To the effective control of invasive weeds are essential to prevent establish, if has already happened obstacle to massive accumulation, and promoting the efficient and rapid eradication, if it is possible. The Woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa /Thunb./ Kunth) belongs to weeds which “hard to control” especially in corn. One of the difficul...ties of effective control is the prolonged emergence causing avoidance of several individuals the contact with pre-emergent herbicides. Another problem arises due to the intensive use of post-emergence herbicide products with short duration of action. To optimalize of timing of treatment is essential for successful control of later emerging weeds. The recently established Woolly cupgrass in Hungary shows resistance or reduced susceptibility to substantial portion of herbicides used in corn. The data collected from small-plot trials demonstrates that application of sulfonylurea or selective monoctyledonous herbicides can be effective against the Woolly cupgrass.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Scientific research from the last decades showed that the inappropriate industrial and agricultural production caused an abnormal increase of the potentially toxic elements in the soil. Unfortunately the acidification of the soil is an increasing problem in Hungary. According to Várallyay et al. (2008) 13% of the Hungarian soils are highly acid. Accumulation of toxic elements differs in the genetically diverse plant species. The root of the plant constitutes a filter so that the rootstock is also kind of a filter system, which may prevent that the scion part (such as berry) accumulate high levels of various potentially toxic elements from the soil. The aim of research was to determine how different grape rootstocks influence the As, Co, Cu and Zn content of the musts and seeds. Thus, specifying which of the grape rootstocks takes up the lowest level of these 4 elements (As, Co, Cu and Zn), and accumulates in berries, so could reduce the potentially toxic element load of the grape berries. The grape rootstock collection of the University of Debrecen was set up in 2003 in 3x1 m spacing on immune sandy soil. Grafting of ‘Cserszegi fűszeres’ was started in 2010. We could evaluate yields harvested from 12 rootstock varieties of the experiment in October 2011. We obtained valuable differences in the arsenic, copper, cobalt and zinc concentrations of musts and seeds of ‘Cserszegi fűszeres’ grafted into different rootstocks. The results obtained from the 2011 harvest support the statement that the choice of rootstock might be an important factor to increase food safety. The differences in concentration of the four elements observed in case of the rootstock may have been caused on one hand by the rootstock effect, and on the other hand, the vintage effect has a very significant impact on the vines element uptake. Several years of experimental results will be needed to answer these questions.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The Public Utility for Development of Crop Protection Teaching (NOFKA) and The Hajdú-Bihar County Regional Association of Hungarian Chamber of Crop Protection Specialists and Plant Doctors (Chamber) established a joined Award Committee in 2011, which intend to serve as moral appreciation to prominent persons with excellent achievements by awarding the „Antal Gulyás medallion for crop protection” which are available for outstanding teachers, researchers, and practical crop protection specialists.
Mycotoxin contamination in harvested maize has increased in the last decades, which can be unequivocally back to the plant health troubles caused by global warming. The increasing of wounds in maize crops was occurred by climate change both on direct (hailstorm) and indirect
(newly appeared pests) ways. In additional, the settling phytopatho
The changing of Hungarian arthropod pests assemblages stand in the background of this dangerous nuisance complex. The spreading of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) bivoltine ecotype as well as the newly appeared adventive species [cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera Hbn.), western corn rootworm (Diabrotica v. virgifera LeConte), fourspotted-sapbeetle (Glischrochilus quadrisignatus Say)] in Hungary can be responsible for this situation. In total, all technological elements, which obstruct the damage of these chewing mouthparts pests, as well as moderate the mechanical damage of maize, can be contribute to the reduction of both these phytopathogens injuries and mycotoxin contaminations.
In our investigation we used different weed control technologies in the different phenology states of the maize. The experiment have been
carried out in Hódmezővásárhely, in the Experiment garden of the Pilot farm of University of Szeged Faculty of Agriculture, on meadow
chernozem soil, on 24 m2 plots, in 3 replications, ra
where, in addition to the untreated control, six chemicals or chemical-combinations are applied (Spectrum 720 EC, Motivell Turbo D,
Stellar + Dash HC, Clio + Akris SE + Dash HC, Clio + Dash HC) in five different times (pre, early post, post and two late post) and eight
mechanical weed-control technologies were used. Hoeing took place connected to the herbicide treatments in different times: until 2-3-leave
age weedless, in 3-4-leave age hoed once, from 3-4-leave age weedless, in 6-7-leave age hoed once, from 6-7-leave age weedless, in 8-leave
age hoed once, from 8-leave age weedless.
Our results were assessed by chemical efficiency examination, maize length measurement, corncob-length and fertility examination,
Sorghum plant-number determination and yield weighing carried out in four periods. The data were evaluated by a one-factor analysis of
variance and a two-factor linear regression analysis.
