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  • Examination of the presence and effect of udder edema in Holstein-Friesian cattle

    Mastitis is the most common disease of dairy cows and the most expensive in terms of treatment. For this reason, great emphasis must be placed on its prevention. Based on literature sources, it can be said that there is a positive correlation between the prevalence of udder edema and the occurrence of mastitis. Our studies were carried out in a dairy farm in Csongrád-Csanád county. So far we have collected data from 64 cows with udder edema. The severity of udder edema was evaluated on a scale of 0–3 points one week before calving and for 3 weeks after calving. We observed that udder edema occurred in 78% of the studied cows at the time of the first calving. After calving, the length and diameter of the four udder teats were examined. Both anterior and posterior teats were shortened in severely edematous cows. When examining the diameter of the teat, we found that, depending on the severity of the edema, the anterior and posterior udder teats were 2.5 and 1.6 and 1.6 and 1.5 mm thicker respectively than those of cows without edema.

  • Heat stress of cattle from embryonic phase until culling

    Heat stress becomes a serious problem in the livestock sector as it affects cows' performance negatively. The objective of this paper review is to investigate the effects of heat stress during the different phases of the life cycle of cows; embryos, calves, heifers, and cows. Heat stress during early maternal gestation affects the ability of embryos to develop increasing the risk of abortion and early embryonic death. Heat stress during late maternal gestation affects the performance of calves and heifers later in their life, as it reduces growth performance, conducts physiological changes, impaired immunity, changes the behavior, and reduces the length and intensity of the estrus in heifers with decreasing in milk production in the first lactation. On the level of cows, milk quality and production, meat quality, and the final body weight decrease under hot temperatures. Heat stress decreases the conception rate, alters follicle growth, and estrous symptoms. Hormones secretion and physiological changes because of the heat stress conduct to impair the immunity system, and in oxidative stress and death in some cases. Same as for calves and heifers a change in the behavior of cows was detected in order to decrease their temperature.

  • The evaluation of body condition scoring of Holstein-Friesian cows

    We carried out the examinations on a farm of 500 cows where We examined the body condition of the stock every month. We recorded the body condition data together with the milk production and calving data. We analysed the daily milk production as well as the body condition. During the examinations we sought an answer how the body condition and the production level change during the lactation period.

  • The trend of cowmilk yield, its compostion and the body condition during the lactation

    The authors examined the data of 2767 trial milkings andthe months Body Condition Scores of 479 Holstein dairy cows. The condition loss was significant between the 30-60th days. The improvement of BCS begins only after the 120th day. The change in the milk protein and milk fat content were close after the condition changing. In each period of the lactation the closeness of the relationship among the condition, the milk quantity and the milk composition were different. In the aspect of the milk quantity the most significant difference was between the 2.5 and 4 BCS cows (6.68 kg) in the last period of the lactation.