Published After
Published Before

Search Results

  • The relationship between the nutrient supply and the yield of maize hybrids with different genetic traits on chernozem soil in variant years

    The experiments were set on lime-coated chernozem soil in 2013 and in 2014, in our study four hybrids were included with different FAO number. We studied the effect of NPK fertilization and row spacing on the yield. The fertilizer doses were based on a 25-year longterm experiment. Compared to control, the N40 +PK treatment has also achieved a significant yield increase, although some hybrids responsed with yield loss to the increasing fertilizer doses; this effect was observed especially in 2014. The majority of hybrids reached higher yields in both years using the 50 cm row spacing. The water release of hybrids was measured weekly during the maturation, at the same time points. The rainy September slowed ripening and the water release of the hybrids in 2013, so the grain wet content at harvest showed higher values. The moisture contents were increased for some hybrids, in spite of the positive and favorable dynamic of water loss.

  • Methodology adaptation and development to assess salt content dynamics and salt balance of soils under secondary salinization

    The effect of irrigation with saline water (above 500 mg L-1) is considered a problem of small-scale farmers growing vegetable crops with high water demand in the hobby gardens characteristic of the Hungarian Great Plain. In order to simulate the circumstances of such hobby garden, we set up an experiment including five simple drainage lysimeters irrigated with saline water in the Research Institute of Karcag IAREF UD in 2019. We regularly measured the electric conductivity (EC) of the soil referring to its salt content and the soil moisture content with mobile sensors. Before and after the irrigation season, soil samples from the upper soil layer (0-0.6 m) were taken for laboratory analysis and the soil salt balance (SB) was calculated. The actual salt balance (SBact) was calculated of the upper soil layer (0-0.6 m) based on the salt content of the obtained soil samples. The theoretical salt balance (SBth) was calculated by the total soluble salt content of the irrigation water and leachates. During the irrigation season, we experienced fluctuating EC in the topsoil in close correlation with the soil moisture content. Based on the performed in-situ EC measurements, salts were leached from the upper soil layer resulting in a negative SB. Combining SBact and SBth of the soil columns of the lysimeters, we estimated the SB of the deeper (0.6-1.0 m) soil layer. We quantified 12% increase of the initial salt mass due to accumulation. We consider this methodology to be suitable for deeper understanding secondary salinization, which can contribute to mitigating its harmful effect. By repeating our measurements, we expect similar results proving that saline irrigation waters gained from the aquifers through drilled wells in Karcag are potentially suitable for irrigation if proper irrigation and soil management are applied.


  • Consumption of fertilizers in districts of Slovakia in the period 2006–2015

    Consumption of fertilizers in districts of Slovakia in the period 2006–2015 Water quality in the surface streams is influenced by several factors. One of important information which can help us to solve problems with quality of water in water body is a distribution of point and non-point pollution sources in a river basin and also amount of pollutants released from them to surface streams. An example of a point source of pollution is the outlet from wastewater treatment plants (industry, urban areas, farms, etc.). On the other hand the most significant non-point source of pollution is considered the application of fertilizers in agriculture.

    In this paper we have evaluated consumption of organic and industrial fertilizers in Slovakia in the period 2006–2015. Total (in tonnes) and average (in kg ha-1) consumption of industrial and organic fertilizers was analyzed. In monitored period, the amount of applied organic fertilizers was much higher than the amount of applied industrial fertilizers and in addition a significant part of total fertilizers consumption had nitrogenous fertilizers in a group of industrial fertilizers. In a group of industrial fertilizers during the period 2006–2015 we observed just moderately increasing in their consumption, while in the period 2010–2015 the average amount of applied industrial fertilizers per hectare of agricultural land increased by about 20 kg ha-1. On the other hand, in a group of organic fertilizers we observed a decreasing in consumption of fertilizers.

