High performing propagation material is essential for a reliable and economical production of quality grapes. Apart from genetic aspects pathogen-freedom is of prime importance in propagation material. In particular virus diseases cause major yield and quality losses and reduced longevity. This is also reflected in the current EU legislation, w...hich focuses on the most common and dangerous viruses: GFLV, ArMV, GLRaV-I and GLRaV-III.Apart from these, locally occurring pathogens, e.g. phytoplasms or agrobacterium, are important as well and should not be present in propagation material. There are several ways to develop pathogen-free clones. Starting with already pathogen-free material is certainly the easiest case, but might not be feasible in local varieties with small acreages and limited vine numbers. In these cases the elimination of pathogens is required, either by heat therapy, tissue culture or somatic embryo genesis.
Vegetative propagation by hardwood cuttings is a very simple and cheap method for production of plum rootstocks. The aim of this study was to examine if this propagation technique is suitable for practice of three plum rootstocks and find the time or period when the percent of rooted cuttings is maximal. Based on our results, hardwood cuttings ...of the rootstocks tested have the rooting potential acceptable for practice, however, for Fehér besztercei in the previous literature leafy cuttings are recommended. Fehér besztercei reached 74.0% rooting, cuttings of Sainte Julien GF 655/2 rooted in as high percentage as 78.3%, and Marianna GF 8-1 had 88.3% rooted cuttings. Rooting potential of hardwood cuttings depends on more factors, one of them can be their dissimilar sensitivity for the diverse environmental circumstances at the different propagating dates, affecting through the internal biochemical changes that can be in relation with the differences in their dormancy.
The cuttings of Marianna GF 8-1 take root easily, but in some years the conditions were less favourable for reaching maximal rooting. For taking cuttings the period from the beginning of October until December was optimal. For Fehér besztercei the optimal date of cutting collection was around the end of October, but in some years the rooting in the middle of December was also high. Sainte Julien GF 655/2 definitely rooted best in October. The treatments with different IBA concentrations in two years affected differently the rooting percentage. The rooting of Marianna GF 8-1 and Sainte Julien GF 655/2 is barely influenced by the different hormone dose in both years. Hardwood cuttings of Fehér besztercei rooted definitely better when treated with 2000 ppm IBA in comparison to untreated ones, while in 2001-2002 there was no difference between 2000 and 4000 ppm.
Mosses are traditionally used as ornamental plants, especially in Japan, USA, England (moss gardens) and Germany, French (green roofs). In shadow areas (where the members of Poaceae usually cannot grow well), mosses are potentially use as “grass”. The stocks of moss colonies maintain optimal microclimate and decrease desiccation of soils (l...ike mulch). Additionally, mosses are evergreen, attractive all year, during winter. In our study, 18 moss species were propagated by fragments (as mixture, with the use of 16 species) and transplantation of carpets (with Brachythecium rivulare and Calliergonella cuspidata) in Szentendre. The aim was to find the most durable species and the best way of propagation. In an outdoor, irrigated garden, propagation by fragments was effective (with 63% coveration) and higher values (93% and 76%) were obtained in the cases of non-irrigated stocks of Amblystegium serpens (in trays) and moss carpets. In vertical structures (moss picture-frames with the use of mixtures), protonema of 2 species (Hypnum cupressiforme and Eurhynchium hyans) covered 24 and 33% of the 0.5 x 0.5 m sized area.
Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is a valuable stand-forming tree species introduced to Europe approximately 400 years ago from North America. Today it is widely planted throughout the world, first of all for wood production. In Hungary, where black locust has great importance in the forest management, it is mainly propagated by ...seeds. But since the seed-raised plants present a great genetic variation, this type of propagation can not be used for Robinia’s improved cultivars. In the Hungarian black locust clonal forestry, propagation from root cuttings can be used for reproduction of superior individuals or cultivars in large quantities. However, this method demands more care than raising seedlings from seeds and can be applied with success in well-equipped nurseries.
