2018: 150th Anniversary of the Foundation of Agricultural University in Debrecen

Published September 5, 2018

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Articles

Foreword
9-10

The higher education of economics and agriculture in Debrecen started 150 years ago. The historical roots of our institution reach back to the middle of the 19th century. In the 1850s, the wise leaders of the city of Debrecen realised that the development of agriculture is the sole opportunity which can make the region of the Tisza River and th...e Trans- Tisza region the most valuable pantry of the nation. Due to the generous support of the citizens of Debrecen, as well as the enthusiastic work of scientist and teachers, the National Higher Education Institute of Farming was established on 22nd October 1868 as the first agricultural higher education institution of the Great Hungarian Plain.

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Some strategic aspects of animal protein production
11-19

The access to food shaped human societies and dietary models throughout the history of mankind. Animal protein consumption became a part of human culture. Data are presented showing the relationship of daily calorie and animal protein consumption as affected by capita GDP changes. Examples are presented how genetic improvement of animal and fod...der plants influenced the resource efficiency and the overall environmental footprint per unit product. The two examples presented are: the dairy industry of the USA the 1944 and 2007 situation, and the Hungarian broiler chicken sector considering data relevant to 1930, 1960 and 2010. In both cases, dramatic improvements in resource efficiency could be demonstrated. The agricultural area required to animal feed production was reduced by more than 80% in both cases per unit product. Future possibilities are briefly discussed, referring to the still unutilized land reserves of the Globe, the new evolving technologies in progress inclusive the CASPR/Cas 9 genetic editing methods.

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Alternative protein sources in the nutrition of farm animals
21-31

Protein requirement and its demand of farm animals became one of the critical problems in nutrition on a global scale. Protein requirement has been an explicit demand for a long period with soybean meal and animal protein, but recently there are some limitations in relation to their use and the availability of the high quality fishmeal decrease...s constantly. For this reason there is increased demand for finding new protein sources which could be the alternatives of soybean meal and fishmeal. Alternative protein sources can be divided into seven categories, according to their origin. In different countries, their use depends on the availability in large quantity and at reasonable price.

There is a long tradition of using legume seeds, as alternatives of soybean. Most of them contain some anti-nutritive compounds, but it can be reduced with systematic selection. Oilseed meals are also generally use in poultry and pig nutrition, but those crude protein content varied, depending on the oil extraction technology. Green fodder and leaf protein was also proposed as alternative protein sources, but their use is limited, in particular because of the market price. The amount of bioethanol and starch industry by-products increases gradually in recent years, therefore those became alternatives of soybean meal, or in much less extend, fishmeal. However, amino acid composition of such by-products are far from optimal for poultry and pig; therefore, in the case of their use amino acid supplementation is necessary. Several novel protein sources are proposed in the last decade, such as algae or insect proteins. Recently, their availability and use is limited, but in the near future those would be alternative protein sources in monogastric animal nutrition.

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The scientific background of competitive maize production
33-46

The effect and interaction of crop production factors on maize yield has been examined for nearly 40 years at the Látókép Experiment Site of the University of Debrecen in a long-term field experiment that is unique and acknowledged in Europe. The research aim is to evaluate the effect of fertilisation, tillage, genotype, sowing, plant densit...y, crop protection and irrigation. The analysis of the database of the examined period makes it possible to evaluate maize yield, as well as the effect of crop production factors and crop year, as well as the interaction between these factors.

Based on the different tillage methods, it can be concluded that autumn ploughing provides the highest yield, but its effect significantly differed in irrigated and non-irrigated treatments. The periodical application of strip tillage is justified in areas with favourable soil conditions and free from compated layers (e.g. strip – strip – ploughing – loosening). Under conditions prone to drought, but especially in several consecutive years, a plant density of 70–80 thousand crops per hectare should be used in the case of favourable precipitation supply, but 60 thousand crops per hectare should not be exceeded in dry crop years. The yield increasing effect of fertilisation is significant both under non-irrigated and irrigated conditions, but it is much more moderate in the non-irrigated treatment.

Selecting the optimum sowing date is of key importance from the aspect of maize yield, especially in dry crop years. Irrigation is not enough in itself without intensive nutrient management, since it may lead to yield decrease.

The results of research, development and innovation, which are based on the performed long-term field experiment, contribute to the production technological methods which provide an opportunity to use sowing seeds, fertilisers and pesticides in a regionally tailored and differentiated way, adapted to the specific needs of the given plot, as well as to plan each operation and to implement precision maize production.

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Precision crop production and artificial intelligence – the future of sustainable agriculture
47-58

According to Kay et al. (2004, in Shockley et al., 2017), there are seven steps to the decision-making process: 1) Identify the problem or opportunity, 2) Identify the alternative solution, 3) Collect all data and information, 4) Analyse the alternatives and make a decision, 5) Implement the decision, 6) Monitor the results of the decision, 7) ...Accept responsibility for the decision. The basic question is what kind of tasks we can perform in the decision-making process and what to leave for Artificial Intelligence (AI).