  • Survey of the chance of secondary salinization in the hobby gardens around Karcag

    Irrigation involves the risk of secondary salinization on certain areas. The increase of the level of salty groundwater or the application
    of poor quality (salty) irrigation water can cause secondary salinization. Irrigation from drilled wells is very characteristic in the small
    hobby gardens located around Karcag during the frequently droughty summers. Mainly vegetables and fruits with high water demand are
    grown in these gardens, hence quite a large amount of subsurface waters are used for irrigation. Water samples were taken from 46 drilled
    wells located in the hobby gardens around the town of Karcag and analysed in order to survey the risk of secondary salinization. On the
    base of the results of the analyses and some indexes calculated from the chemical parameters of the irrigation waters, it can be established
    that none of the investigated wells supply water that is suitable for irrigation without improvement.

  • Allelopathic effect of invasive plants (Eriochloa villosa, Asclepias syriaca, Fallopia x bohemica, Solidago gigantea) on seed germination

    The aim of this study was to determine the allelopathic potential of invasive species woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa), common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), bohemian knotweed (Fallopia x bohemica), and giant goldenrod (Solidago gigantea Ait.) on germination crop (Lepidium sativum L.). Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions to determine effect of water extracts in petri dish bioassay. Water extracts from fresh biomass (leaves and stem) of invasive weeds in concentrations of 4 and 8 g/100 ml were investigated. All invasive plants showed allelopathic effect on germination. In giant goldenrod stem water extract experiment, allelopathic effect was less pronounced.

    The cress germination was greatly suppressed with the woolly cupgrass, common milkweed and the giant goldenrod. The experiment showed that the seed germination depended on the concentrations and the plant material used (leaves and stem).

  • Study of animal welfare status and heat stress measures applied in dairy cow herds in Hungary

    The following material focuses on dairy production and climate related issues in Hungary. All the data was gathered during PhD
    project: Study of animal welfare status in dairy cow herds in Hungary. Relations between animal welfare and climate changes expressed by
    increase in temperature are described. Extremely hot weather creates hard conditions for milking cows when animal welfare is highly
    compromised. From the preliminary results obtained one might formulate hypothesis that there are still areas on the farms where immediate
    actions should be taken to give a relief to cows in hot seasons. There was found significant number of farms with too many animals per one
    water trough, dirty water troughs, limited access to water troughs and hazardous surface for cows in critical places where many animals are
    gathered. Calves with not sufficient amount of water in hot days and other parts of the year were reported. Silage exposure to the sun and
    mouldy food in a silage clump was also found to be an important factor in monitoring impact of warm weather. Half of the farms letting
    animals to spend time on the pasture or paddock did not provide shade for animals. Low conception rate of first insemination was predicted
    to be influenced by heat stress, what is proved by lack of heat decreasing measures taken on the farms.

  • The effect of dissolved oxygen on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) in the aquaponics system

    Aquaponics is an integrated system that combines fish farming (aquaculture) and hydroponic plant production. The objective of this study was to examine how the level of dissolved oxygen with or without an air pump affects water quality, fish output and plant growth parameters for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Ebb – and flood aquaponics systems (with automatic syphon) was used. Two treatments were set in this experiment, one of which was the aquaponics system without air pump (unit I), where water of the plant bed was pumped two directions, one falling back to the fish tank oxygenating the water the other was pumped to the hydroponics unit. The other system (unit II) was designed with an air pump.

    In the course of the study, water quality parameters, such as oxygen saturation, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC) and nitrite were significantly different (p<0.05). Total basil biomass was higher in unit II. (5367.41 g). The final biomass of common carp were
    2829.45 g ± 79.24 and 2980.6 g ± 64.13 g in unit I and unit II respectively. Weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) showed no significant differences (p>0.05) between the treatments. 