A decline, a slow or sudden decay of vine trunks can occur in any phase of trunk life. In senescent or old plantages the increase in trunk decay is quite common but it is unacceptable in young plantage in their best production years.All over the world as well as in Hungary, a drastic decay of young trunks in nurseries and new plantages have cau...sed panic in the past decades. From among the numerous fungal pathogens which are responsible for considerable financial and yield losses and threaten stock vigour Petri disease, esca and Black foot are the most important. In young decaying plants the fungal species Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium spp. and Cylindrocarpon spp. were the most frequent while other fungi causing different trunk diseases, cancer or decay, like Eutypa lata, Botryosphaeria spp. and Fomitiporia mediterranea were also found. The most important infection source is the infected propagation material. Infection is systematic, the disease process is latent, diseased plants cannot be cured, thus, prevention is the only answer to the challenge.
Genetical alterations and phytosanitary status promote the variability and modify the appearance of vine. Old vine varieties in old vineyards are highly variable and well adapted to selection. Clonal selektion is based on a visual performance: valuable individuals (clones) are picked out according to visible symptoms or characters. The genetica...l stability of clones is proved by testing the vegetatively propagated progenies on the basis of morphological and molekular (SSR, AFLP, SMPL, RAPD) markes. Authors take great care of the visual phytosanitary selection as part of the clonal selection being the oreliminary step to develop pathogen-free propagation stocks. In Serbia (Vojvodina) the selection breeding has been carried on for several decades resulted in comparative clone trials with home and imported clones of Welsch Riesling, Chardonnay, Pinot gris, White Riesling. Among the clones of home selection SK.54 Welsch Riesling clone is the most valuable. Its clearing from pathogene is being carried on in an interregional IPA programme (HUSRB/0901/214/123) in Kecskemét. In Kecskemét, the centre of the Hungarian Danube vine region 5 vine clones have been registered (Cegléd szépe K.73, Irsai Olivér K.11, Kövidinka K.8, Hárslevelû K.9, Pannónia kincse K.56). Besides them 18 virus-tested clones have also been qualified.Works aiming at their complete exemption are going on in order to obtain clones free of propagation wood-borne diseases.
The genus Robinia is a small group of about 10 species of trees and shrubs indigenous only to NorthAmerica. Two species are endemic to Mexico, one being confined to south-western part of the country, while the rest are endemic to the south-eastern part of USA. Of the most important species and varieties of genus Robinia, Robinia x ambigua Poir....(Robinia viscosa x R. pseudo-acacia)-pink locust can be considered as the most significant one for bee-forage and decorative planting. In this paper a generative propagation method is presented for pink locust.
Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is an old tuber crop with a recently renewed interest in multipurpose improvement. It is a perennial tuberous plant rich in inulin and is a potential energy crop. During food shortages in times of war Jerusalem artichoke received more attention by scientists and farmers because of its multiple uses ...as a vegetable, medicinal plant, forage plant and source for biofuel. The energy crisis of the 1970s motivated research on Jerusalem artichoke for biofuel as the aboveground plant biomass and the tubers can be used for this purpose. There are different methods to propagate Jerusalem artichoke using tubers, rhizomes, slips (transplants derived from sprouted tubers), stem cuttings, seeds and tissue culture. So, this review was presented to highlight on propagation of Jerusalem artichoke via in vivo and in vitro techniques.
In vitro plant material of clones (Q. robur) NL 100 A (adult) and NL 100 R (rejuvenated) received from Germany (A. Meier-Dinkel, 1995) were used in these experiments. WPM medium was used for the multiplication phase. Plantlets were subcultured monthly. Differences in quality and colour of the adult and rejuvenated cultures ind...uced us to follow and compare the changes of mineral- and chlorophyll content and dry weight during the propagation phase. Mineral and chlorophyll content as well as dry weight were measured weekly on three samples during the subculture period.
