Distribution of the American grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus Ball 1932) in surroundings of Nagyvárad (Oradea, West Romania) and Debrecen (East Hungary)39-44Views:149
The first European appearance of american grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus), which is the vector of Grapevine Flavescence Dorée phytoplasma (‘Ca. Phytoplasma vitis’), were detected in France in 1924. The leafhopper has been distributed since 2006 in Hungary and now it occurs in the whole country, while the first record of the phytoplasma was published in 2013.
We studied the distribution of the leafhopper in surroundings of Nagyvárad (Oradea, West Romania) in 2015 and surroundings of Debrecen (East Hungary) in 2016. During the studies 17 sites were sampled. The leafhoppers were found in six Romanian places with relatively low abundances while it occurs in all studied Hungarian sites and two of them showed extremely high frequenncy.
Examination of the American grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus Ball) in Debrecen and Micske (Misca, West Romania)77-81Views:127
Grapevine flavescence dorée (FD) was detected first in Hungary in 2013 in Zala County (South-West-Hungary). The disease is a serious danger for grapevine growing and grapevine propagating production. In 2014, the pathogen has been found in several new places in Hungary, viz. in Vas and Fejér Counties, and it was also detected in the former location in Zala County. The american grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus) is the main vector of the disease. This pest was detected first in Hungary in 2006 and then it has spread all over the country. Since we have not detailed distribution data of this pest in surroundings of Debrecen, therefore we made observations in this region in 2014. The presence of the pest was confirmed by yellow sticky cards in two locations in Debrecen and another site in West Romania near to Hungarian border. We found that S. titanus is present in each sampled sites that cause serious potential danger for the appearance and spread of Grapevine flavescence dorée (FD) in this region.
Indicators and main motivations of environmental awareness in the enterprises of the Hungarian processing industry133-137Views:106
This paper focuses on the corporate environmental performance and its motivating factors. The background of the study is a questionnaire survey covers 82 Hungarian manufacturing companies. The identification of the environmental performance based on the study of György Pataki and László Radácsi who create a group of environmental indicators. The motivating factors are several stakeholders of the companies who have affect on an organization's environmental actions. These motivations can be divided into internal and external factors. According to the questionnaire survey the combination of internal and external factors seems to the most important to the better environmental performance.
Environmental aspects in accounting127-131Views:136
By the strengthening of the economic competition became it apparent a company can’t be valued separate, it should be examined as a complex system. In the assessment of corporate performance is increasingly emphasized the environmental performance. The relevant information of stakeholder about the environmental performance is todays an expection, For this, a management control system is needed, which provide relevant information to managers, hence facilitating the informed decision. This study highlighted, accounting systems are able to meet this demand sufficiently, the accounting means not only the usual bookkeeping, it can be interpreted as a management-controll system, which can help in the valuation of the environmental performance.
Horticulture applicability of 3D laser scanner75-78Views:142
As a result of the technological development, remote sensing instruments and methods have become widespread in all segments of life (from precision agriculture through architecture to medicine). Among the innovative development of remote sensing instruments the 3D laser scanner is overriding importance. The horticulture applicability of terrestrial laser scanning technique is innovation in the precision agriculture, because it could be determine the structure of trees and branches, the canopy extension, which can help to recognize some biophysical parameters. The examination was carried out with Leica ScanStation C10 terrestrial laser scanner in the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag. In this article I present the measuring principle, the parameters and horticulture applicability of the terrestrial laser scanner.
Fruit quality of sweet cherry cultivars in superintensive orchards75-81Views:150
The fruit quality of 15 sweet cherry cultivars (’Canada Giant’, ’Celeste’, ’Chelan’, ’Ferrovia’, ’Germersdorfi Rigle’, ’Katalin’, ’Karina’, ’Kordia’, ’Linda’, ’Regina’, ’Sam’, ’Sandra Rose’, ’Sunburst’, ’Sylvia’ and ’Techlovan’) was studied under super-intensive growing conditions at Nagykutas. We measured the fruit diameter, fruit width, fruit height, stem length and stem weight, fruit and pit weight and the total dry matter content. There were large differences among the cultivars. These differences are due to the genetic characteristics of fruits because all other conditions were the same. For 11 cultivars, we collected fruit samples several times /2-4/. We examined on this cultivars all the above listed fruit quality parameters. When examining these samples, we have gained information how earlier or later than optimal harvest time influences fruit quality.