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Essential oil extraction from herbs and their use in the food industry
59-74

Essential oil extraction of wild caraway and thyme was performed using a classical (HD) and microwave hydro-distillation (MWHD) and a laboratory supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with a carbon dioxide as solvent. Our experiments demonstrated that the extraction yield of the essential oil performed in same conditions was influenced by the loc...ation of growth area; the maximum extraction yield of 10 ml 100 g-1 caraway was obtained from dried seeds collected from Csíkmadaras. This quantity far exceeded the yield of the Újtusnád samples. In the case of wild caraway (Carum carvi L.), the extraction method influenced thecomposition of the essential oil (carvone/limonene ratio), the highest limonene content being achieved by classical hydro-distillation. In the case of thyme, this effect was not detected, the thymol/carvacrol ratio was independent from the given extraction method. The obtained thyme essential oil possesses high antimicrobial activity demonstrated by agar diffusion test. The thyme extract provides a good protection against microorganisms collected on the surface of fresh vegetables following bacterial stains: Citrobacter portucalensis, Pseudomonas hunanensis, Pseudomonas baetica, Pseudomonas parafulva, Bacillus mojavensis and Enterobacter cloacae. Protective effect was also detected on the vegetable surface of by chitosan-based edible film coating during a 6-day-long storage period at a temperature of 4 °C. The caraway essential oil used as soft cheese seasoning with a direct, dilution-free method, proved to be unsuitable because the uneven distribution and confer a strong, unpleasant taste to the product in comparison with the ground wild caraway seed-dressed cheese.

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Challenges and agroecological approaches in crop production
75-89

Never has the need been greater for an ecosystem approach to agriculture. As our global population exceeds 9 billion in the next 30 years, with a concomitant demand for agricultural products, ever more pressure will be placed on our agricultural systems. Meanwhile, climate change is altering the ecological settings in which agriculture is pract...iced, demanding adaptation. Knowledge generated by long-term research will help to address one of the grand challenges of our time: how to meet sustainably the growing world demand for agricultural products – in a way that minimizes environmental harm and enhances the delivery of a diverse array of ecosystem services.

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New challenges in soil management
91-92
Soil management represents two important tasks that are harmonization of the soil protection with demands of the crop to be grown on the given land under prevailing farming condition. Further goals are to preserve and/or develop the soil physical, biological and chemical condition and to avoid the unfavourable changes of the soil biological a...ctivity and the soil structure. Classical authors emphasised the importance of creating proper seedbed for plants. In the physical approach, tillage was believed to play an important role in controlling soil processes. Consequently, the period of several centuries dominated by this approach is referred to as the era of crop-oriented tillage (Birkás et al., 2017). The overestimation of the importance of crop requirements resulted in damaging the soils, which inevitably led to turn to the soil-focused tillage. Since the first years of climate change, as the new trends have raised concern, tillage must be turned into a climate-focused effort with the aim of reducing climate-induced stresses through improving soil quality.
The development of soil management has always been determined by the economical background. At the same time, deteriorating site conditions have contributed to the conception of new tillage trends by forcing producers to find new solutions (e.g. dry farming theory in the past or adaptable tillage theory nowadays). Győrffy (2009) recited the most important keywords were listed in 2001 and that seemed to be important in the future of crop production. These keywords (endeavours) were as follows:
− Biofarming, organic farming, alternative farming, biodynamic farming, low input sustainable agriculture;
− Mid-tech farming, sustainable agriculture, soil conservation farming, no till farming, environmentally sound, environmentally friendly, diversity farming;
− Crop production system, integrated pest management, integrated farming, high-tech farming;
− Site specific production, site-specific technology, spatial variable technology, satellite farming;
− Precision farming.
Győrffy’s prognosis proved to be realistic and the efforts mentioned above have mostly been implemented. New challenges have also appeared in soil management in relation to the last decades. The most important endeavours for the future are:
1) Preserving climate-induced stresses endangering soils.
2) Turn to use climate mitigation soil tillage and crop production systems.
3) Applying soil management methods are adaptable to the different soil moisture content (over dried or wet may be quite common).
4) Use effectual water conservation tillage.
5) Use soil condition specific tillage depth and method.
6) Adapting the water and soil conservation methods in irrigation.
7) Preserving and improving soil organic matter content by tillage and crop production systems.
8) Considering that stubble residues are matter for soil protection, humus source and earthworm’ feed.
9) Site-specific adoption of green manure and cover crops.
10) Applying site-adopted (precision) fertilization and crop protection. Considering the development in agriculture, new endeavours will occur before long.
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Improved soil and tomato quality by some biofertilizer products
93-105

The use of microbial inoculums is a part of sustainable agricultural practices. Among various bioeffectors, the phosphorus-mobilizing bacteria are frequently used.

The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of some industrial biofertilizer inoculums, of containing P-mobilizing bacteria on the quantity and some quality para...meters of tomato fruits. Spore-forming industrial Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 (Rhizovital) as single inoculums and combinations with other Bacillus strains (Biorex) were applied on Solanum lycopersicon Mill. var. Mobil test plant. Soil microbial counts, phosphorus availability, yield and fruit quality, such as total soluble solids (TSS) content and sugars (glucose, fructose) were assessed. The results found that single industrial inoculums of FZB42 product had positive effect on P-availability and fruit quality in the pots. Fruit quality parameters, TSS content, soluble sugars were significantly improved (p<0.05). Such better fruit taste was correlated significantly by the most probable number (MPN) microbial counts. Use of such bioeffector products is supported by the positive interrelation among measured soil characteristics and inside healthy quality parameters of tomato fruits.

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Amelioration and arable land-use possibilities of Solonetz soils in the Trans-Tisza region of Hungary
107-117

Salt affected soils cover about 1 million hectares in Hungary. This paper is based on the research results obtained at the Karcag-puszta long-term experimental site, where, depending on the catena, crusty (A horizon=0–7 cm), medium (A hor.=8– 20 cm) and deep (A hor.>20 cm) subtypes of the Meadow Solonetz soil could be found. The chemical... reclamation was made specifically for the given site. Lime was applied on the soils with neutral or slightly acidic top layer, while on the soils with alkaline top layer, gypsum was applied. As regards internal drainage, a tube system with an average depth of 1 m and 5, 10 and 15 m drain spacing was constructed. Decreasing salt and sodium content could be measured both in drained and non-drained soils. The advantage of drainage was that the leachingout extended to the whole layer above the drain pipes, while without drainage, the Na ions exchanged from the upper layers still accumulated at a depth of 60– 100 cm. In the first two decades, the groundwater level was deeper and leaching was the dominant process. Since 2004, due to the frequently high groundwater level, the leaching and deepening of the fertile top layer has been slower.

