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  • The examination of the marigold’s (Calendula officinalis L.) nutrient requirement in small-plot trial
    61-66
    Views:
    149

    During our research we investigated the marigold's (Calendula officinalis L.) nutrient requirements with different fertilization treatments in small-plot trial. We measured the harvested marigold's drug's raw and dry weight on a weekly basis from July 6th until August 17th. We were using SPME (Solid phase microextraction) and GC-MS (gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer) to examined the effects of the different fertilization settings for the herb's main active ingredients of essential oil's percentage.

    It was concluded, based on the results, the N30P40K60 fertilization setting is ideal in terms of the quantity of the marigold drug. Both the raw and the dry weights' measurements of the case, this fertilization setting have the most important effect on the herb's yield. The analysis of variance didn't show significant differences between the plots with different fertilization settings. We discovered relationship between the drying loss and the increasing quantities of nutrients. We think it may be possible the Alpha-thujon's and Alpha-cadinol's production and the drying loss's data are connected, which appear to confirm the N15P20K30 treatment's data.

  • Analysis of different fertilization settings’ effect in the case of the summer savory’s (Satureja hortensis L.) yield and active agents
    101-105
    Views:
    162
    During our research we investigated the Mediterranean summer savory’s (Satureja hortensis L.) nutrient requirement with different fertilization settings in a small plot trial. We measured the medicinal plant’s raw and dry drug mass, and the presence of the main essential oil active agents under the different fertilization settings using SPME (Solid phase microextraction) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatograph mass spectrometer).
    From the drug’s raw and dry mass perspective, based on the obtained results, in our opinion, the N30P40K60 nutrient requirements were ideal in 2015, while the N60P80K120 nutrient requirement showed the best values in 2016. A significant relationship is assumed between the different fertilization settings and the essential oil active agents’ distribution. During the analysis of data, we compared three of the savory’s essential oil active agents’ percentage of presence in the nutrient requirement samples.
  • The marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) drug essential oil agents change under different fertilization settings in small plot trial
    57-60
    Views:
    157

    During our research we investigated the marigold's (Calendula officinalis L.) nutrient requirements with different fertilization setting in small-plot trial. We measured SPME (Solid phase microextraction) and GC-MS (gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer) we examined the effects of the different fertilization settings for the herb's main active ingredients of essential oil's percentage.

    Based on the results, it was concluded, the essential oil agents' percentage breakdowns significantly depending on the cropping technologies. Besides that it is possible, based on Pearson's correlation test the marigold essential oil agents relationship can also be a major factor.

  • Inhibition of the spread of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in aquaponics
    5-8
    Views:
    196

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which causes white mold, is a widespread pathogen. In 2020, a new host plant of this fungus, the watercress (Nasturtium officinale) was identified in Hungary in an aquaponic system. During the cultivation of watercress S. sclerotiorum was detected on the plant, the fungus caused a 30% yield loss. Fungicides should not be used against fungi in aquaponic systems. Non-chemical methods of integrated pest management should be used. These include biological control (resistant species, predators, pathogens, antagonist microorganisms), manipulation of physical barriers, traps, and the physical environment. In the aquaponic system, the removal of the growing medium (expanded clay aggregate pellets) solved the damage of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum 100%. By removing the expanded clay aggregate pellets, the environmental conditions became unfavorable for the development and further spread of the S. sclerotium fungus.

  • The purple coneflower’s (Echinacea purpurea L.) nutrient requirements investigation in a small plot trial
    95-99
    Views:
    130
    During our research, we investigated the purple coneflower's (Echinacea purpurea L.) drug yield and drying loss change with different fertilization settings in a small-plot trial. We measured the raw and dry drug yield, which we harvested in 2016 and in 2017, as well as the drying loss of these yields. Harvest and all other works were performed manually. We dried the harvested herba under prenumbra for three weeks. Based on the obtained data, every fertilization settings’ yield was less than that of the control plots in 2016. We measured the highest drying loss in relation to the N60P80K120 supply in this year. In 2017, we measured the highest yield data in the N75P100K150 fertilization setting.
    We made single-factor variance analysis to investigate the connection between the quantity of the raw, the dried herba, the drying loss and the different nutrient settings
  • The changes of the purple coneflower’s (Echinacea purpurea L.) herb and radix drug yield under different fertilization conditions
    79-83
    Views:
    157

    In this research, the purple coneflower’s (Echinacea purpurea L.) nutrient requirement was examined under different fertilization conditions in a small plot experiment. We measured the medicinal plant’s raw and dry herb and root drug mass and drying loss under different fertilization settings and meteorological factors.