  • Effect of season and sowing time on the moisture loss dynamics and yield of maize

    The effect of sowing date on maize development and yield was studied in field experiments. The experiment was set up at the experimental garden of the University of Debrecen Centre of Agricultural Sciences Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Sciences in 2005 and 2006 on calcareous chernozem soil. Six hybrids with different genetic characteristics and vegetation period were tested (Sze 269, DK 440, PR37D25, NK Cisko, Mv Maraton, PR34B97) at three different sowing dates.
    2005 was a very wet year. The amount of precipitation in the vegetation period was about 150 mm higher than the average of 30 years. No significant differences were observed in temperature. However, the number of sunny hours was much lower during the summer than as usual. This had an influence on yields.
    In 2006, there was no risk of inland water in spite of the large amount of precipitation at the beginning of the year. The amount of water available for plants was satisfactory during the season due to the favorable amount of precipitation. Therefore, plants suffered less from the heat in July. However, hail on 22 July caused significant damage. The number of sunny hours in the summer was high enough. The warm, dry autumn helped the water release of plants.
    In 2005, the results of the third sowing date could not be evaluated due to the large number of missing plants. The yield of hybrids ranged between 12-14 t/ha for the first sowing date. For the second sowing date, yields ranged between wider boundaries. The hybrid PR37D25 has a very high yield in the case of the second sowing date, and its seed moisture content was favorably low. The yield of hybrid PR34B97 was the lowest at the later sowing date, the prime reason of this was damage caused by Diabrotica virgifera. The seed moisture content at harvest varied between 16-24% for the first sowing date. In the case of the second sowing date, higher values were measured. Hybrids Sze 269 and NK Cisko had favorable water release characteristics. The maximum value of leaf area index was the best in the case of the first sowing date (5-5.5 m2/m2).
    In 2006, yields for the first sowing date ranged between 8-10 t/ha. At the second sowing date, more favorable results were obtained. The reason for this is probably that hail caused a higher damage in hybrids with the early sowing date. Plant stock with later sowing date could recover more successfully. Hybrid PR37D25 had very high yields for the second and third sowing dates. The high-yielding hybrid PR34B97 also had high yield, but this was accompanied by higher seed moisture content. Due to the warm, sunny autumn weather, the hybrids had good water-release dynamics and were harvested with a lower seed moisture content than in the previous year. For the first sowing date, the seed moisture content was around 13-14% except for hybrid PR34B97. For the second and third sowing dates, higher values were observed. Leaf area index was significantly reduced in August for all three hybrids due to the hail in July. For the first two sowing dates, the leaves of hybrid Sze 269 were the first to dry similarly to the previous year.
    Year had a strong effect on the results in both years.

  • Hybrid-specific nutrient and water use of maize on chernozem soil

    The field research was set up on chernozem soil at the Látókép AGTC KIT research area of the University of Debrecen. The study focused on yield, water utilization, nutrient reaction and the amount of yield per kg fertilizer of corn hybrid NX 47279 in 2011 and 2012. Based on the yield results it can be concluded that the largest yield in 2011 was 15 963 kg ha-1 at level N120+PK, while in 2012, the maximum yield amounted to 14 972 kg ha-1 at level N90+PK. Surplus yield per kg fertilizer proved that in 2011 level N30+PK resulted in the highest surplus yield (42.3 kg kg-1) compared to the control treatment. In 2012, yield growth was 18.0 kg kg-1 compared to the control treatment. We measured at level N60+PK 17,5 kg kg-1 compared to at level N30+PK, at the N90+PK 17,7 kg kg-1 compared to at level N60+PK. level N30+PK kg kg-1, 17.5 kg kg-1 at level N60+PK and 17.7 kg kg-1 at level N90+PK compared to the control treatment.

    Results of the regression analysis showed that the amount of nitrogen fertilizer was 117 kg ha-1 in 2011 and 111 kg ha-1 in 2012 in order to reach maximum yield. Doses of fertilizers above the amounts previously mentioned resulted in yield decrease. Our results indicated that in the drought year of 2012 the hybrid used available water more efficiently than in 2011. The hybrid produced 59 kg ha-1 yield in 2012 and 51.9 kg ha-1 in 2011 at an optimum nutrition level.