Economics of site specific crop density in precision sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production91-96Views:50
In this research, the crop density of sunflower was examined, which, thanks to the tools available for precision crop production and knowledge of the market environment of sunflower production, best fits the heterogeneous areas of the given production zones and meets the economic requirements. These components together directly influence the effectiveness of sunflower production. In the year of 2021 and 2022, we carried out a site-specific crop density sunflower experiment in two fields with the same soil type, by sowing significantly different amounts of seeds within the given zones. We have established that the sunflower, although a plant with excellent adaptability, reacts sensitively to the place of production and the effect of the year, in zones with heterogeneous productivity, and shows a reaction to sowing with a variable number of seeds per zone, even when examined based on economic aspects.
The effect of sunburn damage on the fruit quality parameters of apple (Malus domestica cv. Idared)55-64Views:85
In the present study the authors investigated the effect of sunburn injury on fruit quality parameters (cover colour, depth of tissue damage, fruit flesh firmness, dry matter content) of apple.
The symptoms of sunburn injury appeared as concentric rings, differing in colour from each other and the cover colour. This can be connected with the ratio of the injury. The authors observed the following colours on the fruit surface (from the epicentre of spots on the surface of the fruit) dark brown (strongly damaged), light brown (moderately damaged), pale red transition (weakly damaged), red surface cover colour (not damaged).
Sunburn of apple fruits is a surface injury caused by solar radiation, heat and low relative humidity. In the initial phase, a light corky layer, golden or bronze discolouration and injuries of the epidermal tissue appear on the surface exposed to radiation. Thus, it detracts from the fruit’s appearance, but in most of the cases it would not cause serious damages in the epidermal tissue. The depth of tissue damage is not considerable, its values are between 1.5-2.0 mm in general. It is commonly known, that tissue structure of the apple fruit is not homogeneous. Accordingly, the degree of injury shows some differences under the different parts of the fruit surface.
On the basis of the flesh firmness studies, it can be stated that the flesh firmness of the damaged parts increases due to the sunburn effect. This is due to the fact that the damaged plant cells die, the water content of the tissue decreases and it hardens. However, due to this reduction in the water content the dry matter content will increase.
Development of precision apple production technologies in Institute of Water and Environmental Management97-101Views:164
From the precision agriculture point of view, by the rapid development of the investigated technological elements – global positioning system (GPS), remote sensing (RS), global information system (GIS) – the number of services, which were not available in the past, because of their speed, complexity or price are increasing. The high accuracy high-tech instruments provide opportunity to elaborate several fruit production technologies, which aim is creating and operating water and energy safe quality fruit production systems. To evaluate these possibilities, experience was carried out in the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag with the use of a GreenSeeker 505 Hand Held™ Optical Sensor Unit, and its interface the Trimble AgGPS FmX Integrated Display board computer, and a ScanStation C10 laser scanner by Leica. The results show the absolute applicability of these equipments in precision horticulture.
The effect of location on the incidence of brown rot blossom and shoot blight infection on apricot89-91Views:87
The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of brown rot blossom and shoot blight and caused by Monilinia laxa. Assessments of incidence were made on cv. Bergeron (susceptible to brown rot) in a flatland and a hilly growing area (at Cegléd and Gönc, respectively). In 2004, when spring and summer weather conditions were wet and cold, incidence reached 95 % for blossom blight and 33 % for shoot blight in the untreated plots. Blossom blight incidence was 1.5-2 times higher in the flatland area compared to the hilly growing area. During the blooming period of apricot, two (at flower bud stage and at full bloom) and three (at flower bud stage, at full bloom and at petal fall) fungicide applications were necessary for the successful control at Gönc and Cegléd, respectively. The difference between the two orchards was due to the fact that blooming started one week later in the hilly region (at Gönc) than in the flatland region (at Cegléd), therefore, the critical weather period coincided with blooming in the orchard in the hilly region only partially.