In our research using primary data sources we are searching for satisfactory evidences, that the impressive economical growth of China has a strong impact on Chinese grape and wine production, wine market. However grape cultivation has long tradition in China, modem grape wine and wine production has only started 20 years ago. During my researc...h I have collected the very rare and unreliable information on this theme to make a picture of Chinese grape and wine production. Using primary sources describe the present situation of Chinese grape industry, verify the supposition that the rise of Chinese grape crop land includes the growth of the total size of wine grape plantations. After this verification I make a comparative analysis of Chinese and Hungarian grape cultivation costs, to confirm, that grape and wine producing is a more requital activity in China than in Hungary.
However grape cultivation has long tradition in China, modem grape wine and wine production has only started 10 years ago, parallel with the Chinese economic boom, in 1998. The rise of the social welfare caused a higher demand for luxury products, wine drinking came more popular, since on the one hand it is representing the standard of western...style living for the higher society class, on the other hand Chinese people can live a more healthy life and spend money on wine drinking, instead of drinking traditional spirits. This tendency opened a wide market for Chinese and international grape producers and winemakers. During our research we have collected the rare, available market information on the Chinese wine market. With the use of this statistical data we will analyse the collected information and rough out the future trends and opportunities and threads for trade companies on the emerging wine market.
The historical background of Debrecen linked to viticulture and wine-making stands mainly on the lack of drinkable water, the necessity of drinkable liquid during wartime and epidemics. The special character of the city evolved together with the changing lives of citizens and the increasing trade importance of the city. Period of Turkish occupa...tion gave impetus to the formation of the 11 vine gardens of the settlement. After the devastation of rootmite and peronospora ‘Kadarica’ and ‘Nagy burgundy’ (‘Blaufrankish’), in smaller proportion - on lower sites – ‘Cabernet’ were planted. As white varieties ‘Ezerjó’, ‘Olasz Rizling’, ‘Kövidinka’, ‘white Mustos’, in smaller proportion ‘Szlankamenka’, ‘Erdei’, ‘Szilvaner’, ‘Mézesfehér’, ‘Bakar’, ‘Veltelini’ (red), ‘Fehér burgundi’ (? white burdunder), ‘Rajnai rizling’, ‘Red Tramini’, ‘Furmint’, ‘Muscat Lunel’, ‘Járdovány’ and ‘Juh-fark’ were planted. After the Trianon treaty in 1920, 2/3rd of Hungary was cut away. Érmellék wine region was also cut in two, thus Debrecen broke away from its wine region. Legal regulations after the World War II. (1959) referred back to variety application advised in 1924 for “place suitable for good wine production, not included in any wine region”, like Debrecen listing ’Ezerjó’, ’Mézesfehér’, ’Olaszrizling’, ’Bánáti rizling’, ’Furmint’, ’Hárslevelű’, ’Kövidinka’, Kecskemét virága’, ’Piros szlankamenka’,’Pozsonyi fehér’; ’Kadarka’, ’Oportó’ and ’Kékfrankos’ (Blaufrankish). The political changes of 1990 and Hungary’s admission to the Eurepoean Union almost annihilated the wine production of Debrecen. However little gardens conserved historic varieties which could date back even to many centuries. Through a local magazine a collecting work was announced pointing to gather ancient local (Vitis vinifera conv. pontica) varieties forming a genebank, established on the experimental station of the University of Debrecen. In 2014, about 112 items were collected (accessions). As a 2nd round of the work, with a more detailed and precise work, further 81 items were put into the reservatum. The latter represent single stuck collection, whereas the first ones are to be studied az mixed items. Most notable accession names (ACENAME) of the work are: ‘Fehér gohér’, ‘Veres gohér’, ‘Fekete gohér’, ‘Kék gohér’, ‘Erdei’, ‘Ezerjó’, ‘Kűbeli’, ‘Rizling’, ‘Mézes fehér’, ‘Dinka’, ‘Madling’, ‘Bakator’ and ‘Kadarka’. Simulteneously with the strenghening and morphological description of conserved stucks genetic identification of the items is being elaborated. Database comprising FAO/IPGRI multi-crop passport descriptors and OIV Primary descriptor priority list are to be published on-line in between the development of the platform.
The knowledge of the finest composition of the Tokaj Wine Specialities is an indispensable task. The presence of the biogenic amines as an eventual combination of hygiene, technology and activity of Botrytis cinerea is a very important point of view in the future. The objective of this study was to measure the biogenic amine-content of... Tokaj Wine Specialities.