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Labour productivity in the Hungarian agriculture
119-128

This paper presents the situation of the agricultural labour employment and evaluates the agricultural labour productivity in Hungary. Since Hungary’s EU accession, the share of agricultural employment in the total employed population has been stabilized at around 5% in the country. Due to low wages, low profit and low prestige, agricultural ...jobs are not attractive. The gross and net labour productivity gap between Hungary and the EU have been significant since the EU accession. The agricultural labour productivity of the Hungarian regions also shows a different picture. The labour productivity influences the cost, profitability and competitiveness of products. The advantage of the cheap labour force in Hungary’s agriculture significantly decreased due to low labour productivity. There are several opportunities to increase the agricultural labour productivity such as the increase of labour force qualification, moving toward producing higher value added agri-food products, rejuvenation of population in agriculture and the improvement of the conditions of financing agriculture.

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The effect of collecting area on the element content of Hungarian acacia honeys
129-138

Six macroelements and twelve microelements were identified in thirty-six Hungarian acacia honeys collected from ten counties by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). One-Way ANOVA (LSD and Dunnett T3 test) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to ...determine the statistically verified differences among the honey samples with different geographical origin.

Significant differences were established among the samples from different counties in Na, P, S, Fe, Ni, Cu and Sr concentrations. Based on the macroelement content of honeys, the separation of samples with different geographical origin was not successful because the percent of correctly categorised cases was only 64.9%. However, examining the As, B, Ba, Cu, Fe Mn, Ni and Sr concentration, the separation of different groups was convincing since the percent of correctly classified cases was 97.2%. Thus, the examination of microelement concentration may be able to determine the geographical origin of acacia honeys.

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Wine adulteration and its detection based on the rate and the concentration of free amino acids
139-151

Following the definition of wine adulteration, the authors briefly review its history from ancient times to present day and describe the methods that are applied for adulteration of wine from the historical point of view. More space is devoted to the Hungarian wine adulteration and to the detailed reports of the early methods, which attempted t...o discover fake wine. It describes in detail the current situation of wine adulteration and the fight against counterfeiting. The second half of the review article presents some examples of the analytical chemistry techniques with which fake wines can be detected. In doing so, priority is given to the discussion of high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography applications. The end of this paper describes the free amino acid content of wines, and the possibilities of using the results for detection of wine adulteration.

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Sunflower in Romanian agriculture
153-163

Romania is one of the largest producers of sunflower closely followed by Bulgaria, Hungary, France and Spain. The total sunflower production increased after 1990, due the increase of cultivated surface during the moderate yield average increasing rate. Last year, Romania was ranked first in the European Union (EU) for the area cultivated with s...unflower and the total production of sunflower seeds, according to the National Statistics Institute (INS). Romania's position on the map of sunflower producers area is supported by about 1 million hectares sown. In the segment of sunflower productivity, Romania has an unfavourable position, situated in the last places in the classification of the EU's most productive agricultures. In order to increase production per hectare, it is required to perform measures aimed at the elements of sustainable cultivation technology, including the stability of the production level by ensuring phytosanitary protection.

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Optimising intensive apple crown pruning by IT improvements
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Prunig is a key element of fruit production technology and is affected by a number of subjective factors. Putting research findings into practice is often hindered by bad and harmful habits that make plantations and trees heterogenious in terms of growth and fruiting features, which can even lead to significant financial losses. Having identifi...ed this challenge, in this publication we aim to present some guidelines for those who are open to new ways and believe in the power of innovation. The 21st century is undoubtedly the century of unstoppable IT innovations filtering through into our everyday lives. The fact that our project is based on IT innovations is not only essential due to the subject matter itself but also because it makes it easier to address younger generations. Whichever tool they choose to use (smartphone, tablet, laptop), all registered students have access to our web contents, making it super easy for them to practice pruning techniques. Students don’t just read texts in our training materials but have access to a pool of pictures and images to illustrate the different procecces and phenomena. All the different phrases have explanations against them, so anyone can understand the ins and outs of why and how to prune or remove the different crown parts (5-year-old and above crown parts, 2–4-year old parts or 1-year-old parts) to achieve specific results, whether it be apple, pear or cherry trees etc. Our database comprises thousands of pictures that will walk you through the entire fruit tree pruning process, without you even having to leave your desk. There is an old proverb that also applies to pruning: „The wise man learns from the mistakes of others, the fool has to learn from his own”. Our program aims to help students by presenting a number of bad examples along with their corrections as well as photos of ideal ways to prune multiple different crown shapes. Using our web-based tool eliminates time and space limitations, i.e. you can access our interactive contents to gain or extend your pruning skills, irrespective of the pruning time and location.

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Viticulture of Hungary
175-182

For several thousand years, vine has been grown in the Carpathian basin, where the climatic and soil conditions are favourable for viticulture. During this long period, vine growing has been developing until it reached its current niveau. We grow propagation material, table grape and wine grape. The produced wine grape varieties are grown on th...e largest area, of which 72% is white wine and 25% is red wine. Only 3% remains for table grapes. The surface of vineyards is about 63 000 ha, which can be found in 22 wine regions. The biodiversity of vine is very rich in our country. There are a lot of native and valuable bred varieties and clones in cultivation. The resistant and winter frost resistant vine varieties have an important role in our continental climate. The in 75% of the vineyards is on hills and mountains, 25% of them is on the Great Hungarian Plain. High cordon with cane pruning dominates the training and pruning system.