  • The effect of water-stress on the mineral nutrition of fruit plantations

    Besides agro-techniques the climatic conditions play an important role in agricultural production. Weather extremes are
    significant hazards to many horticultural regions all over the word. It has a profound influence on the growth, development and yields of a
    crop, incidence of pests and diseases, water needs and fertilizer requirements in terms of differences in nutrient mobilization due to water
    stresses. Nowadays, the weather extremes cause more and more problems and significant hazards to many horticultural regions in Hungary.
    The aim of this study is to explore the problems of nutrient uptake followed from climatic anomalies and response it. In this study
    we focus on water supply problems (water-stress).
    Reviewing the effects and nutrient disorders caused by climatic anomalies, the following statements can be taken:
    · Nutrient demand of trees can be supplied only under even worse conditions.
    · The most effective weapon against damage of climatic anomalies is preventative action.
    · Proper choice of cultivars, species and cultivation should provide further possibilities to avoid and moderate the effects of
    climatic anomalies.
    · Fruit growing technologies especially nutrition should be corrected and adjusted to the climatic events as modifier factors.
    · The role of foliar spraying, mulching and fertigation/irrigation is increasing continuously.
    · Urgent task of the near future is to correct and adjust the tested technologies of fruit growing according to these climatic events as
    modifier factors.
    Optimal nutrient supply of trees decreases the sensitivity for unexpected climatic events. To solve these problems supplementary, foliar
    fertilization is recommended, which adjusted to phonological phases of trees. Moreover, mulching is regarded as an excellent water saving

  • The Effect of the Mineral Content of the Leg-Horn and the Age of Sheep on the Mechanical Parameters of the Horn

    Species and individual animals with hard leg-horn have higher resistance against foot diseases. The reason for this is the fact, that bacteria can penetrate the hard leg-horn with more difficulty than the soft leg-horn, and in this way it is also more difficult for them to cause an illness. From among the mechanical parameters of the leg-horn the P = 0.1% negative linear correlation between the hardness and the water contents of the horn is significant. There is a positive linear correlation between the shock resistance and the water contents of the leg-horn. In the case of air-dry horn (with less than 8% water contents) there is a positive linear correlation between the Ca- and Zn contents as well as the Ca:P ratio and the hardness of the horn. The results suggest that the wider the Ca:P ratio of the horn, the harder the horn is, while the water content is the same. The leg-horn of the Hungarian Merino ewes have larger Ca contents and wider Ca:P ratio than juvenile animals have. This is why the juvenile animals with a softer leg-horn can be more susceptive to foot diseases than the older animals.

  • Evaluation of water balance in apple and pear trees

    A significant proportion of the aboveground green and dry weight of the plant constitutes the foliage. The canopy is an important factor
    of plant growth. On one hand the canopy absorbs the solar energy, which is necessary for the photosynthesis, on the other hand accumulates
    the absorbed nutrients by the roots, and the most of the water-loss happens through the foliages. The determination of the full canopy is not
    an easy target. In our research we developed a measurement method to determine the leaf area. With the parameters of the examined tree
    (leaf length and maximum width) and the data of ADC AM 100 leaf area scanner we determined the k-value, with which we can easily and
    fast evaluate the leaf surface. Furthermore we defined from the water balance of compensation lysimeters the cumulative transpiration of
    fruit trees and the efficiency of water use of trees.

  • Environmental friendly irrigation of vegetables with high salt content water

    Horticultural activities have been characteristic in the hobby gardens located in the northern and western areas around the town of Karcag for more than 300 years. During the droughty summer periods, characteristic to the region, the water demand of vegetables and fruit trees are covered by irrigation, for that the water is gained from drilled wells. These well waters contain high amount of dissolved salts contributing to the secondary salinization of the soil. Taking these facts into consideration an irrigation experiment was set at the lysimeter station of Karcag Research Institute. Our goal was to mitigate the risk of secondary salinization generated by irrigation with waters of high salt content and to survey the application possibilities of soil preserving irrigation.