According to our findings, the histamine-concentration remained lower than the prescribed end values, but ill the case of serotonine, there were significant measured values. During the fermentation period, in the first cycle there was a decrease in the concentration of biogenic amines, but with the advancement of fermentation, an increase was found.
Favourable parameters are offered to the formation of noble rot caused by Botrytis cinerea by the climatic conditions, soil circumstances and grape-varietes of Tokaj-region. As the result of noble rot, aszú-berries represent the most important raw material of the world-wide known Tokaji Aszú Wine. The objective of this study was to m...easure the penicillin-content of aszú-berries and Tokaj Wine Specialities. As the result of infection of Botrytis free way can be opened in front of other mould strains, especially Penicillium and Aspergillus. There is a possibility to the presence of Penicillium chrysogenum on the surface of aszú-berries during noble rotting process. P. chrysogenum was found to produce the so called Naturally Derived Penicillins such as Penicillin-V (phenoximethyl-penicillin).
According to our findings the Penicillin-V content was detected between 0.4 and 26 mg/1 wine and 0-74 mg/kg aszú-berry. These values do net have therapeutic effect, but physiological benefit and it can be a basis to the qualification of the raw material of Tokaj Wine Specialities naturally together with the other component of noble rotted berries and botrytized wines.
National wine strategy of Hungary promotes the use of “flexible” grape cultivars. These enable producers’ best fit to wine market changes and expectations. This study is aimed to present data on the gene bank of the University of Debrecen, Hungary. Data were collected at a single site, between 2010 and 2018 in east Hungary lowland on acid...ic sandy soil, own rooted planting material. Our results showed that besides high yield and adequate cane production desired sugar content at convenient pH is to be awaited with moderate deviation between vintages. Presented concept demonstrate technological flexibility of cultivars by their average deviation from regression equation between increasing sugar and pH typical for the vintage composed of data of cultivars of the gene bank. Average positive deviation means higher sugar content at specific pH, thus higher sugar content at desired, conveniently low pH (3.0-3.2 pH).
Red wine culture in Hungary was developed due to the grapevine variety ‘Kadarka’, originated from the Balkans, from the 16th and 17th centuries. ‘Kadarka’ was the first grapevine variety cultivated on the largest area in Hungary until the 1950’s, but its production area has been reduced significantly in the past decades. In the period... of Hungarian grapevine reconstruction (from the 1960’s), the selection of the grapevine varieties and clones was determined by the system of cultivation (large growing space, large load and mechanized technology) that was based on the aspects of quantity. It did not promote the majority of the autochton and regional grapevine varieties to remain competitive. ‘Kadarka’ is a grapevine variety having an extraordinary variability in forms; however, a considerable part of its old stocks has disappeared. Nowadays, only two of its high yield clones are cultivated. ‘Kadarka’ becomes more differentiated from other, red wine producing, grapevine varieties, more preferred and newly requested by the fine aroma, spice, unique harmony of its wine less rich in tannin. The new market and environmental challenges in the field of wine production necessitate the preservation and improvement of the biological basis. In 2001 the Institute of Viticulture and Enology Pécs analyzed an old stock having a variability in forms in order to preserve the development and variability of the biological basis of ‘Kadarka’. Clones of great biological value were selected from it, with which the quality and yield security of ‘Kadarka’ can be increased. In 2010 and in 2012, six clones were submitted for state approval.
Mineral composition of wines is affected by many ecological and technological factors. These variables are mostly discussed focusing on certification of origin and human health. This paper gives data on possible changes in mineral composition and pH of wines due to 4 hours skin maceration (1st trial) and fermentation sur marc (2nd trial). Exper...imental site is situated on acidic sandy soil in middle east Hungary. The variety collection was established in 2003 with own rooted planting material in 3x1 m spacing, trained for single curtain training
system. Mineral composition of wines was determined with ThermoFischer Scientific iCAP 6300 ICP-OES, pH was measured with pH10pen (VWR International) in field, and with SevenEasyTM pH meter (Mettler Toledo) in laboratory. 1st trial with 9 PIWI white wine grape varieties pointed to demonstrate effects of skin maceration, which is abundantly used to elevate aroma content. 2nd trial with the use of ‘Medina’ red PIWI grape variety aimed to demonstrate effects of double pasta skin maceration in rose and red wine technology. Data of 1st trial show, that K, Cu, Mn and P respective increase with skin maceration, despite Fe show considerable decrease. Data of 2nd trial show, that K, Mg, Mn, P, Sr and B increase with longer skin contact and higher fermentation temperature, despite Fe and Ba decrease with this technology. In regard to pH, data show, that skin maceration and fermentation sur marc increase K content with about 30-70% respectively, withstanding that pH also increase with a considerable 0,4-0,5 value. K content can be higher in the end product, despite to earlier higher level of tartrate formation. An attention should be driven to lower level of tartaric acid and consequently higher pH characteristic for wines produced with the application of skin maceration or fermentation sur marc.
