The flowering dynamics of Ocimum basilicum L., (a common population maintained at the UHFI) was studied with the aim to create an exact and practically applicable method for definition of phenological phases.
According to our observation the development of individual flowers of the basil can be characterized by 8 distinguishabl...e phases, which must be considered for description of the actual phenological stage of a spike.
An accurate model was created for the unambiguous description of flowering process of different flowers within the spike and for the individual plant as a whole. The new flowering index formula is calculated from the number of flowers weighed by their phenological phases.
The time dependence of flowering is presented by functions fitted to values of the flowering index. The results reflected different patterns of the main inflorescence, the inflorescences formed on the side shoots in the first or in the second half of the flowering period. However, for description of the flowering process of the whole plant, a sigmoid function proved to be the appropriate model.
The accumulation process of the essential oil could be characterized by the flowering index values. They showed close correlation (r=0.964) at high probability.
The new method assures an exact definition of phenological phases in basil. Its application seems to be optimal during breeding procedures, seed production and even in production of high quality drugs, according to the requirements of the Good Agricultural Practice (Guidelines for GAP, 1998).
Experiences of the last decades showed univocally that the climatic changes, especially the warming up, influenced clearly the phenology, i.e. speed of growth and development of plants. To check the effects, the phenological studies became a topic of special interest. Our research has been performed at Újfehértó, the Research Institute of Fr...uit Growing and Extension, where the respective database accumulated observations during the period 1984–2005, where the meteorological data as well as the parallel phenological diary referring to the varieties ’Újfehértói fürtös’, ’Kántorjánosi’ and ’Debreceni bôtermô’ during the period 1984–1991 have been utilised. The method of calculating the sum of daily mean temperatures, “degree days”, is based on the observation that the plants are able to utilise cumulatively – in growth and development – the temperature above a set basic temperature. Our phenology model examined the correlation between the sum of degree days and the date of sprouting (budburst). The basic temperature has been determined by optimization, above which (threshold temperature) the accumulation of daily means was most active, or alternatively, below which the daily means are most sensitively expressed in the phenology. The model has been extended to the calculation of the end of rest period (endodormancy) – by optimization as well. Our phenology model will be suitable for two main purposes: for estimating the time of budburst for the Hungarian region during the next decades calculated on the basis of regionally downscaled climate models; on the other hand, by applying our model, the risk of damage caused by spring frosts could be estimated more exactly than earlier.
Isoelectric focusing is an effective and well reproducible method to provide information for identification of various plant species and clones if breeding or other genetic modification(s) for a given species are reflected in changes of an isozyme pattern. The method has been used for characterization of plant proteins and enzymes and for ident...ification of various species and varieties. Our aim was to continue our several-year-work carried out on a wide variety of grapevine varieties and to reveal whether analyses of esterase and peroxidase isozyme patterns are suitable to distinguish various grapevine varieties. Therefore we compared esterase and peroxidase isozyme patterns of various species. Plant samples were obtained from Szigetcsep, Kecskemet, Tokaj and Eger. The following samples were analyzed: Pinot gris, noir, blanc, Chardonnay, Riesling Theses, Chasselas from Szigetcs6p, Bianca and his parents Eger2 and Bouvier from Kecskemet, Furmint and Hárslevelű from Tokaj, Kékfrankos and Zweigelt from Eger. To identify various species according to their esterase isozyme patterns the after blooming phenological phase while according to their peroxidase isozyme pattern the dormant phenological phase was found as optimal sampling time.
Determination of flower microphenology for selecting the suitable pollinizer for sour cherry cultivars is of significant importance. In order to study the flower microphenology of Hungarian sour cherry (Bőtermő, Érdi jubileum and Cigány) cultivars in Mashhad climatic conditions, an experiment was conducted in I998. 1999, 2...005 and 2006, using a completely randomized design with ten replications. The phenological stages were determined from before opening up to browning phase of stigma. Duration of pollen shedding, stigma receptivity and climatic factors were measured. The relative time of flowering between cultivars varied from year to year. The data indicate, the thermal variation strongly contributes to significant differences in duration of stigma viability, although there wasn't a significant difference between cultivars in anther dehiscence period. Phenological stages of flowers are highly affected by meteorological factors in various years.