Unfortunately, vine stocks suffer from a lot of diseases and by using pesticides we pollute the nature. Viticulturists in Hungary produce excellent raw material and provide oenologists with them who make wine of excellent quality.

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Comparison of hypersensitive plum rootstocks
183-184

New bred plum rootstocks are compared with ‘Prudom’ as a growing standard. Combined with ‘Cacanska lepotica’ and ‘Jojo’ the rootstocks ‘Prudom’, ‘Dospina 235’ and ‘Docera 6’ were involved in this comparison. Following the first five years, no variant showed inaffinity. The vegetative performance of ‘Prudom’ and ‘Do...spina 235’ was in the same range (±5–10%). ‘Docera 6’ shows vigour reduction (12–14%). ‘Prudom’ and ‘Dospina 235’ are also in the same range of generative performance (‘Cacanska lepotica’ -19%, ‘Jojo’ +4%). The cumulated yield in Docera 6’ was more or less half quantity. The results of the first five years are too young for valid practical advice. Furthermore, it opens the perspective for alternative rootstock of prune industry in areas with high virus pressure.

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Spent mushroom compost (SMC) – retrieved added value product closing loop in agricultural production
185-202

Worldwide edible mushroom production on agro-industrial residues comprises of more than 11 million tons of fresh mushrooms per year. For 1 kg of mushrooms there is 5 kg of spent mushroom compost (SMC). This enormous amount of waste results in disposal problems. However, SMC is a waste product of the mushroom industry, which contains mycelium an...d high levels of remnant nutrients such as organic substances (N, P, K). The spent mushroom compost is usually intended for utilization, but there are increasing numbers of experiments focusing on its reuse in agricultural and horticultural production. Recently, the increase of the global environmental consciousness and stringent legislation have focused research towards the application of sustainable and circular processes. Innovative and environmentally friendly systems of utilisation of waste streams have increased interest of the scientific community. Circular economy implies that agricultural waste will be the source for retrieving high value-added compounds. The goal of the present work was to carry out a bibliographic review of the different scenarios, regarding the exploitation of this low cost feedstock with huge potential for valorisation.

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Milestones in the development of agronomic management practices in crop production
203-209

From the dawn of the history of the human race, agriculture has always been a profound activity of mankind producing food and feed as well as various plant originated materials for further processing.

Agronomy, like any other human activity, depends on the perpetual development of knowledge and technical skills, - in a modern context ... science and innovation. This paper is intended to provide the reader with information regarding the main phases of the development of agricultural production from the Neolithic societies through the early Mesopotamian and Egyptian empires to the inventions of first organised learned society of Rome. The major research findings of the past two millennia including agro-chemistry, genetics and technical development are presented.

Such a review should not lead to any scientific conclusions, but rather a philosophical postulate similar to that of Jonathan Swift written some centuries ago: “And he gave it for his opinion, that whoever could make two ears of corn, or two blades of grass, to grow upon a spot of ground, where only one grew before, would deserve better of mankind, and do more essential service to his country, than the whole race of politicians put together”.

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Impact of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization on the growth and micronutrient content of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
211-219

Micronutrients are as important as macronutrients for crops. Each micronutrient has its own function in plant growth. Zinc is important for membrane integrity and phytochrome activities. Copper is an essential micronutrient required for the growth of wheat. Manganese is required for enzyme activation, in electron transport, and in disease resis...tance. The pot experiment was set up in greenhouse on calcareous chernozem soil Debrecen-Látókép with a spring wheat. In certain development stages (according to BBCH growth scale of wheat), at the beginning of stem elongation (29–30), at the heading (51–59), at the flowering (61–69) stage three average plants were removed from all pots for analysis. Fresh and dry weight of the plant samples were measured. Plant leaves after drying were digested by HNO3-H2O2 methods and manganese, zinc and copper contents of plant were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. At the flowering stage, when the nutrient uptake of plants is the most intensive, the weight of wheat ranged between 0.94–1.57 g plant-1. In this development stage, the NS2 treatment produced the highest weight of wheat, and compared to this the NS3 treatment decreased that value already. The results show unfavourable effect of NS3 treatment. On the basis of microelement content of wheat and the weight of a plant, nutrient uptake by plant were calculated. At the beginning of growth the starter treatment had positive effect on Cu-uptake compared to the NS1 treatment, where the same dose of fertilizer was stirred into the soil. Wheat is very sensitive to copper deficiency, so copper dissolved by starter treatment could be favourable to the early development of wheat. At flowering stage the Zn-uptake of wheat became the highest and it was between 133.7–234.6 mg plant-1. The Mn-uptake of wheat plant was higher than the Cu- and Zn-uptake of wheat.

This phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the untreated soil had higher Mn-content, than Cu- and Zn-content. To summarize the results, it can be stated, that the copper uptake of wheat was more affected by the different treatments in the stage of stem elongation, while Mn- and Zn-uptake of wheat were influenced primarily in the stage of heading and flowering.

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Portable snapshot spectral imaging for agriculture
221-225

High-resolution proximal and remote sensing applications can consolidate sustainable, prevention- and precision-oriented crop management strategies to decrease production risks. This paper shows significant perspectives, own developments and technical aspects of high resolution remote sensing in the context of field applications. Moreover, we p...rovide an overview of snapshot hyperspectral imaging and potential field video sensors to identify areas of interest for their future development. One of the main conclusions of our paper is that non-scanning snapshot hyperspectral imaging technology may enable researchers to overcome the gap in the “point to image” transition of field sensing, while providing a flexible solution for regular variable-rate applications.

