Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the most important oil plants in Hungary, with a sown area of more than 627.000 ha in 2019. Sunflower cultivation is primarily important for use in the oil industry, but its role in feed and beekeeping cannot be neglected either. Sunflower adapts well to different production areas in terms... of soil demand, yet, as important fact, it must be grown on soils with poorer conditions with intensive nutrient replenishment. From the agri-environmental point of view, in addition to the use of pelleted poultry manure products, which are also new to the consumer market, is of paramount importance. Their advantages include a wide range of nutrients as well as a soil structure improving effect.
In our research, we investigated the starter effect of pelleted poultry manure products applied at different doses (200 kg ha-1 and 400 kg ha-1) on sandy soil with humus using a sunflower plant. The aim of our research to investigate the effect of using pelleted fertilizer products as starter fertilizers on sunflower plant germination, and investigate the effect of poultry manure products on soils.
Based on our results, it can be stated that the pigment content (chlorophyll and carotenoid content) was positively influenced by the higher dose treatments (400 kg ha-1), thus increasing the photosynthetically active leaf area. Compared to the control, the carotenoid content in the test plants of the treatments increased, and the differences of this treatment proved to be significant (p<0.05). Our experiments supported the beneficial effect of pelleted poultry manure-based products in the soil-plant system.
A significant proportion of the aboveground green and dry weight of the plant is constituted by foliage. The canopy is an important factor of plant growth. On the one hand, the canopy absorbs solar energy, which is necessary for photosynthesis; on the other hand, it accumulates the nutrients absorbed by the roots, and most of the water-loss occ...urs through the foliage. The determination of the full canopy is not an easy target. In our research, we developed a measurement method to determine the leaf area. With the parameters of the examined tree (leaf length and maximum width) and the data of the ADC AM 100 leaf area scanner, we determined the k-value, with which we can easily and fast evaluate the leaf surface. Furthermore, we defined from the water balance of compensation lysimeters the cumulative transpiration of fruit trees and the efficiency of water use of trees. From the examined trees were made a 3D depiction, which show the shape, branching and the location of trees.
Soil is the main source and at the same time the potential sink of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO2, CH4). Measurements were carried out in the experimental sites (soil tillage experiments and an extensive pasture) of the Karcag Research Institute of University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural Sciences to determine the CO
hence a new instrument was needed to be invented. In order to measure CO2-emission on a larger area without deep disturbance of the soil, a special metal frame was created with a matching bowl. The most problematic part was the spatial delimitation of the measurement area as the surface of the soil can be very various and proper isolation is a must. We consider the frame+bowl method we developed suitable for measuring CO2-emission of pastures as well as other crop-fields.
In the last decades the physical and biological status of the soils in Hungary significantly decreased. The degree and intensity of CO2-production of the soil is in close correlation to its structural status and organic matter content. In a complex soil tillage experiment at Karcag in situ measurements have been carried out since 200...2 in order to determine the CO2-emission of the soil. Carbon-dioxide emission of the soil in the cases of conventional tillage and reduced cultivation system was analysed in a long-term cultivation experiment. The measurements were carried out after the harvest of the barley, thus root respiration was excluded. For the spatial delimitation of the measuring area a newly developed frame+bowl set was used. Based on measurements, significant differences between cultivation systems can be recognized due to the soil structure changes and its effects
Nowadays one of main goals of international ecosystem research the measurement of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) in different places. The fluctuation of these greenhouse gases – quantity and trend in the case of CO2 and CH4 – could be diverse with atmosphere because it depends on s...everal effects of factors like climate, soil type, vegetation. In grassland out of the three greenhouse gases which fill a part in gas emission, in the case of CO2 soil and vegetation are the most important factors (Soussana et al., 2007).
In the aspect of global carbon balance grasslands are very important by their large area extension, total carbon content, organic content store (10% of the global carbon storage) (Lemmens et al., 2006). In this summer measurements were carried out to determine CO2 emission of the soil from different soil surfaces like grass covered and bare soil surface during a whole day.
The environmental policy of the European Union focuses on decreasing emission of greenhouse gases. However there is no knowledge about the effect and the operation of the environmental economic methods which could efficiently influence this process. Therefore, practical emission trade was investigated. Recently, the commerce of AUEs started to...change in Hungary, as well. Most transactions are made by a broker. Electronic commerce, which can be made with or without a broker, is spreading. The benefit of this form is that it is simple and cheap, in spite of the entrance fee of the stock exchange. This study could help to utilize carbon quotas in different types of commerce.