In the case of propagation rates we stated, they were similar around the year, but both clones had a high peak in April. Examining the cation-content, we detected that, the plantlets had a highest quantity of several elements during the 2nd and 3rd week of subculture. The iron content was the highest in the 1st week and after that it decreased continuously. It is supposed, that the content of iron is not enough in the media. The chlorophyll content of the rejuvenated clone was higher than that of the adult one.
In the rooting experiments it was stated that, after one-week cold treatment the rooting ability was the best.
In propagation of plum by hardwood cuttings, the success of rooting is affected by several factors. Many authors deal with the timing of cutting collections, others investigate the optimal extent of hormonal stimulation. However, there is no data, as yet, about the coherence between these two factors. The aim of this experiment was to find the ...most advantageous condition s, with regards to both timing and IBA doses, for rentable propagation of the examined varieties. Five varieties were studied: 'INRA Marianna GF 8- 1', 'Myrobalan B', 'MY-KL-A', 'INRA Saint Julien GF 655/2' and 'Feher besztercei'. Cuttings were collected on seven occasions, during late autumn and winter, and were treated with IBA solutions of different concentrations. The optimal dose of IBA was found to be dependent both on the variety and the actual date of cutting collection . Results are reported, along with suggestions for optimal doses and collection periods.
Growth vigour of 36 apricot cultivars and new hybrids grafted on apricot seedling rootstock (Prunus armeniaca L.) was evaluated on the base of measurements of stem girth from the 411' to the 10th year after planting. There were differences in growth vigour of genotypes under study. In the evaluated set of genotypes the contr...ol cultivar 'Veecor may be classified as a genotype with below-average growth vigour. Only four genotypes (-Reale d'Imola-, Sanagian -Moldavskii krupnoplodnyl and 'LE-2385') were found with significantly higher growth vigour than that of control cultivar 'Veecot' in years of the end of experimental period. Two genotypes (Farmingdale', -LE-SE0-24') were found with significantly higher growth vigour only at the beginning of experimental period and one cultivar ('Vivagold-) with significantly lower growth vigour in the first four years. Genotypes with different growth vigour can be used in further breeding programmes and/or as components inhibiting or supporting the growth in indirect vegetative propagation. Within the whole experimental period, the rank of growth vigour of genotypes practically did not change. This was demonstrated by highly significant or significant coefficients of correlation existing between individual pairs of years (r=0.32+ to r=0.96++). As far as the time difference between years in individual pairs of years was higher, the correlation coefficients were lower. In individual years, variability of growth vigour was relatively low and ranged from 9.83 to 13.64%.
Grey mould (Botrytis cinerea Pers.) is a pathogenic fungus which causes damage to the production of grapevine nursery plant materials especially on the stored canes or on graftings during the callusing period. The conditions, increased temperature and humidity, are ideal for the pathogen during the pre-forcing stage and in the storage Botrytis ...cinerea can easily infect the outbursting buds as large amounts of grapevine canes are stored in a relatively small place. The fungicide-based management is general in the prevention of gray rot infection but the palette of authorised chemical compounds is narrowed year by year due to the regulations of the European Union. Our aim is to develop an eco-friendly method which combines the use of natural materials with techniques used in organic farming. Effect of the ultraviolet-c light on the Botrytis cinerea was studied. The development characteristics of the pathogen were examined under daylight and dark conditions and experiments were set up with cow’s milk and acetic acid. UV-C light destroyed the developed conidia, however, the radiation stimulates the development of immature propagules. Larger quantities of conidiophores and conidia were formed in daylight compared to culture in the dark, while different conditions did not signifi cantly change the mycelial growth characteristics. The developed bacteria prevented the spread of pathogen mycelia during the test with cow’s milk in Petri dishes, although the smooth development of propagules that occurred did not change the vitality of the fungal colony. Furthermore the growth of Botrytis cinerea fungus mycelia was strongly inhibited by acetic acid.