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Identification of the Slovak traditional cheese “Parenica” microflora
227-239

Numerous studies have demonstrated the higher accuracy, faster time-to-results and lower costs provided by MALDI Biotyper systems compared to classical methods. In this study, the culturable population of total count of bacteria, enterococci, coliforms bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and microscopic fungi and yeasts from cow’s dairy prod...ucts was identified using the MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper. Altogether, 50 samples of the Slovak cheese “Parenica” were examined. Total numbers of bacteria were cultured on Plate count agar at 37 °C for 24–48 h, aerobically; enterococci were cultured on Enterococcus selective agar at 37 °C for 24–48 h, aerobically; coliforms bacteria were cultured on Violet Red Bile lactose agar at 37 °C for 24–48 h, aerobically. The LAB were cultured on MRS (Main Rogosa agar), MSE and APT agar at 30 °C in microaerophilic conditions. The microscopic fungi and yeasts were cultured on Malt extract agar at 25 °C for 5 days, aerobically. Isolated strains (total 669) were subjected to identification by the MALDI-TOF MS. Among total count the identified bacteria mostly were Acinetobacter baumannii, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus warneri. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae were the most abundant coliform bacteria representatives identified. Coliform bacteria included Citrobacter, Hafnia and Klebsiella. Altogether three genera belonged to the LAB – Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Leuconostoc were identified with Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus coryniformis, L. fructivorans and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were considered as the dominated LAB species in dairy products. Among yeasts, Kluyveromyces lactis, Candida zeylanoides and Yarrowia lipolytica were among the most isolated.

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Effects of combined nutrient supply treatments on some physiological parameters of autumn wheat
241-251

The Fleischmann Rudolf Research Institute in Kompolt is not only famous for plant breeding but the institute also surveys the effects of different nutrient supply methods since 1918. In 2017, we joined this research supported by EFOP 3.6.1 project. Our aim was to investigate photochemical processes – which is one of the most determinant in ca...se of yield – of crops by in vivo field measurements. We measured the chlorophyll content of leaves using Minolta SPAD 502. We used miniPAM fluorometer to determine actual photochemical efficiency and non-photochemical quenching of PSII during natural light conditions and also to evaluate the pigment (chlorophylls and carotenoids) and water content of leaves we applied field spectrophotometer (ASD FieldSpecPro 3). We utilized these methods by various treatments (1. treatment with soil bacteria + head and base fertilizer; 2. treated by only head fertilizer; 3. treated by only base-fertilizer) in field experiment of autumn wheat (4.1–2.43–1.19 ha) in June, 2017. The difference between treatments was clearly detectable. In the case of the first treatment, physiological processes were more intense and the ripening occurred earlier. The obtained yield was the highest in the case of the area treated by soil bacterial. Based on the results, the first treatment can be recommended in practice.

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Changes of some soil chemical and microbiological characteristics in a long-term fertilization experiment in Hungary
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Agricultural management practices – directly or indirectly – influence soil properties.

Fertilization rates and crop rotation can strongly affect soil pH, soil nutrient supply and soil organic matter content due to the changes of microbial processes. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of different fertilization d...oses in monoculture and tri-culture of maize (monoculture: only maize grown since 1983, tri-culture: it is a three-year crop rotation system: pea – winter wheat – maize) on selected soil characteristics. The long-term fertilization experiments were set up in 1983 in Eastern Hungary. These experiments are situated west of Debrecen in Hajdúság loess region, on calcareous chernozem (according to WRB: Chernozems).

The test plant was maize (Zea mays L.). One-one pilot blocks were selected from monoculture and tri-culture of the long-term experiments. The observed soil samples were taken in the 30th year of the experiment, in 2013. The doses of NPK fertilizers increased parallel together, so the effects of N-, P- and K-fertilizers cannot be separated.

With the increasing fertilizer doses, the soil pH has decreased in both crop production systems and, in parallel, the hydrolytic acidity has significantly increased. A close negative correlation was proved between the pHH2O, pHKCl and hydrolytic acidity. An increased nutrient content in soil was recorded in every NPK treatment and the available phosphorus and nitrate content increased in higher proportion than that of potassium. Of the measured parameters of C-and N-cycles, fertilization has mostly had a positive effect on the microbial activity of soils. Besides the effects of fertilizer doses, correlation were looked for between soil microbiological properties. Evaluating the ratios among the measured parameters (organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon, OC/MBC ratio; carbon-dioxide and microbial biomass carbon; CO2/MBC proportion), the fertilization rate seems to be favoured by the increase of amounts of organic compounds

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Long-term field experiments in the crop production and agroecology
267-272

In Hungary, there are 57 LTFEs included 13360 plots of them 51 trials elder than 20 years, more than 50 years are 32 trials and 6 less than 20 years old. Compared to the 2003 statistical data, some 26 LTFEs ceased to operate in the course of the last 15 years. All research workers and scientist have to do the best to preserve the recently still... existing LTFE’s. This paper presents the list of the currently active LTFEs with some comments including the locations, year of setting and the number of plots.

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Nutritional disorders of arable crop growth in eastern Croatia
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Nutritional imbalances accompanied with growth retardation of crops at early growth stage were found since the last 40 years on certain arable lands in eastern Croatia. In this regard, phosphorus (P) deficiencies in maize and wheat were found mainly on acid soils of the western part of the region, potassium (K) deficiencies in maize, soybean on... the hydromorphic neutral to alkaline calcaric drained gleysols of Sava valley lowland, while zinc (Zn) deficiencies were observed mainly in seed-maize and soybean on neutral calcaric eutric cambisols of the eastern part of the region. Cold and moist spring is factor promoting P deficiency symptoms. As oasis of normal crops existed on same arable land, comparison of plant and soil composition was possible from typical sites. P nutrition disorders were in connection with the lower P and the higher aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) concentrations in the top of plants and the lower soil pH values. K-deficiency as result of strong K fixation and imbalances with high levels of magnesium (Mg) were the main responsible factors of low maize and soybean yields on some drained gleysols. Chlorosis incidences typical for Zn deficiency in maize and soybean were in close connection with the higher soil pH, the lower quantities of mobile Zn, here and there the higher mobile P in soil, the lower concentrations of Zn and the higher levels of Al and Fe in plants. Overcoming the above mentioned disorders and normalization of yields were achieved using ameliorative fertilization either by K or P fertilizers and in case of Zn by foliar spraying of crops with 0.75% ZnSO4 solution. Also, alleviations are possible by selection of more tolerant genotypes of field crops to specific types of nutritional disorders. From this aspect, some practical solutions were recommended for maize with reference to K nutritional problems.