Mass propagation of 5 newly introduced Hosta varieties was carried out by the method of micropropagation. Our aim was to determine exact variety specificity after the micropropagation period in the pattern of peroxidase isoenzymes by isoelectric focusing in pH 3-9 range and to determine that phenological phase of mother plant in which...the isoenzyme pattern of mother plant can safely be comparable to the isoenzyme pattern of micropropagated descendants. The isoenzyme patterns of descendants were similar to the mother plants of the same hybrid lines. The older leaves seemed to be not so suitable for examination than newly developed ones despite of the higher activity of peroxidase enzymes. There were big differences in isoenzyme patterns of leaves in different phenological phases. With this quick and easy method Hosta varieties could be selected already in the very early stage of micropropagation.
Bud dormancy during winter is a critical factor in peach production in Hungary. The yield is determined basically by the survival rate of flower buds during winter frosts and by their ability to develop normal floral organs. It is important to investigate the genetic basis of slow floral development during dormancy for the purpose of breeding p...each varieties with better winter hardiness. The aim of the present research was to examine microsporogenesis in 14 peach varieties during three successive winters in a Hungarian germplasm collection and to study the effectiveness of this method in variety evaluation. There were significant differences in the dynamics of microsporogenesis both between the varieties and between the years. Of the varieties, ‘Mayfire', bred in California, possessed the quickest pollen development rate. The microsporogenesis of `Piroska', a Hungarian local variety, was the slowest. Rapid floral bud development was observed in `Aranycsillag', `Springcrest' and 'Venus'. A medium developmental rate was characteristic of `Babygold 6', Fairlane', `Michelini' and `Red June', while development was slow in 'Champion', 'Early Redhaven', `Redhaven', `Harko' and `Mariska'. Based on these results, the study of microsporogenesis represents a reliable method for the phenological description of peach varieties during dormancy. The application of this method makes it possible to identify varieties and landraces with slow flower bud development, suggesting better winter hardiness.
The trees observed are grown at Ofeherto, Eastern Hungary in the plantation of an assortment (gene bank) with 586 apple cultivars. Each of the cultivars were observed as for their dates of subsequent phenophases, the beginning of bloom, main bloom and the end of bloom over a period between 1984 and 2001. during this period the meteorological da...ta-base keeps the following variables: daily means of temperature (°C), daily maximum temperature (°C), daily minimum temperature (°C), daily precipitation sums (mm), daily sums of sunny hours, daily means of the differences between the day-time and night-time temperatures (°C), average differences between temperatures of successive daily means (°C). Between the 90th and 147th day of the year over the 18 years of observation. The early blooming cultivars start blooming at 10-21April. The cultivars of intermediate bloom start at the interval 20 April to 3 May, whereas the late blooming group start at 2-10 May. Among the meteorological variables of the former autumnal and hibernal periods, the hibernal maxima were the most active factor influencing the start of bloom in the subsequent spring.
Grapevine bloom happens between end of May and the middle of June in Hungary. However, climate change in the past decades and the occurring weather anomalies can modi fy this date to a diverse degree. Among the weather factors, the bloom starting dates of grapevine depend mostly on temperature and relative humidity of air. There can be signific...ant differences between North American and East Asian grapevine varieties, and of course, the early and late ripening varieties. ln this approach we investigated the starting dates of bloom between 2000 and 2004 for grapevine varieties grown in Helvecia, as well as the effectiveness of a temperature sum model. The model is based on the widely accepted cumulated heat sum concept, and the optimization was made for the least standard deviation in days as well as on the least average absolute deviation in days and on the least maximum deviation in days. The model is connected directly to a similar model for the budburst date of the same plantings (Hlaszny & ladanyi, 2009). We set the optimum lower base temperature to I 0.45 °C and the upper base temperature to 26 °C. The absolute values of the differences between the observations and the model estimations move between one and six days with an average of 1.81 days
The flower bud development is an especially complex process from initiation to blooming. Our main objective was to analyze paradormancy; the first stage of this process in our collection of varieties in the vicinity of Budapest, in Hungary. We have analyzed three varieties with different winter hardiness. `Ceglédi bíborkajszi' is one of the m...ost frost susceptible in our collection of varieties, when the flower bud differentiation started in early August, and all flower organ initials evolved in beginning of September. The flower bud differentiation of the most winter hardy variety, `Rózsakajszi C.1406' started in the end of August, and all flower organs were noticed at middle of September. `Gönci magyar kajszi' is a medium frost hardiness apricot variety, its phenological process composes transition between two mentioned above varieties.