The content of different auxins of soft-wood cutted plum rootstock 'Marianna GF8/1' (Prunus cerasifera x P. munsoniana) was determined during the rooting period. The level of auxin-concentration (exogenous and endogenous) of basic and intemodal part of cuttings was determined by WATERS HPLC equipment every 7 days during rootin...g period. The lengths soft wood cuttings were app. 30 cm long. The basal part of shoots were treated with 2000 pg/g concentrated indole-butiryc acid in talcum powder. After treatment the cuttings were placed in propagation green-house under intermittent mist. The plant hormones were extracted by methanol the solution was cleaned by paper-filter, and further cleaned by centrifuge. The effluent was examined by reversed phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography, with WATERS 2487 dual detector at 220 am on Symmetry C18 4,6x 150 column. Recovery and reproducibility assessment indicates good accuracy and acceptable relative standard deviation (RSD) 5%. Linear responses (r20.997) for calibration curve was obtained with IAA, IPA and IBA standard in range, with a limit of quantification of 0.15 g•m1-1. The concentration of IAA, IPA and IBA in the basal part of cuttings were measured, during the rooting period. We proved the external IBA was taken up by the plants. In the plants were found the IBA, and the IAA concentration of IBA treated cuttings was higher, than the untreated one.
Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) can be considered as one of the most suitable tree species for establishing energy plantations due to its favourable growing characteristics such as vigorous growing potential in the juvenile phase, excellent coppicing ability, a relatively high resistance to pests. Based on national and international test... results the mean annual increment of oven-dry weight of energy plantations regenerated by coppicing generally exceeds the first cycle plantations established by seedlings.
Vine decline causes important economic loss in viticulture, especially in longer view. Several causal pathogen were described lately, however little is known about the etiology or epidemiology of these pathogens on grapevine rootstock. It is well known that these diseases affect grafted and rooted grapevines and are not specific to any scion-ro...otstock combinations. Our aim was to determine what pathogens are presents in the experimental field, especially causal agents of the rootstock decline. Different grapevine rootstocks and scion varieties were tested in our trial. Isolations were made from the wood tissue and pathogenity tests were done with isolated Cylindrocarpon destructans. The possibility of infection during the propagation process was studied as well. Most commonly Cylindrocarpon sp. and Phomopsis sp. species were identified from the examined varieties. Cylindrocarpon destructans was able to spread to apical (shoot) and basal (root) direction from the point of infection with uneven speed. Callus development is not inhibited by the fungi causing the leaf symptom of the vine decline. Shoot development is reduced if unhealthy parts are grafted to each other.
In our country the maindenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba L.) is raised mainly from seeds, so the aim of our experiments was to determine the most useful generative propagation method. However, some experiments have been conducted earlier connected to the germination of the species, but the comparative control of physical seed treatment was d...one first time by the authors.
After the statistical evaluation of the results it can be stated that the percentage of germination has significantly increased if the seeds received physical treatment (scalding, mechanical scouring). Hereby the pericarp is getting soft or growing thinner, so the germination of the seed is easier. These treatments are extraordinarily simple, easy to carry out and their effect is very favourable, that is why their use is strongly advised.
Comparing the seeds collected at different times was found that the ability of germination is decreasing proportionally with the time spent in the open field. On the basis of our experiments and of earlier practice in Hungarian tree nurseries, our opinion is that the stratification of seeds is not necessary.
In our trial we tried to find out how the time of propagation and transplanting influenced the growing season of sweet corn along with some major properties relevant to quality. The following technological variations were compared with the help of the variety Spirit (normal sweet, very early ripening): transplanted plants with floating row cove...r (with 2 planting dates); transplanted plants with no row cover: direct seeded plants with no row cover. The 21 day transplant growing period reduced the growing period by 16 to 20 days, compared to the technology used in the existing practice of production. Earliness had a negative influence on ear size, nonetheless it is worth while to attempt since the market is not so exacting with new products in the early period. Covering the seedlings in the early season was clearly beneficial, as the floating row cover provided protection for plants against lower night temperatures which are common in this period.