Click beetle pests (Elateridae: Agriotes sp.) of 24 sites in different regions of Hungary were studied in 2011. A. brevis, A. sputator, A.
obscurus, A. lineatus, A. rufipalpis and A. ustulatus were sampled by pheromone traps in maize fields. During the study 65895 beetles were
caught. A. ustulatus and A. sputator were the most abundant sp
in the Transdanubia A. sputator was dominant in the most studied sites. A. obscurus occurred mostly in Transdanubia (western Hungary), and it occurred only in one site of eastern Hungary.
The abundance of one or simultaneously two species reached the threshold of significant damage in 14 sites. Additionally there were three sites where the total abundance of the two most dominant species reached the threshold. There were only six sites where we should not expect significant damage. In this reason we have to monitor the populations of these pests and if it is necessary we have to take actions against them.
Click beetle (Elateridae: Agriotes sp.) species of 24 sites in different regions of Hungary were studied in 2010. A. brevis, A. sputator, A. obscurus, A. lineatus, A. rufipalpis and A. ustulatus were sampled by pheromone traps in maize fields. During the study more than 80000 beetles were caught. The three most common species were A. ustul...atus, A. sputator and A. rufipalpis. The distribution of the studied species was uneven. In south Hungary A. ustulatus, A, rufipalpis and A. sputator were the three most abundant species. In the Transdanubia A. sputator was the most abundant. A. ustulatus reached higher abundance in only three sites (3/12). A. obscurus occurred only in west Hungary (Transdanubia). In eastern Hungary the abundance of studied species was higher. In this reason we have to monitor the populations of these pests and if it is necessary we have to take actions against them. In Transdanubia the abundance were generally lower but in many cases reached the threshold of significant damage. Beyond that 13 additional species were sampled so the total number of sampled species was 19.
Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic.) and Cocklebur species (Xanthium spp.) are more and more dangerous and „difficult to control” weeds in several cultivated plants. The ground cover of these species have became larger in Hungary like other warm-philous species. There are several causes of danger of them, for example: large capability f...or competition, allelopathic effect, keeping on of emergence.
The allelopathic effect of these weeds were examined on sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). Extracts of plants grown under different conditions have several effect on this species.
Abutilon theophrasti plants were grown in perlite to examine the effect of supplying with nutritive materials on production of inhibitors. The water soluble exudates of the shoots grown with no artificial fertilisers inhibit stronger than grown with them. Acid soluble exudates have contrary effect. The exudates made of roots inhibited the sugarbeet less than shoots.
Effect of drought stress on production of inhibitors was examined on Abutilon theophrasti and on Xanthium italicum. The species responded to missing of water different, and the water, acid and basic soluble exudates had different effect, as well.
The examination of the potentially toxic elements content of the wines is not easy task, because the most elements are in little concentration (mg kg-1 or μg kg-1) in the wine and the wines contain great amount of organic matrix. The efficient sample preparation is essential for the accurate determination of element conte...nt. The eim of our research was to determine which sample preparation method will be the most efficient in examination of wines with ICP technology. The examined wine sample was a 2008 Chardonnay from the Eger wine region. We did the sample preparation and analysis examination in University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Institute of Food Science, Quality Assurance and Microbiology.
We did the analysis examinations with ICP- MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy). We always did the sample preparations and the examinations in three times rehearsal. The applied sample preparation methods: dilution with distilled water, open digestion and microwave digestion.
We were able to measure B, Al, Mn, Fe and Zn with only dilution and open sample preparation. In the smaller quantity present Sr and Ba were measurable in the wine in the case of all three methods well. We were able to measure the Co with dilution and open digestion method, while Cr, Ni, and Te with only dilution method. In the case of arsenic we were not able to measure reliable result with dilution and open digestion method because of organic matrix and other components
(alcohols, monosaccharides, polysaccharides, polyalcohols and inorganic salts). On the whole we are able to say that in the case of certain elements (B, Mn, Fe, Zn, Sr, Ba) the open digestion and dilution sample preparation is applicable well, however, in the case of certain elements (As, Al, V, Cr, Se, Mo, Cd, Hg, Pb) we have to develop the methods. It may be development of one of the way, if we develop sample preparation methods to examined element specifically and not
to wine generally.
Woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa /Thunb./ Kunth) is native to East Asia, it spreads in several parts of the World and causes difficulties in plant protection, especially in maize. Difficulties in control of Eriochloa villosa originated from several reasons: seeds continue to germinate later in the season, significant part of seeds emerges fro...m a deep layer of the soil, and the species is less susceptible to some herbicides applied to maize than other annual grass weeds.
The first report on the occurrence of woolly cupgrass in Hungary was published in 2008, and it reported about the appearance of this species near to Gesztely village (Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county), however, no information has been added about spread of the weed in Hungary until now.