The seasonal dynamic of macro- and micronutrients uptake of a sweet cherry cultivar cv. 'Katalin' (Prunus avium L.) was studied according to apply different flower thinning techniques. Beside control treatment, three thinning treatments were performed: (I) thinning for I flower/inflorescence, (2) thinning for 2 flower/inflorescence, (3...) thinning for 3 flower/inflorescence. Soil examination was carried out to establish the growing conditions of orchard site. Moreover, for studying the temporal dynamic of nutrient uptake plant analytical examination was performed four times per year based on leaf collecting according to the phenological phases. It was found that the macro- and micronutrients contents of leaves were showed significant differences between treatments before ripening, at ripening and after ripening stage. It was found that thinning has influence on mineral composition of leaf. Flower removal unbalanced the equilibrium of generative and vegetative processes. The applied manual flower thinning treatment resulted improving vegetative processes like nutrient uptake and storage.
Observations were made on simultaneousness of pollen shedding and stigma viability ratio, to clarify the phenology of reproductive organs of nine economically important sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars (‘Érdi bôtermô‘, ‘Debreceni bőtermő‘, ‘Csengődi‘, ‘Kántorjánosi 3‘, ‘Újfehértói fürtös‘, ‘Petri‘,...‘Eva‘, ‘Oblascinszka‘, and ‘Pándy 279’). The main aim was investigation the possible influence of environmental cues in timing and development of phenophases and also responses of different cultivars to seasonal cues. Likely effects of climatic changes on phenological development patterns were also considered. Results showed important aspects of the reproductive biology of sour cherry flowers. The amplitude of the phenophase “beginning of blossoming” between cultivars did not exceed 6 days. There is a maximum 3 day difference in the blooming length of different directions in each cultivar. ‘Pándy 279‘ showed high variability when the position of flowers changed on the tree shoots. ‘Újfehértói fürtös‘ was stable in all four directions of the tree. The pollen shedding period and stigma viability ratio were synchronous. Pollen shedding phenomenon simultaneously occurred with the secretary activities of stigmas in all examined cultivars. Distribution of pollen shedding over the secretary activity of stigmas is almost good. In all five cultivars maximum pollen shedding occurred when the temperature was high during the day. In general the results of this experiment and our previous studies clearly demonstrate that the Pándy groups not recommended for plantation in new orchards of Iran.
The resumption of development in ecodormant buds in terms of establishing a functional vascular connection between the inflorescence primordia and spur tissues in apple trees was investigated. Differentiation of the xylem elements could be observed first in the pedicel of the flower primordium, in the middle of January. Much later (at the begin...ning of April) there were mature xylem vessels in the wall of the receptacle and, merely a procambial strand for the ovule primordium which was at this time an undifferentiated protrusion of meristematic cells, only. As for phenological development of buds incubated at a temperature of 20 °C, it was the slowest in buds sampled in January, faster in buds sampled in the middle of February and, buds from the middle of March responded very quickly. The function of temperatures needed both for xylem differentiation and for the flower primordium to achieve maturity is pointed out. The nature of frost damage in vessel elements, as well the relationship between chilling requirement and growth features of apple cultivars will be discussed.
Lycium barbarum is known exclusively as an ornamental plant in Hungary, and is planted so, as popular belief deem it a toxic plant. The plant’s fruit receives great respect in countries abroad, thus, due to its favourable content values the Lycium has achieved the title of ‘biological gold mine’. The last couple of years has seen the impo...rt of Lycium shrubs and its corresponding products, dried goods or in the form of various processed products which have been marketed and sold at extreme prices (under name of Goji, Wolfberry, Lifeberry). Our goal was to examine the similarities of the content values of wolfberry found in Hungary and those cultivated abroad. Along with Miklós Józsa the domestic Lycium population was surveyed based on foreign examples, between the years 2009 and 2011. Those defined sweet and largefruited were selected for further investigations to be set into a clone repository. This clone repository– which contains 67 different clones from a number of regions of Hungary – was established in the nursery of Dr. Miklós Józsa, located in the city of Szombathely. The phenological and morphological characteristics and the fruit ripening and quality indicators of plants in the clone repository were investigated. Six ‘best’ clones – selected based on flavour, disease-resistance and vegetative characteristics (plant size, fruit set, yield and fruit size) were analysed based on their content values. The control plant was a cultivar imported by a delivery service, found also in growing. In addition to the results of the selection, the results of the content values of the six selected ‘best’ clones (total soluble sugar content, glucose-fructose ratio, carotene content, FRAP value) is documented in this paper. Further, based on the resulting information the possibilities of the fruit’s utilization are suggested. Significant differences were measured in the vegetative characteristics of the clones (plant size, fruit set, yield and fruit size) and of those of
its inner content values. The resulting properties are considerable in regards of the plant’s introduction into cultivation and also utilization. Based on growing characteristics, more favourable clones were selected than the foreign varieties already in growing. Those clones selected by us have had similar or better content values than foreign breeds. The investigation of these content values is still in progress.