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Alternatives of synthetic chemicals – chemicals derived from foods and related materials
291-303

Foods are composed of numerous chemicals, each of them work individually or synergistically inside the living organism for a specific reaction supporting the life processes. To date, the efficacy of these chemicals in industrial processes has been explored to a limited extent. In fact, chemicals derived from food have great potential to be used... in multi-disciplinary sciences and in numerous applications. Synthetic chemicals might be replaced by the natural resources in the future which will also reduce the environmental impact of hazardous and toxic chemicals. The present article gathers a few examples of chemicals derived from food or related materials and shows how worthy they are in various fields, ranging from radiopharmaceuticals to alternative mining of precious metals. In a nutshell, the article puts forward a few simple ways through which research may adjoin the greener mandates and help in maintaining the sustainability of our environment.

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Production of corn in Serbia in the light of climate change
305-322

This paper presents the basic elements of maize production technology in Serbia. For their good knowledge, it is necessary to be familiar with the basic biological requirements of the species, phenology and its particular requirements for water, heat, soil conditions and mineral nutrition. A special emphasis in this paper is given to recent res...earch by the author regarding the correction of production technology (selection of hybrids, time and density of sowing, etc.) from the aspect of knowing the weather conditions of the year to the moment of sowing and the amount and position of available nitrogen in the soil profile during the spring before sowing. In the light of predicted climate change conditions for the Republic of Serbia, the authors of this paper have proposed and appropriated adaptation measures. The general conclusion is that there are no general recipes for the correct production technology of this plant species, but should be adapted to each specific year, field and hybrid.

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81
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Challenges – the impact of climate change on the nutritional management of Hungarian orchards
323-334

The agricultural sector is increasingly exposed to both environmental and economic risks due to the phenomena of climate change and climate variability. Fruit growth and productivity are adversely affected by nature’s wrath in the form of various abiotic stress factors. Climate change and extreme climatic events are predicted to increase in i...ntensity, frequency, and geographic extent as a consequence of global climate change. It is no doubt that frequency of unexpected climatic events and their growing rate result in an increasing amount of problems for fruit growers globally. Today, climate change impacts are the most serious problems for Hungarian fruit growers as well. It can be stated that the nutrient demand of fruit trees can be supplied only under even worse conditions.

Therefore, it is so important to know and apply adaptation and mitigation strategies in horticulture to improve fruit quality and yield. In the last ten years, at the Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management at University of Debrecen expanded studies have been made to prove the importance of groundcover management in horticultural applications. In this mini review paper, is presented, how the university's researches contributed to the expansion of knowledge of preservation of soil moisture and what advice we can provide for fruit growers to face the challenges of climate change.

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62
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Effect of anthocyanin-rich Hungarian tart cherry extract on blood antioxidant status in C57BL/6J mice
335-341

In this study male C57BL/6J (B6) mice were used to determine the possible effects of our Hungarian tart cherry extract in a chronic obesity mouse model on antioxidant capacity.

The control group received standard mouse chow, the high fat control group was switched to high fat diet and tap water supplemented with 5% sucrose. The high fat...+anthocyanin group received the high fat and sucrose diet, but dissolved in the drinking water they received anthocyanin-rich tart cherry extract. After six weeks, the antioxidant capacity and SOD activity were measured. Antioxidant capacity was decreased with a significant elevation of SOD activity. The tart cherry extract made a significant enhancement in antioxidant capacity and SOD activity. Our results show that chronic anthocyanin intake has a potential to enhance redox status associated with obesity.

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60
47
Water infiltration into the soil – what do measurements indicate?
343-351

Physical properties of top-soil organic materials significantly influence initiation processes of infiltration and runoff generation. This paper deals with the specifics of water infiltration through the top surface organic layer of the forest soil. Three field methods (Guelph permeameter, Tension disk permeameter, Single-ring method) and one l...aboratory method (Falling head) of hydraulic conductivity (KS) determination are compared and interpreted in the context of their applicability and limitations. The Falling head method provides far different values of KS if sample cylinders are or are not sealed with grease against the wall effect. The Guelf permeameter is very significant to the position of different horizons’ interface, while Tension disc permeameter results are dependent on antecedent soil moisture. The single ring method is applicable with acceptable results only when there is no abrupt interface between horizons in the vicinity of the ring bottom edge.

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66
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The state of the Hungarian ornamental horticulture industry, recommendations for development
353-355

R&D and innovative technologies are required in the EU for being competitive on the world market. Education and professional co-ordination is vitally important, as well as maintenance and development of our genetic bases.