Direct sowing in 16 cm deep trench covered with perforated plastic sheet (for 3 weeks), transplant using, and uncovered direct sowing (control) was tried on 2 locations, with 2 varieties (very early Kecskeméti korai extra, and middle early Kecskeméti SC-370) in Szarvas on loamy soil, and in Kecskemét on sa...ndy soil in 1996 — after a preliminary trial concerning perforated plastic covered trench sowing in Szarvas, in 1995.
The plant height (weekly), the average leaf number/plant, the total leaf area (once), the total yield, the quality of cobs, and the earliness was measured. The results are:
- Kecskeméti korai extra during the first 6 week period the transplanted plants were the highest, but from the 7th week the plants which were sown in trench and than were covered with perforated plastic sheet (for 3 weeks) were the highest.
- SC-370: The transplanted plants were the highest-until the end of plant height development.
The plant height development stopped at the 9th week of the measurement by early, - and stopped at the 10th week by middle early variety. The average leaf number/plant varied between 9,25-10,50 and was not influenced either by variety or by the treatment. The total leaf area was (on 5th of June) the largest by transplanted plants, which was followed by plants that were sown in trench and then were covered with perforated plastic film (for 3 weeks).
- The highest yield was observed by plants, which Were sown in trench, and then were covered with perforated plastic film (for 3 weeks). Transplanted plants followed it.
- Quite the total yield (98,3%) of transplanted Kecskeméti korai extra variety plants were harvested on 4th July. 89% of the total yield was picked up of trench sown and then with perforated plastic covered plants. The harvest of uncovered control started on 15th July. The harvest of transplanted SC-370 plants started 19th July, when more than half of the total yield (57%) was picked. The uncovered control was harvested 29th July.
- The weight and the measure of cobs generally were not influenced by the treatments, but the average weight of the cobs of the transplanted Kecskeméti korai extra plants (0,21-0,18 kg) are less than the, requirement.
In Hungary, detection of virus and virus-like diseases of grapevine began in 1960's at the Research Institute for Viticulture and Enology by János Lehoczky and his colleagues. At present, sixteen virus and virus-like diseases of Vitis vinifera are known to occur in Hungary.
Regular virological screening of grapevine varieties ...started in 1972. The present system of screening (visual selection, indexing, ELISA) has been established using methods with continuous improvement according to recommendations of international organizations.
In the first year symptomless grapevine plants are selected and marked during surveys carried out twice in the vegetation period: at about flowering and in the second half of September. At the first selection time plants are sampled for ELISA.
In the spring of the second year, overwintered canes are checked by woody indexing on 8 indicator species in the field.
In the third and fourth years the nursery is evaluated twice again. At the end, the marked grapevine plants, giving negative results on all indicators in every case, are considered virus-free.
In autumn of the fourth year, the virus-free material is planted out under screenhouse and also in a special mother block (nuclear stock) for maintenance and propagation.
Mother blocks of virus-free scion varieties have been established on 2 ha and those of rootstock varieties on 0.5 ha planted with the following number of varieties included in the national list: 71 European scion — and 12 rootstock varieties or variety candidates/clones. It is necessary to increase the area of Pre-base, Base and Certified stocks exclusively with tested virus-free (clean) material.
A more intensive integrated research and development approach to the work carried out on the growth on sandy soils of stands of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) has been adopted in recent years, revealing several factors influencing stand growth. The fact that certain ecological factors influencing fundamentally the growth of trees have b...ecome unfavourable in Hungary in recent years has led to the more extensive use of black locust in the course of afforestation and forest regeneration schemes. The study presents a new, simplified tending operation model for black locust stands and age, growing space and target diameter models suitable for qualitaty log production and for mass assortments. The simplicity of these practice-oriented
models may foster the qualitative development of black locust management in Hungary and in some other countries where this tree species may gain greater acceptance by landowners and the forest industry.