The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between micronutrient content of soil and leaf in an organic apple orchard. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Site of the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences at Pallag in an apple cultivar collection in Eastern Hungary in 2002-2004. The soil sampling w...as carried out twice per year, at the beginning and the end of the vegetation period in 2002, 2003 and 2004, respectively. The micronutrient content of leaf of seven apple cultivars (Jonagold, Mutsu, Idared, Red Elstar, Egri piros, Reka, Remo) was studied according to phenological phases of apple (April — September) to investigate the dynamism of plant nutrient uptake.
It was found that results of leaf analysis correlated with the obtained results of soil. According to the data of July, manganese and copper content of leaf is in the 'favourable' but zinc is the 'low' range of nutrient supply category. Moreover, there were significant differences in the micronutrient content of leaf among cultivars. From our results it is evident that more reliable data were obtained for fruit nutrition by determining of micronutrient content of soil and plant and calculate their ratios as well.
Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is one of the most important fruit crop grown in Hungary, The flowering phenology and pollen shedding/stigma viability ratio, in an effort to elucidate the reproductive phenology of nine economically important sour cherry cultivars (Érdi bőtermő, Debreceni bőtermő, Csengődi, Kántorjánosi 3. Pánd...y 279. Úfehértói fürtös, Petri, Éva, and Oblacsinszka) all widespread in the Hungary, was studied at Újfehertó climatic condition. The main aims were to investigate how possible environmental cues influence timing and development of phenophases and whether different cultivars have different seasonal responses to these cues. Likely effects of climatic changes on phenological development patterns were also considered. Our results revealed important aspects of the reproductive biology of sour cherry flowers. The amplitude of the phenophase "beginning of blossoming" between cultivars did not exceed 6 days. There is maximum 3 days difference in blooming length of different direction in each cultivar. Pándy 279 showed high variability when the position of flowers changed on the tree shoots. Újfehértói fürtös was stable in all four directions of tree. The pollen shedding period and stigma viability ratio was well synchronous. Pollen shedding phenomenon occurred in the range limitation of secretary activity of stigmas in all five cultivars. Distribution of pollen shedding over the secretary activity of stigmas is almost good. In all five cultivars maximum pollen shedding occurred about the high temperature part of the day.
Regular observations and experiments were performed during a 14 year period on 6 sour cherry varieties. The morphological traits of leaves and fruits were compared, and the phenology of blooming as well as of ripening dates served to start an estimation of the possibilities of mutual pollination and the planning of harvest operations. Experimen...ts involved obligate autogamy, artificially controlled allogamy and open pollination in order to reveal self-fertility, self-sterility or inter-incompatibility relations.
The varietal characters represent, each, different values in the distinction of the items, because of their intra-varietal variability. From that point of view, the most reliable are the data of blooming and ripening time, fruit size and the fertility relations.
Inter-incompatibility was observed between the group of self-fertile, "Pándy type" varieties (`Újfehértói fürtös’, ‘Debreceni bőtermő’, ‘Kántorjánosi’) on one side and the selection of Pándy 7', a self-sterile variety on the other side. Unilateral incompatibility has been detected within the former group of new, self-fertile varieties, the combinations: (`Újfehértói fürtös’ x ‘Debreceni bőtermő’ as well as `Újfehértói fürtös’ x Kántorjánosi’.
Our results prove the close kinship between those three new varieties and the original Pándy variety on the base of being highly similar in their morphology and also of the fact of their inter-incompatibility, though unilateral.