  • Improved soil and tomato quality by some biofertilizer products

    The use of microbial inoculums is a part of sustainable agricultural practices. Among various bioeffectors, the phosphorus-mobilizing bacteria are frequently used.

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of some industrial biofertilizer inoculums, of containing P-mobilizing bacteria on the quantity and some quality parameters of tomato fruits. Spore-forming industrial Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 (Rhizovital) as single inoculums and combinations with other Bacillus strains (Biorex) were applied on Solanum lycopersicon Mill. var. Mobil test plant. Soil microbial counts, phosphorus availability, yield and fruit quality, such as total soluble solids (TSS) content and sugars (glucose, fructose) were assessed. The results found that single industrial inoculums of FZB42 product had positive effect on P-availability and fruit quality in the pots. Fruit quality parameters, TSS content, soluble sugars were significantly improved (p<0.05). Such better fruit taste was correlated significantly by the most probable number (MPN) microbial counts. Use of such bioeffector products is supported by the positive interrelation among measured soil characteristics and inside healthy quality parameters of tomato fruits.

  • Effect of Water and Nutrient Supply on the Allelopathy of Abutilon theophrasti Medic. and Xanthium italicum Mor

    Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic.) and Cocklebur species (Xanthium spp.) are more and more dangerous and „difficult to control” weeds in several cultivated plants. The ground cover of these species have became larger in Hungary like other warm-philous species. There are several causes of danger of them, for example: large capability for competition, allelopathic effect, keeping on of emergence.
    The allelopathic effect of these weeds were examined on sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). Extracts of plants grown under different conditions have several effect on this species.
    Abutilon theophrasti plants were grown in perlite to examine the effect of supplying with nutritive materials on production of inhibitors. The water soluble exudates of the shoots grown with no artificial fertilisers inhibit stronger than grown with them. Acid soluble exudates have contrary effect. The exudates made of roots inhibited the sugarbeet less than shoots.
    Effect of drought stress on production of inhibitors was examined on Abutilon theophrasti and on Xanthium italicum. The species responded to missing of water different, and the water, acid and basic soluble exudates had different effect, as well.

  • Examination and statistical evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of windrow composting


    The treatment and utilization of plant and animal waste and by-products from agriculture is very diverse. Traditional environmental management practices for waste management have been retained through soil conservation and the applied of recycle degradable organic substances in soil. The management of by-products from agriculture (animal husbandry) is important because a closed loop can be created to utilize by-products (manure, feathers) from the production of the main product (eggs, meat, milk) and to form a raw material for a new product. It is important to treat the resulting by-products, especially deep-litter manure, as it has served as a basis for compost-treated manure to develop an organic-based, soil-conditioning product line. Poultry manure by itself is not suitable as a substrate for aerobic decomposition, so it has to be mixed with other substances (zeolite, bentonite, soil), because of its high nutrient capacity, it is an acidifying substance.

    The aim of this study was to compost the mixture of poultry manure and hen manure by the addition of zeolite and to monitor the composting process. It was also our aim to statistically determine the effect of the zeolite on parameters describing the composting process.

    The windrow composting experiments were set up in the composting area of the University of Debrecen, Institute of Water and Environmental Management. The composting experiment was 62 days long, during which the main parameters describing the composting process were continuously monitored: temperature (°C), moisture content (w/w%), electrical conductivity (mS/cm), organic matter content (w/w%), examination of nitrogen forms (w/w%). In this study, three factors were investigated: temperature, humidity, and pH. For statistical evaluation, R software and RStudio user interface were used. We developed a repeated measurement model, in which the fixed and random effects were determined for our parameters under study, and the resulting relationships were shown on interaction plots.

    Based on our results, the temperature of the prisms has become independent of the ambient temperature and the composting stages can be separated in both the control and the zeolite treated prisms. In the repeated measurement model, we proved that treatment, time and treatment: time interaction were significant at both temperature and pH.