In the Carpathian Basin Kövidinka and White Riesling are promising wine grape varieties. As in the region continental climate dominates and dry years are not uncommon it was natural to study the water requirement and consumption of the two varieties. Morphological characters affecting transpiration were observed including lea...f area, hairiness, number and type of stomata. The amount of water transpired per unit leaf area and time and rate of water consumption were measured in a model trial in cuttings with known water supply.
The water consumption of vine cuttings depends on varieties and is determined by the genotype but it is also affected by environment. Kövidinka requires little water and uses it to its advantage White Riesling requires more water and uses it rather lavishly. The results of our model trial could be introduced directly into viticulture practice.
Different grape processing, fermentation and aging technologies were compared in our study on the white wine-grape variety Grüner Veltliner between 2012 and 2014 in Hungary,Cserszegtomaj. The vines are grown on brown forest soil on dolomite bedrock, stocks were planted 3x1 m row and vine space, respectively in our experimental area. The soil h...as slightly alkaline pH, the orientation of the vine rows are East-West. The training system is modified Guyot cordon, with 1 m trunk height and cane pruning method. After the harvest half of the yield has been put into the de-stemmer crusher before pressing while the other half has been pressed immediately (whole bunches). From the filtered and bottled wine anthocyanin, and polyphenol content was measured in 2013 and 2014. Another enological technology testing experiment has been set on aging of Grüner Veltliner in 2013. The wine was fermented with addition of fine lees from juice sedimentation. Traditional (racking only), battonage and fast ready-made aging technologies have been set together, each treatment in three replicates were observed.
This paper summarizes the main effects of extreme weather events on agricultural production and demonstrates their economic consequences. For cost-benefit analysis of economic impacts and for determination of risk levels simulation models are needed that contains the relationship between product line levels and elements. WIN-SIM model is develo...ped for this goal, specialized for wine production. The model is suitable to analyze the market share, the cost and income relations as well as the relation structure of the product lines. The four levels of the model (site, vine growing, wine production and wine market levels) have individual values added from the aspect of end product, where the product line sets out from the site level and gets through the levels up to the consumer segments. Theoretically, all elements can be connected to any element of the next level and sublevel, but there are “prohibited contacts” because of professional, regulation or production practice reasons.
In our laboratory for special determinations BOERINGER-MANNHEIM's enzyme-test combinations have been used for 10 years. Our present work deals with the practical aspects of the enzymatic determination of so important wine components like L-malic, L-lactic and citric acid, glycerol, D-gluconic acid, D-sorbitol, acetic aldehyde and D-glucose to D...-fructose (G/F) ratio. Whenever possible, the results arc compared to the results of other methods (spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, polarimetry) used at our department.
It has been established, that thiamin content added in 3 mg/I concentration to musts before fermentation resulted in the enhanced storability of sparkling wine base at lower SO2 levels. Fermentation rate is not increased by this concentration and it causes no "thiamine taste" in organoleptic evaluation.
In ecological farming systems farmers can't use chemicals against pests. In ecological plant protection the aim is to prevent diseases; if it is not possible the use of allowed materials are permitted. Until now there haven't been enough effective and environmental friendly materials for seed treatment in organic farming. Seed borne diseases of... tomato and pepper can cause serious losses in yield, so finding appropriate inhibitors has a great importance. Different materials were tested against these bacterial strains for seed treatment in this study. In vitro trials have shown that vinegar, cider vinegar, red wine vinegar and white wine vinegar have inhibiting effect against the causative agent of bacterial canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis), bacterial speck (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato) of tomato. These materials also have inhibiting impact on the causative agent of bacterial spot of pepper (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria). Seed treatment with (natural alkaline material) sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) had no effect on the examined bacterial strains. Among examined essential oils cinnamon oil seemed to be the most effective, but all oils decreased the germination ability. Thyme and savory teas were effective against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Other examined materials had insufficient bactericide impact (sucrose, NaCI, ethanol, valerian extract, peppermint tea). The germination test has shown that examined vinegar types don't decrease germination ability.