20–22 and 5–7 years of kind collection of 100 cultivars studied phenology and fl oral morphological basis of characteristics in 1994–1998 and 2009–2011. The varieties were collected 3–5 trees in the gene garden, all were on C. 359 myrobalan seedling. Detecting differences between the test cultivars are suitable for stamps, and also sh...ow that relatively short-term observations are useful for describing the comparison, to distinguish varieties. The taxonomic ordination of cultivars and groups of fruits suitable to distinguish colors shown that the fl owering and ripening time, the nature of the reproductive organs and even Sharka-rate sensitivity is associated with those groups. Differences between the age of trees mainly sexual organs and fertility were shown. Affecting rate of climatic effects was not as large as the first line of erratic rainfall, air temperature spikes or possible values would be expected. The results of the breed, a gene bank of perception, in particular, the localization of hybrids, clone-type variants are useful in the analysis. Among other things – this is due to late-maturing, relatively well-stored temporarily, and not-blue plums, Sharka-infected tolerant or resistant varieties selection (cf. SURÁNYI 2013a-c) and will be disseminate in Hungary.
The phenological processes of flower bud development of stone fruits during dormancy are not thoroughly known. The yield of these species, especially of almond, apricot and peach is determined basically by dormancy of flower buds, the survival rate of buds during winter frosts and by their ability to develop normal floral organs in the next spr...ing. After the initiation of floral primordia, flower bud development is taking place in continuous space until blooming, though at different speed characteristic to the species. To study flower bud development during dormancy we applied two alternative methods in different genotypes of almond, apricot and peach: (1) examination of pollen development (microsporogenesis), and (2) the measurement of pistil length. The samples were collected from the central part of Hungary during the dormancy period of 2004/2005. The three fruit species differed significantly in the speed of flower bud development, it was the quickest in almond, followed by apricot and peach. In addition to the species, there were significant differences in the process of microsporogenesis and pistil development between genotypes within species and also between the different types of shoots on which the buds were located. On short shoots buds developed at a higher speed, than on long shoots. Based on our observations, on the short shoots the period of endodormancy was shorter with 5-30 days, according to genotypes, compared to the long shoots. This difference, however, decreased to 2-3 days by the time of blooming.
The trees observed are grown at Ujfehert6, Eastern Hungary in a gene bank with 555 pear cultivars. Each of the cultivars was monitored for its dates of: the beginning of bloom, main bloom and the end of bloom and ripe phenophasis separately between I 984 and 2002. We analyzed the statistical features, frequency, distribution of these phenophasi...s and its' correlation the meteorological variables bet ween the interval. During this period the meteorological database recorded the following variables: daily mean temperature (°C), daily maximum temperature (0C), daily mini m um temperature (0C), daily precipitation (mm), daily hours of bright sunshine, daily means or the differences between the day-time and night-time temperatures (0C). For the analysis of data the cultivars have been grouped according to dates of maturity, blooming period as well as types of the seasons. Groups of maturity dates: summer ripe, autumnal ripening, winter ripe cultivars. Groups of blooming dates: early blooming, intermediate blooming, late blooming cultivars. At all the separated groups we analyzed the relationship between phenophasis and meteorological variables. During the 18 years of observation , the early blooming cultivars started blooming on 10-21 April, those of intermediate bloom date started flowering bet ween 20 April and 3 May, whereas the late blooming group started on 2- 10 May. Among the meteorological variables of the former autumn and winter periods, the winter maxima were the most active factor influencing the start dates of bloom in the subsequent spring. For the research of fruit growing-weather relationships we used simple, well known statistical methods, correlation and regression analysis. We used the SPSS 1 1.0 software for the linear regression fitting and for calculation of dispersions as well. The 1ables made by Excel programme.
On the base of observations performed during a period of 20 years the blooming characters-of apple varieties and their progenies the following statements are actual.
In blooming dynamics there was no difference between paternal and maternal effects. In the assignment to blooming time groups, the paternal effect prevailed wher...eas in the tendency of flower initiation on long shoots maternal parent was more decisive. Varieties as 'Golden Delicious'. 'Jonathan', 'Red Delicious', 'Rome Beauty' and 'Staymared' and their respective, naturally raised mutants did not differ in blooming characters.
The possibility of predicting the relation to blooming time groups of early (July, August) ripening individuals is low, whereas late (September. October) ripening ones have a good chance to be medium late in blooming time.