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Long-term experiments on chernozem soil in the University of Debrecen
357-369

The impact of agrotechnical management practices (nutrient and water supply, crop rotation, crop protection, genotype) on the yields of winter wheat and maize and on the soil water and nutrient cycles was studied in long-term experiments set up in 1983 in Eastern Hungary on chernozem soil. The long-term experiments have shown that nitrogen fert...ilizer rates exceeding the N-optimum of winter wheat resulted in the accumulation of NO3-N in the soil. Winter wheat varieties can be classified into four groups based on their natural nutrient utilization and their fertilizer response. The fertilizer responses of wheat varieties depended on crop year (6.5–8.9 t ha-1 maximum yields in 2011–2015 years) and the genotypes (in 2012 the difference was ~3 t ha-1 among varieties). The optimum N(+PK) doses varied between 30–150 kg ha-1 in different crop years. In maize production fertilization, irrigation and crop rotation have decision role on the yields. The efficiency of fertilization modified by cropyear (in dry 891–1315 kg ha-1, in average 1927–4042 kg ha-1, in rainy cropyear 2051–4473 kg ha-1 yield surpluses of maize, respectively) and crop rotation (in monoculture 1315–4473 kg ha-1, in biculture 924–2727 kg ha-1 and triculture 891–2291 kg ha-1 yield surpluses of maize, respectively). The optimum fertilization could improve the water use efficiency in maize production.

Our long-term experiments gave important ecological and agronomic information to guide regional development of sustainable cropping systems.

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84
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Influences of water deficiency on the productivity of young plants at different sites
371-378

Water deficiency has become one of the most limiting factors of crop production in Hungary as the tendency in annual amounts of precipitation shows a decreasing tendency; therefore, it has become similar to those of Southern Europe. The most significant decrease in precipitation occurs typically during spring, approximately 20% of the data expr...essed in the averages of the last century. Studying the relationship between water deficiency as a stress factor and nutrient supply is important in order to improve the production efficiency of crops. Nowadays, this problem receives outstanding attention presented in numerous papers both in Hungary and globally, however, there are several questions yet to be answered. Our pot experiments were carried out under controlled greenhouse conditions in order to establish new data on these relationships. Experimental soils were typical for Western Transdanubia, taken from long-term field experiments representing four different site characteristics of the region. It was concluded from the results that drought periods during the early growth stages (i.e. 4–5 weeks after emergence) of plants may result in significant decreases in both dry matter production, nutrient concentrations, nutrient uptake and shoot:root ratios. Better nutrient supply, especially potassium, plays a significant role in reducing the negative effects of water deficiency.

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56
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Technological development of sustainable maize production and its effect on yield stability
379-388
In 2015 and 2016, we examined the effect of NPK nutrients, sowing date and plant density on yield on typical meadow soil. The amount of precipitation was 282.0 mm in 2015 (January–September), 706.0 mm in 2016 and the 30-year averageis 445.8 mm.
Agrotechnical factors:
– Experiment a)
   &n...bsp;       5 Dow AgroSciences hybrid with three sowing dates and three plant densities
– Experiment b)
In 2015 eight, in 2016 ten hybrids with different genetic characteristics and growing seasons, with control (without fertilization), N80+PK and N160+PKtreatments, five plant densities (50–90 thousand) with 10 thousand plants difference between the different densities.
In a drought year, we reached the higher yield in the earlier sowing date and with the lower lower plant density of 70 thousand plants ha-1-. The maximum yield, depending on the agrotechnical factors, was 10–12 t ha-1 in 2015, while in 2016 it was 14–16 t ha-1. Yield stability can be increased using hybrid-specific cultivation techniques.
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63
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Consumption of fertilizers in districts of Slovakia in the period 2006–2015
389-398

Consumption of fertilizers in districts of Slovakia in the period 2006–2015 Water quality in the surface streams is influenced by several factors. One of important information which can help us to solve problems with quality of water in water body is a distribution of point and non-point pollution sources in a river basin and also amount of p...ollutants released from them to surface streams. An example of a point source of pollution is the outlet from wastewater treatment plants (industry, urban areas, farms, etc.). On the other hand the most significant non-point source of pollution is considered the application of fertilizers in agriculture.

In this paper we have evaluated consumption of organic and industrial fertilizers in Slovakia in the period 2006–2015. Total (in tonnes) and average (in kg ha-1) consumption of industrial and organic fertilizers was analyzed. In monitored period, the amount of applied organic fertilizers was much higher than the amount of applied industrial fertilizers and in addition a significant part of total fertilizers consumption had nitrogenous fertilizers in a group of industrial fertilizers. In a group of industrial fertilizers during the period 2006–2015 we observed just moderately increasing in their consumption, while in the period 2010–2015 the average amount of applied industrial fertilizers per hectare of agricultural land increased by about 20 kg ha-1. On the other hand, in a group of organic fertilizers we observed a decreasing in consumption of fertilizers.

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63
38
Biomethane production monitoring and data analysis based on the practical operation experiences of an innovative power-to-gas benchscale prototype
399-410

Power-to-gas (P2G) is referred to technologies that convert carbon dioxide into methane. Both bio- and chemical catalysts may be used for conversion purposes. One of the most disruptive biotechnologies was developed by the University of Chicago (IL) (publication number: EP2661511B1), using a robust, highly selective, patented strain of Archaea.... Electrochaea GmbH has developed an innovative bench-scale P2G prototype unit, which uses this highly efficient Archaea strain, specialized components and specifically developed control strategies. The structure and the components of the prototype are equivalent with the functional parts of the currently largest commercial scale biomethanation BioCat plant located in Avedøre, Denmark (www.biocat-project.com). Power-to-Gas Hungary Kft. has committed to further develop this innovative technology. The first steps of this development have been taken by operating the benchscale unit and analyzing the data of the operating periods.

The prototype is operated based on weekly campaigns. During continuous operation, H2O is generated as a by-product of methane. Therefore, approximately 200 ml of biocatalyst is discharged each day and concentrated media containing macro and micronutrients are injected into the reactor to maintain media composition. The laboratory staff records all gas composition data each morning. The gas composition is measured every 12 minutes by an Awite AwiFlex Cool+ gas analyzer. Within this article, we analyze the collected datasets containing more than 12 000 records and present the first practical experiences of the operations of the innovative power-to-gas bench-scale prototype.