The author determines the development of the grape and wine production branches as a very cogent common task. Because of its importance this sector enables the livelihood of 100-150 thousand families and also of $ 80-100 million export income. A state subsidy is indispensable to the realization of that project. In the author's opinion on round...100 000 ha plantation area yearly 4-4.5 million hl wine can be produced, therefrom the export may amount to 1-1.3 million hl.
Yearly 3000 ha vineyards should be planted in order to maintain the present production capacity.
The cluster thinning is a method of the yield regulation.With the removal one part of the clusters, the yield pro leaf area will be lower, hereby the grape and wine quality will be improved. The regulation of the yield can lead to further advantages: the ratio of the vegetative and generative performance of the vines will improve, the condition... of the plants will better, the number of the physiological diseases can be reduced and the growth of the shoots and roots can be promoted. The grape growers make the cluster thinning almost exclusive by creating one cluster shoots. Usually the upper clusters are removed, because the sugar content of these second or third clusters will be lower. The cluster thinning is an easy task, can be done without special skills. It is an effective method improving wine quality, but its use can lead to other problems. The grapes try to compensate the removed clusters. Therefore the clusters will be bigger and thicker, but more sensitive to bunch rot. Moreover the treatment is expensive, because it needs manual work. It is worth to get acquainted and try the new yield regulation methods, which can help to avoid the occurring problems. Our aim is to show the results of our experiment, which was carried out in Eger, examining the red grape cultivar Kékfrankos. During our 4 years long experiment we compared the effects of cluster thinning, cluster shredding, cluster tipping and defoliation at the flowering, on the vegetative and generative vine performance.
In organic farming systems the focus is on prevention with regards to plant protection. To follow the rules of Good Agricultural Practice one is able to avoid serious yield losses; if it is not possible the use of allowed materials are permitted. Organic farmers have less material to protect their plants so it is necessary to find effective pot...ential materials. Bacterial and fungal diseases of tomato and pepper can cause serious losses in yield. Different materials were tested against some plant pathogen bacterial (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and fungal (Phytoptora infestans, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotium) strains in order to find potential materials in the field of organic seed treatment. In vitro trials have shown that vinegar, cider vinegar, red wine vinegar, white wine vinegar, cinnamon and thyme oil have inhibiting effect against the causative agent of bacteria and fungi. Germination test has shown that examined vinegar types do not decrease germination ability if the concentration is low, but in higher (more than 5%) concentration it ruins the germination ability. Even in 0,5% concentration of red — and white vine vinegar have good effect on germination capacity.
The lack of interpretation methods useful in evaluating the aroma-profiles of wines makes it necessary to thoroughly investigate alternative evaluation procedures. By adding three appropriate normal hydrocarbon standards to all sample extracts, measuring the Programmed Temperature Retention Indexes of the components and by normalizing the peak...areas to that of the 1-alpha-Terpineol (in musts) or Benzeneethanol (in wines), the aroma features could be visualized. The relationship or identity of the aroma patterns could be deduced from the presence or absence of similar polygons in the -constellation-map" of the components.
Polymerase chain reaction driven by sequence specific primers has become the most widely used diagnostic method to detect and identify plant pathogens. The sensitive and cost-effective pathogen detection is exceptionally important in the production of propagating material. In this paper we have collected primer sequence data from the literature... for the detection of the most important grapevine pathogens disseminated by propagating stocks by conventional polymerase chain reaction. Basic protocols to obtain template nucleic acids have also been briefly rewieved.
A suitable amount of nitrogen source is needed for the optimal process of alcoholic fermentation. The professional literature mentions the complexity of nitrogen compounds exploitable for yeast-plants as an assimilable or immediately assumable nitrogen source. Former experiments proved that in case of low nitrogen concentration , yeast-plants p...roduced a bigger quantity of hydrogen sulphide. According to the findings above, it is not indifferent when and how we complement the nitrogen content of the must. The aim of our present work was to elaborate such a quick, easily applicable method that can be used for routinish measurements in the viticultural practice.