The aim of this paper was to investigate the fl owering characteristic of apples and their relationship to meteorological parameters. The trees observed are grown at Újfehértó, Eastern Hungary in the plantation of an assortment (gene bank) with 586 apple varieties. Each of the varieties were observed as for their dates of subsequent phenopha...ses, the beginning of bloom, main bloom and the end of bloom over a period between 1984 and 2001 during this period the meteorological data-base keeps the following variables: daily means of temperature (°C), daily maximum temperature (°C), daily minimum temperature (°C), daily precipitation sums (mm), daily sums of sunny hours, daily means of the differences between the day-time and night-time temperatures (°C), average differences between temperatures of successive daily means (°C). Between the 90th and 147th day of the year over the 18 years of observation. The early blooming varieties start blooming at 10–21April. The varieties of intermediate bloom start at the interval 20 April to 3 May, whereas the late blooming group start at 2–10 May. Among the meteorological variables of the former autumnal and hibernal periods, the hibernal maxima were the most active factor infl uencing the start of bloom in the subsequent spring.
The program of the Research Institute of Cegléd, comprises the acclimation and selection of 7 Prunus-species and 39 cultivars grafted on Myrobalan C. 679 (P. cerasifera) seedling stocks. In addition two varieties have been investigated on three different rootstocks each: Myrobalan C. 174 (P. cerasifera),... Bitter almond C. 449 (P. arnygdalus var. amara) and Sweet almond C. 471 (P. amygdalus var. dulcis). Fruits of commercial quality are produced maroly on some cultivars of P. salicina-, P. italica- and P. cerasifera character. Authors explain the three possible causes of low yields experienced in non-European plums:
1/ unfavorable environmental conditions
2/ lack of irrigation and
3/ superficial information concerning the variety, rootstock and adequate traditions as well as growing practices.
A rather tight correlation has been stated between blooming dates and the main ripening period. However, the early blooming time alone cannot be considered as the cause of low productivity. The decay of plum trees is attributed to special ecological requirements and phytosanitary problems of the foreign plum cultivars. The analysis of regression revealed stochastic relations involving several other characters too, which facilitate the planning of cross-combinations in the breeding program.
In this study, the susceptibility of 7 commercially important sour cherry cultivars to Monilinia laxa was studied. Artificial inoculation was made with M. laxa isolates, which were isolated from different woody plants. Artificial inoculation was prepared in the laboratory and in the field. In laboratory, flowers of sour cherries while in the fi...eld, the two-year old twigs were inoculated in 2006 and 2007. According to results of stigmata inoculation, there were infection ability differences among the isolates originated from five different stone fruit host. Cultivars could be sorted into two susceptibility groups. In the field, twig inoculation in 2007 was made at blossom period and in 2007 at harvest. Seven sour cherry cultivars were inoculated with 8-day-old mycelial culture of M. laxa originated from sour cherry and almond. The agressivity and pathogenicity of the two isolates were measured by the degree of floem death: Results showed that year and phenological stage considerably influenced the degree of symptoms caused by the fungus. After artificial inoculation, tissue death progression was studied by fluorescent microscope. According to results, sour cherry cultivars were sorted into disease susceptibility groups. Susceptibility orders were identical to results on stigmata inoculation.
Sour cherry production in the world is increasing gradually. Profitable production, i.e. yield, depends largely on weather conditions. If Hungary wishes to keep up with the most successful countries, attention should be paid to the weather during the dormancy period, being definitely decisive from the points of view of quality as well as quanti...ty. In order to predict the expected risk factors, characterisation of the most important weather parameters is necessary. For that purpose, the database of the Institute of Research and Extension Service for Fruit Growing at Újfehértó Ltd. has been utilised. Records of weather conditions were collected throughout the period 1984-2005, i.e. daily minimum, maximum and mean temperatures (°C), and phenological diary of sour cherry varieties ’Újfehértói fürtös’, ’Kántorjánosi’ and ’Debreceni bôtermô’. For the future expectations study we have used the RegCM3.1 regional climate model with 10 km resolution. Data of 4 indicators have been traced: Average temperatures, Number of days without frost, Maximum length of periods without frost, Maximum length of frosty period. On the one hand, we surveyed the changes; on the other hand, estimates have been attempted for the future changes expected during the following decades.