The analysis of the collected gas composition data of the product gas already provides important data for modelling the commercial-scaled processes. The average value of VVD was about 40 l/l/d in the period under review. Further increase of the methane content can be achieved by introduction of higher mixing energy and by increasing pressure levels in the bioreactor (as demonstrated in the BioCat plant – data not shown here) – both of which are strategies envisioned for the commercial plant. In routine activities (turn on, shut down, continuous operation) we could verify the high robustness of the biocatalyst and the base connection between the registered datasets and performed test results.

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What does precision crop production hold for the future of soil science and plant nutrition?
411-421

The concept of precision agriculture is straightforward at the scientific level but even basic goals are blurred at the level of everyday practice in the Hungarian crop production despite the fact that several elements of the new technology have already been applied. The industrial and the service sectors offer many products and services to the... farmers but crop producers do not get enough support to choose between different alternatives. Agricultural higher education must deliver this support directly to the farmers and via the released young graduates. The price of agricultural land must be higher if well-organized data underpin the production potential of the fields. Accumulated database is a form of capital. It must be owned by the farmers but in a data-driven economy its sharing will generate value for both farmers and the society as a whole.

We present a methodological approach in which simple models were applied to predict yield by using only those yield data which spatially coincide with the soil data and the remaining yield data and the models were used to test different sampling and interpolation approaches commonly applied in precision agriculture. Three strategies for composite sample collection and three interpolation methods were compared. Multiple regression models were developed to predict yields. R2 values were used to select among the applied methods.

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Examination of different grain hardness varieties of the grinding technology properties of wheat
423-435

In the mill industry, the purpose of the grinding technology is to separate wheat endospermium and shell and to recover grists. The most important and the highest energy requirement operation is shredding. Flour quantity and quality produced from wheat depends on the variety of wheat that will be shredded, the type of grinding equipment and the... condition used before the grinding. For this reason, during my experiments, I ground two grain structured varieties of wheat in laboratory conditions using a disk grinder, stone grinder and roll grinder in air-dry and conditioned states. We measured the equipment’s performance and the produced grist’s particle size distribution, followed by the calculation of the energy requirements of the grinders. In the grinding experiments we compared the ash contents of the different particle sized grist’s fractions to map the wheat’s particular properties.

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93
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Study of factors controlling the amount of 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable Norg fraction
437-449
The use of new methods describing the “readily available” nutrient content of the soil is spreading on a global scale. The 0.01 M CaCl2 extractant is a dilute salt solution in which the easily soluble inorganic (nitrate-N and ammonium-N) and organic N fractions, P, K and micronutrients are also measurable. The 0.01 M CaCl2 has been tested... in the University of Debrecen, Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Sciences since the 90’s. The results of the researches related to organic N fraction, performed in the last decades, and the results of the present study (originating from the long-term experiment of Karcag, 2007–2009) can be concluded as follows:
The measurement of easily soluble and oxidizable organic nitrogen (Norg), besides inorganic fractions, could improve the nutrient management.
The amount of the Norg fraction is determined by the soil conditions, therefore it is considered to be a site-specific parameter.
Management practices and cropyear affect the amount of Norg as well. The present research confirmed that, the effect of fertilization on the amount of Norg can be explained by the changing of the yield (related to total biomass production), while the effect of cropyear is related to the differences in mineralization circumstances and yield as well.
The measurement of the Norg fraction is increases the accuracy of N-supply, therefore it could prevent the environmentally harmful excess N application as well.
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99
54
Upgrading breeding value estimation in beef cattle
451-458

This paper gives a summary of the possibility for applying genomic information for breeding value estimation in beef cattle breeding. This process is called genomic prediction and is now widely used in dairy cattle globally as well as in some beef and sheep populations. The advantage of genomic prediction is a more accurate estimate of the gene...tic merit of an individual at a young age thereby facilitating greater annual genetic gain, predominantly through shorter generation intervals. Genomic predictions are more advantageous for sex-linked (e.g., milk yield), low heritability (e.g., fertility) and difficult-to-measure (e.g., feed intake) traits. The larger the reference population, on average, the more accurate the genomic predictions; additionally, the closer genetically the reference population is to the candidate population, the greater the accuracy of genomic predictions. Research is continuing on strategies to generate accurate genomic predictions using a reference population consisting of multiple breeds (and crossbred). Retrospective analysis of real-life data where genomic predictions have been operation for several years clearly shows a benefit of this technology.

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Evaluation of mineral element content of beetroot during the different stages of the growing season
459-537

In modern nutrition, bioactive materials of different vegetables are especially important to be researched. The experiment was carried out on March 30, 2016 (sowing date). Mineral element content (B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Zn) was evaluated on the 60th, 85th and the 105th day of the vegetation period. The data are presented as the mean of... five varieties which can give the real state of these parameters of beetroot grown on lowland chernozem soil.

In the young beetroot leaves (60 days) the mineral element content was higher than in the older ones (85 days). The calcium and magnesium content of the leaves was much more favourable (10 times higher) than in the root. The potassium content of leaves has reached the amount of 5000 mg kg-1, but at the same time more than 3000 mg kg-1 was detected in the improved root. This value is favourable for the potassium supply of the human organism.

The sulphur content (1300 mg kg-1) of the leaves was the highest on the 85th day of vegetation period. Similar tendency was detected for boron content (2.45 mg kg-1), while for iron content it was higher (28.23 mg kg-1) in the younger leaves (60 days).

Finally, it can be concluded that the increased element content of beetroot leaves will be a favourable source of mineral element supply of the human organism.

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