  • Investigation of Salix alba and Populus tremula leaf litter decomposition in the area of Lake Balaton and Kis-Balaton Wetland

    Plant litter decomposition in inland waters contributes significantly to nutrient load, particularly in still waters, such as shallow lakes and wetlands. The decomposition rates of Salix alba and Populus tremula leaf litter was examined in Lake Balaton and Kis-Balaton Wetland, using litter bag technique. Leaf litter was incubated in small (ᴓ=3 mm) and large (ᴓ=900 μm) mesh size bags for the assessment of the relative contribution of macroinvertebrates to leaf litter decomposition. Dry mass, exponential decay coefficient and chemical parameters of water (pH, conductivity, NH4 +, NO3 -, SO4 2-, PO4 3-, Cl-) were determined. Leaf mass loss showed negative exponential pattern during the 168 days of the decomposition period. Leaf litter mass loss generally did not differ between the small and large mesh sizes, suggesting that macroinvertebrates generally have a negligible role in leaf decomposition in the winter period.

  • Water managed properties of apple and pear trees based on lysimeters

    A significant proportion of the aboveground green and dry weight of the plant is constituted by foliage. The canopy is an important factor of plant growth. On the one hand, the canopy absorbs solar energy, which is necessary for photosynthesis; on the other hand, it accumulates the nutrients absorbed by the roots, and most of the water-loss occurs through the foliage. The determination of the full canopy is not an easy target. In our research, we developed a measurement method to determine the leaf area. With the parameters of the examined tree (leaf length and maximum width) and the data of the ADC AM 100 leaf area scanner, we determined the k-value, with which we can easily and fast evaluate the leaf surface. Furthermore, we defined from the water balance of compensation lysimeters the cumulative transpiration of fruit trees and the efficiency of water use of trees. From the examined trees were made a 3D depiction, which show the shape, branching and the location of trees.

  • Preliminary studies to evaluate the use of spectral data in monitoring of apple orchard parameters

    The introduction/application of precision agricultural technologies has more important role in various fruit growing sectors among others apple growing. Remote sensing methods can detect electromagnetic waves where the green colour of the leaf is responsible for the chlorophyll content. The absorption of chlorophyll is in the wavelength range of 450–670 nm. Samples of apple tree leaves were taken on a weekly basis from the apple orchard at Horticultural Unit of Pallag on University of Debrecen in 2019 summer. Our studies were performed on 2 cultivars (Early Gold, Golden Reinders) and the samples were processed using 2 methodologies: a non-destructive spectral method and spectrophotometric method chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were calculated, which were created into some groups and compared with the spectral values. When the plant begins to lose strong green colour and turns yellow spectral measurements show that chlorophyll content decreases as the proportion of chlorophyll-carotenoid in the plant changes.  In case of grouping into intervals, it can be observed that as the chlorophyll content increases the reflectance value decreases continuously due to the strong absorption. Based on the results, close relationship between the pigments can be detected.

  • The impact of cultivar and irrigation on yield, leaf surface temperature and SPAD readings of chili pepper

    Paprika is an extremely popular and widespread plant species in Hungary. Chili peppers belongs to paprika and it can be consumed fresh or processed. The production of peppers began with the cultivation and control of some parameters for good results of paprika production. The aim of this article is to compare the water supply of four chili pepper hybrids ("Habanero", "Hetényi Parázs", "Unikal" and "Unijol") by means of investigation on open field and to examine how different temperatures and water stress factors influence the yield of chili peppers. The experiment area consisted of four different hybrids in three different irrigation treatments (control, deficit- and regular irrigation). The chlorophyll content was estimated with SPAD and the leaf surface temperature with Raytek MX4 TD. Our research concluded that deficit irrigation produced the highest yields for all cultivars and the lowest yields for the highest water supply.