Field experiment was conducted to study the replant problems of grapevine and apple. Plantings were in three different fields: on virgin soil, on apple replant soil and on vine replant soil. Each field was planted with 60 pieces of grafted vine (variety Bianca on rootstock Berl. X Rip. T.K. 5BB) and 60 pieces of grafted apple (variety Gloster o...n rootstock MM. 106). Fungicide (BUVICID K with 50% captan agent, 0.5 g/1 1 soil) and nematocide (VYDATE 10 G with 10% oxamil agent, 0.03 g/1 1 soil) treatments were used in the soil in order to identify the causal factor of the problem.
Biological soil test was conducted to test 17 soil samples of 11 wine districts and vine growing fields in plastic pots, under shading net. No root pieces were left in the soil. Two bud-cuttings of the Berl. X Rip. T 5C rootstock varieties were used as test plants. In each case, samples were taken from the vineyard and from the virgin soil. One fourth of the soil from the vineyard was left untreated and the other three part was treated with nematocide, fungicide or heat.
The results of the field experiment suggest that there was no problem growing grapevine after apple and apple after grapevine, but both species had been inhibited growing after itself. The fungicide and nematocide treatments did not succeed in determining the casual factor of the problem. Heat treatment of replant soil (in pot test) was useful in AS and VNS soils.
Results of biological soil test suggest, that grapevine replant problem do not occur in every vineyard. In fifty percent of soils, no significant differences between the treatments for shoot length, weight of cane, length, diameter and wood:ratio of the fourth internode were observed. In one case, difference was not found in any of the measured characters. However, fruiting bodies of Roesleria pallida (Pers.) Sacc. and the mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix Prill. were observed in this sample. In other samples, there was no significant difference between the treatments, but nematode and fungus infection appeared to be involved in increased shoot growth in nematocide and fungicide treated plants (mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix was detected). In other samples, the fungus infection caused significant difference between the virgin, untreated and fungicide treated soils and infection of Rosellinia necatrix was observed.
The famous wine Tokaji Aszú is produced from "noble rotted" grapes infected and modified by Botrytis cinerea under special condition. The objective of this study was quantitative and qualitative characterisation of saprophytic fungi present on the surface of aszúberries, with special regard to yeasts. There were considerable differ...ences in these populations depending on the origin of noble rotted berries, notably between berries taken from the vine or the ones taken from the winery. Beside Botrytis, other mould species like Penicillium, Aspergillus were commonly found, in widely varying population. Yeast counts were detected between 104 and 107 cfu/g berry. In the samples taken from the vineyard Candida pulcherrima predominated followed by some aerobic basidiomycetous species, but Hanseniaspora species were also present in relatively high population. After transport and storage of the grape in the wineries, population of aerobic yeasts and C. pulcherrima quickly declined and Candida stellata followed by other sugar tolerant species became dominant. This autoselection process directs attention to the importance of storage conditions.
Most of the cultivars grown before the disaster of phylloxera in Tokaj can be found only in grapevine collections. The aim of our study was to determinate the cultivation values of six old grapevine cultivars of the wine-region, namely 'Balafánt', 'Budai gohér', 'Purcsin', 'Török gohér, 'Piros (red) furmint' and 'Változó (altering) furmi...nt'. Based on the results of the investigations from 2004 to 2006 it can be concluded that among from the examined cultivars of Tokaj `Budai gohér', Turcsin' and 'Változó furmint' match the best with the technological and consumer requirements of recent days. However the yield of 'Budai gohér' in certain vintages is not acceptable and red wine cultivars are not permitted at this time in the wine-region, but in qualitative responses these presented steadily good data. On the other hand the lowest sugar content was measured and development of noble rot was not registered at all in case of Piros furmint' and `Balafánt'. Their spread in Tokaj is not probable.
The work summarizes the prospective conceptions of all the five horticultural branches. These branches (vegetable, fruit, grape and wine, herb and ornamental plant production) with the production of propagating material together amount to round 30-35% of the total value of the entire plant production. The performance of horticultural branches d...eclined significantly because of privatisation and lack of capital. The accession to the EU urges the development of modernization and competitiveness, therefore the state subsidies are indispensable.
Authors investigated the effect of fruit load on the composition of colour substances and of reservatrol in red wines of some grape varieties grown in Hungary. The content of both, anthocyanin compounds and reservatrol showed practically the same responses to fruit load and the same profile in all the varieties studied. Determination o...f these compounds solely is not sufficient to identify the respective grape variety.