establishment of a genetic potential which would ensure our participation in profitable international breeding animal market, which provides extra profit,
– the establishment of a sheep husbandry with better genetic potential and phenotypic performance, producing a quality of international level,
– the maintenance of the workplace of more than 10.000 people (saving 3-5 billion HUF/year of the budget),
– the maintenance of the condition of growing areas of grasslands with their advantages (crop protection and public health) whose financial effect is considerable.
The analysis of the milk production and the body condition on two Saanen goat-farms53-59Views:78
The authors carried out an examination on two Saanen goat farms during four months from May to August 2008. The body condition score and milk production of the goats were measured. In data processing analysis of variance was used to compare the data of the studied farms. They tried to find the answer for the question how the body condition scores and milk production change in each month. The changes observed in each farm were examined separately then they compared the values of the two farms.. On one of the farms the nutrition was proper therefore with an ideal, intermediate body condition (average 2.73) the goats produced a good amount of milk (2.5 milk-kg/mother/day). On the other farm the nutrition was not proper, therefore the body condition of the goats was weak (average 1.88). Their milk production decreased significantly from month to month (average 2.35 milk-kg/mother/day). The authors could conclude considering both farms that the more milk the goats produced, the lower their body condition score became. The two parameters showed negative correlation.
Examination for Susceptibility of CAE33-36Views:93
Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE) is a group of diseases in goats caused by a retrovirus, namely the Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus. CAEV belongs to the lentivirus group within the retrovirus family. The CAEV is intimately associated with white blood cells, therfore any body secretions which contain white blood cells are a potential source of virus to other goats in the flock. Once goats are infected with CAEV, it remains infected for life and has to be eliminated.
Since not all goats infected with CAEV progress to disease, very important to test goats for infection using a serology test (ELISA, AGID, IDT). These serological tests demonstrate the presence of antibodies to CAEV in goat serum or detect the virus genome in the white blood cells. However, Swiss results (Dolf and Ruff, 1994) pointed out individual and species differencies in predisposition for this disease. This result was considered as a starting point to our examination. Microsatellite analysis was used in order to find whether there was any association between genotype and serological results, and to look for a marker associated with this disease. To date, altogether 135 goats have been examined. Unfortunately, a significant association between serological results and genotype was not found using the Chi2 test