  • Examination of nutrient leaching dynamics of Solidago virgaurea in Hévíz Lake and Hévíz canal

    The different nitrogen and phosphorus elements are prime constituents of the ecosystem and can exert a major effect on aquatic species and the overall ecological cycle. During our investigation we examined the nutrient leaching dynamics in decomposing leaf litter (stem and leaf blades) of Solidago virgaurea. We chose four different sampling sites during the winter period with different water temperatures in the Hévíz Lake and Hévíz canal. The bottles containing the plant material and water were incubated at natural temperatures and the fluid was removed at particular times. Water parameters such as pH level, conductivity, nutrients (ammonium and phosphates) were measured. In the case of Solidago leaf, we obtained higher values ​​for all parameters compared to the stem ones.

  • Heterobeltiosis and combining ability among Egyptian cotton genotypes under well irrigated and water deficit conditions

    Two field experiments were carried out during the 2014 and 2015 seasons to evaluate certain genotypes of Egyptian cotton under well irrigated and water stress conditions. The cross combination Giza 69 x Australy recorded the best values for better parent heterosis for all physiological measurements and earliness index under well irrigated and deficit conditions. Of the female parents, Giza 86 was found to be a good general combiner for most yield characters under both normal and stress conditions, followed by Giza 94. Data illustrated that Giza 45 was the best general combiner for most fiber quality traits under both conditions. The cross combinations Giza 86 x Dandra and Giza 69 x Pima S6 showed significant positive SCA values for seed cotton and lint yield/plant under well irrigated and water deficit conditions. However, the combinations Giza 77 x PimaS6 and Giza 94 x 10229 recorded significant positive SCA effects for seed cotton yield/plant under stress. Whilst, the cross Giza 68 x 10229 recorded significant desirable SCA effects for most fiber quality properties. In this context, the estimates significant positive general and specific combining ability effects indicated that the epistasis and/or dominance effects for F1 hybrid in cotton could be important to a certain extent.

  • Investigation of the decomposition and leaching dynamics of Salix, Populus and mixed leaves in the area of Lake Balaton and Kis-Balaton Wetland

    In lakes and wetlands, leaf litter input from the coastal vegetation represents a major nutrient load and plays a basic structural and functional role in several ecosystems. In Hungary, at the banks of lakes and wetlands, Salix and Populus trees are the most common species. In an experiment in Lake Balaton and Kis-Balaton Wetland between 16 November 2017 to and 3 June 2018, the decomposition rates and leaching dynamics of Salix, Populus and mixed leaves (50% Salix and 50% Populus) were investigated. Total nitrogen and phosphorus content of biomass samples were measured at the beginning and end of the experiment for the leaching dynamics experiment. We found that litter mass losses (Salix, Populus and mixed leaves) were not significantly different between the two mesh size litterbags and between Lake Balaton and Kis-Balaton Wetland. Different amounts of the total nitrogen and phosphorus leaching from Salix, Populus and mixed leaves were detected. The total nitrogen contents of the plant samples were around 8-18% at the end of the investigated period. Slightly higher values were measured compared to phosphorous (27-29%).

  • Sequence heterogeneity of nSSR and cpDNA loci of Cucurbits (Citrullus sp.)

    The evolution of water melon (Citrullus lanatus) microsatellites from the 15th century (Debrecen); 13th (Buda); and 18th century, (Pannonhalma) were analyzed. Microsatellite (nSSR, nuclear simple sequence repeat) and cpDNA profiles of the aDNA (ancient DNA) of seed remains were compared to modern water melon cultivars and landraces. Sixteen primer pairs were applied. Sequence analysis at the (CT)26 and cpDNA trnV loci revealed a (CT)3 and Adenin deletions, respectively, form the current water melon cultivar compared to the medieval sample. Cila-1), a new LTR retrotansposon has been described. For morphological reconstruction, a dendrogram produced by SPSS11 based on the presence versus absence of 24 phenotypic characters were also analyzed.

  • Failure causes and effect analysis of water supply systems

    The present paper intends to overview the problems of the failure causes and effect analysis of water supply systems. The author’s efforts were channeled to systemizing, classifying and adapting the content to the hydraulics engineering field.