A simple and reliable procedure for in vitro propagation of an orchid Dendrobium strongylanthum Rchb.f. was studied. Protochorm was induced from seed explants on 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/L NAA. A mass of protochorm could be multiplied on proliferated medium of 1/2 Ms containing 0.5 mg/L V-6-BA. And bud differenti...ation of green global body was cultured in the same media, 2-2.5 cm shoots were formed after 30 day of culture. Addition of mashed banana and 0.5 mg/L NAA to 1/2 MS medium promoted root formation and vigorous growth. The plantlets were acclimatized and transplanted to compound materials of humus:sawdust (1:1) in greenhouse, the survival rate was more than 98%.
Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) is an economically and ethnobotanically important aromatic, medicinal, ornamental and culinary herb, with a very wide gene pool, that is sensitive to cold and prone to several plant pathogens that can demolish harvest and lessen yield. In this research, the effects of BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) and TDZ ...(Thidiazuron) on different genotypes for in vitro cloning were determined, in order to provide a detailed protocol guide concerning Ocimum basilicum L. propagation. The results from the O. basilicum seed propagations revealed that the best condition for the secondary shoot growth is with 5.0 mg/l TDZ or 1.5 mg/l BAP on all types of explants except the root, the secondary root growth can be obtained on all types explant with any BAP concentration and all cytokinins can induce callus on all types of explants. On the whole, it shows that multiple secondary shoot induction and regeneration in Ocimum basilicum L. is regulated by appropriate cytokinin concentration.
This paper gives an outline of micropropagation of Pontederia lanceolata. Pontederia l. is a widely used aquatic plant, therefore there is an increasing demand for them, which can be satisfied only by in vitro culture. Research was carried out to find the best nutrient media conditions for micropropagation and acclimatisation of Po...ntederia lanceolata.
In the present work we have examined the changes of germination ability of some medicinal plant species belonging to the Solanaceae family (Datura stramonium L., Datura innoxia Mill. and Hyoscyamus niger L.) during 5-6 years' storage period. According to our results, all the three species showed an after-ripe...ning behavior. Potassium nitrate and gibberellic acid increased significantly the rate of germination in the case of Datura species. During the storage period tested (1995-2001), the species maintained their germination ability which is favourably but not significantly influenced by the cooled gene bank conditions. The degree of ripeness affected considerably the proportion of germinated seeds at all the three species. As a consequence of our results we emphasise that propagation with completely ripe seeds is proposed, however, half-ripe seeds developped in an unadvantageous vegetation period can be also utilized in the practice. The effect of vegetation year on stramony seeds manifested in the length of after-ripening period, while in the case of henbane the germination ability was also influenced.
The main goal of this research was to work out programmable, cost-effective and industrial scale technologies of mass propagation from the seeds of rootstock nurseries of undomesticated American populations of Sidahermaphrodita. During our previou`s seed treatment experiments, it was concluded that around 60% of the Virginia fanpetalsseeds coll...ected during the four cropyears can be considered as high quality, infection-free, normally imbibing and germinating seeds (Kurucz et al., 2013a,b). The experiments performed with the nurse-in-tray method developed by us showed that the summer-autumn nurse-in-tray plantlet production and unprotected wintering of Virginia fanpetals with properly pre-treated and fractioned seeds is a promising new method. No weeds appear between the plants, but only on the side of the cases during plantlet production. The investment cost of the method is minimal. There are no heating costs and this phytotechnique can be easily and properly mechanised. Plantlet production can be performed near the large-scale plots. After exploring the root and shoot system, it was concluded that the nurse-in-tray method is suitable for producing plantlets with hardened and strong roots. Scheduled plantlets can be produced in an industrial scale volume by the time of early spring (March) plantlet planting. The excavateof plantlets can be flexibly adjusted to the needs; they may even grow in the plantlet cases for a whole year. We think that these innovative plantlet production and wintering methods which are suitable for large-scale use will make Virginia fanpetals a proper feedstock for the constant supply of the Biomass Supply Chain both in Hungary and in European countries which are in the same climate zone. The comparative analysis of the costs of this procedure calls for further research.