    From the drug’s raw and dry mass perspective, based on the results, in our opinion, the control setting exceeded all nutrient settings’ results in 2016. In 2017 and 2018, the N75P100K150 nutrient setting has the biggest herb yield. As for the root yield, it was also the N75P100K150 setting which produced the biggest yield.

    The Pearson's correlation test was performed to investigate the connection between the quantity of the raw, the dried herbs, the different nutrient settings and meteorological factors.

  • The effect of dissolved oxygen on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and basil (Ocimum basilicum) in the aquaponics system
    89-96
    Views:
    239

    Aquaponics is an integrated system that combines fish farming (aquaculture) and hydroponic plant production. The objective of this study was to examine how the level of dissolved oxygen with or without an air pump affects water quality, fish output and plant growth parameters for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Ebb – and flood aquaponics systems (with automatic syphon) was used. Two treatments were set in this experiment, one of which was the aquaponics system without air pump (unit I), where water of the plant bed was pumped two directions, one falling back to the fish tank oxygenating the water the other was pumped to the hydroponics unit. The other system (unit II) was designed with an air pump.

    In the course of the study, water quality parameters, such as oxygen saturation, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC) and nitrite were significantly different (p<0.05). Total basil biomass was higher in unit II. (5367.41 g). The final biomass of common carp were
    2829.45 g ± 79.24 and 2980.6 g ± 64.13 g in unit I and unit II respectively. Weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) showed no significant differences (p>0.05) between the treatments. 

  • Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) harvest and plant replacement methods in aquaponia
    91-98
    Views:
    24

    The aim of the study is to investigate the potential of basil leaf mass production under aquaponic conditions with different harvest and plant replacement methods. Aquaponics is a combination of soil-less crop production hydroponics and aquaculture and it is can use and clean the wastewater of intensive aquaculture systems. Three groups were established in the 6 units during the six-week harvest and seedling rotation cycles. Group 1 individuals remain in the units throughout the breeding season. Group 2 individuals were replaced every 12 weeks, while Group 3 individuals were replaced every six weeks, at the same time as harvest. Data from the experiment were analysed to determine how the harvest and replacement protocol of basil plants influences the amount of leaves harvested, the percentage of leaves harvested relative to the plant stem, and the changes in plant height, SPAD and NDVI during harvest and replacement. A continuously maintained and harvested healthy basil stock under aquaponic conditions can provide a consistent leaf mass all year round without the extra cost of replacing and producing seedlings.

  • Preliminary results of the combined production of duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in an aquaponic system
    83-89
    Views:
    62

    As a result of population growth, increasin amount of food is needed, and agriculture is under an increasing burden to meet these needs. Traditional agriculture is often attacked due to its environmental impact. We must find alternative, environmentally friendly ways to produce more food. Aquaponics is a closed system in which we can produce both fish and plants at the same time. Duckweed species are small, aquatic, floating plants belonging to angiosperms. It can potentially be an alternative protein source, due to its high protein content, good amino acid supply, and rapid growth. Under suitable conditions, it doubles its weight in 2–4 days, and can reach a yield of 30 t ha-1 year-1in dry matter. It forms a carpet on top of the water and can be found in slow-moving or still waters. Since they are resistant to a wide range of nutrient concentrations, they are also suitable for cleaning wastewater (such as eutrophicated lakes, sewage reservoirs, liquid manure storage). Fish feed is the primary nutrient source for aquaponic systems, which usually contains fishmeal. If duckweed can be used as an alternative for fishmeal in the feed, it could improve the sustainability of the aquaponic and aquaculture systems. In this study, the aim was to develop an optimal harvesting protocol for duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza under aquaponic conditions. In a four weeks experiments, four harvesting protocols were set up, a control where only biomass measurements were made, a 25% group where 25% of the biomass at the time of measurement was harvested, and a 50% and a 75% group where at the time of measurement 50% and 75% of the biomass was harvested. Three replicates were used per treatment. We weighed the biomass every week and removed the amount corresponding to the group. Based on the preliminary results, it can be said that more biomass was obtained in the groups with the 25% harvesting protocol and the control group.