A significant population was discovered next to Debrecen (Hajdú-Bihar county) in summer, 2011, and then weed associations were examined in maize, sunflower and stubble-fields on several km2 in the area to estimate the Eriochloa villosa infection. The weed species was found on every maize field bordering with a ground cover of 0.5-4%. Woolly cupgrass occurred inside of the 50% of maize fields, and reached a ground cover of 76% in case of most infected area, in addition it was found in sunflower and stubble-fields.
The spread of woolly cupgrass is expected in this area, which requires the consideration of this species in the planning of weed management technologies.
Field experiments were conducted to study affects of pH and hardness of spray water on efficacy of a herbicide combination (terbuthylazine + mesotrione) influenced by several pH adjusters and adjuvants in Debrecen, Hungary in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Favourable or unfavourable effects of pH and hardness of spray water could be observed under field...conditions. Evaluation of weed control efficacy is suitable for examination of affects of spray water pH and hardness on herbicides. The terbuthylazine and mesotrione herbicide combination is suitable to control monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weed species, however, significant effects of hardness and pH of spray carrier was observed only in control of monocotyledonous weeds. Certain pH adjusters (e.g. ammonium nitrate) can lessen harmful affects of water hardness effectively. Significant loss of efficacy of sensitive herbicide was found in hard water (by about 50-60%), and surfactants was not able to eliminate that harmful affect. However, biological activity was the same as in soft water with ammonium nitrate which can overcome the antagonism of salts. That pH adjuster had a more significant affect on the efficacy of the herbicide than the surfactant had in that experiment.
In Hungary, the cocklebur species significantly endanger row crops (i.e. corn, sunflower, sugar beet). Their fast spreading is caused by many reasons: long-lasting emergence, reduced sensitivity to many kinds of herbicides, vigorous competitional ability, allelopathy, fast initial growth and changes in climate. The means of allelopathy is used...by many species of plants in the competition with one another, as well as by the cockleburs. But the efficiency of this is influenced by many factors. Species with allelopathical effect could show different behaviour under different conditions: they can produce compounds with retarding and stimulating effects in different quantities or compositions. The actual condition of the acceptor plant and the mediator agent (i.e. soil) influence the final effect.
In this experiment influence of phenology and rainfall was studied on allelopathy of cockleburs in May, July and September. A stronger inhibition was observed on growth of cress before rain in July than in May, but this retarding effect disappeared after rainfall. However, the samples collected in September have significant inhibitory effect after rain. Inhibition of sugarbeet’s germination was stronger in May than in July, and the difference increased after rain.
The role of chemical elements to ensure and promote our health is undisputed. Some of them are essential for plants, animals and human, others can cause diseases. The major source of mineral constituents is food, drinking water has a minor contribution to it, so the knowledge of elemental intake through food is crucial and needs continuous moni...toring and by this way it promotes the food quality assurance and dietetics.
With the evolution of spectroscopic methods increasingly lower concentrations could be determined, so the elemental composition of a sample could be more precisely and fully described. Due to the results the gathered knowledge up to the present is supported and new observations can be done helping us to understand such complex systems as biological organisms are.
The quality of a food is determined by the full process of its production, consequently it starts with agricultural production so elemental-analysis usually cover the whole soil – plant – (animal) – food chain, by this way the „Fork-to-Farm” precept is true in elemental analysis field also.
The history of elemental analysis in the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, Institute of Food Processing, Quality Assurance and Microbiology goes back to 1980s when the so called Regional Measurement Central gave the background for research. The continuous deployment resulted in an obtain of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) in 1988, which extended the scope of examinations due to its excellent performance characteristics
compared to flame atom absorption (FAAS) and flame emission spectrometers (FES). The instrumental park retain up to date correlate to the developing analytical techniques due to acquiring a newer ICPAES in 1998 and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in 2004 – which sensitivity is three order of magnitude better compared to ICP-AES. The Institute supports the work with its own ICP-AES and ICP-MS since 2011.
Cockleburs are noxious weeds in Hungary, where they are widespread in row crops, especially in maize, sunflower and sugarbeet. A low density population of these weeds may be harmful because of their large competitive ability, fast growth in early phenological stages, allelopathy, and persistant sprouting.
Allelopathy of Xanthium italicum Mor
Most of extracts inhibited the germination of sugar beet. In these experiments the phenological stage of the donor plant determined slightly the effectiveness of the extracts on sugar beet. Generally, significant differences existed between treatments only in cases of concentrated extracts.
Rainfall can modify the inhibitory effect of extracts (especially shoot extracts). Shoot extracts of young plants inhibited stronger germination and growth after rain than before rain. Density of cockleburs influenced the effect of extracts, as well. Generally, differences between the efficacy of extracts was larger after rain.
The results supported the hypothesis that the phenological stage and some environmental factors can modify allelopathy of cockleburs.