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New sweet cherry cultivars in intensive plantings
Published March 15, 2011
13-16.

The study took place in the largest sweet cherry plantation in West Hungary. The purpose has been the identification of those varieties, which will be suitable for intense cultivation, early fruiting and excellent fruit quality, moreover, the selection of the optimal phytotechnical procedures. At the same time, scion-rootstock combinations have... been tested also from the point of view of growing intensity and fruiting in high-density plantation. The dense planting is induced to start fruiting early and yield regularly by special methods.Yielding was stimulated by maintaining the balance of vegetative-generative growth by binding the shoots, by summer pruning, by cuts on the trunk and root pruning. Best experiences have been found in yield and quality in the following varieties: Canada Giant, Carmen, Firm Red, Giant Red, Katalin, Kordia, Regina. Dense planting has been feasible also on vigorous rootstock, like P. mahaleb. Dwarfing rootstocks like P-HL-A, Gisela 6, accelerate the formation of flower buds and yielding earlier with fruits of adequate size. ‘Firm Red’ and ‘Giant Red’ excelled with their large fruit (>27 mm diameter) in all combinations, thus being promising under Hungarian conditions.

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Goals and results in improvement of biological background of medicinal plant production
Published June 6, 2001
20-27.

The choice of varieties among medicinal plant species is relatively small, compared to other horticultural crops. In Hungary, only poppy (Papaver somniferum) and mustard (Sinapis alba) have several cultivars. Recognising the problem, in the recent years breeding activity has been intensified all over the world, in spite of fin...ancial, technical and legal difficulties. The article reports on the results of breeding at the Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the Szent István University, 11 varieties of which has been officially registered till 2000. Main goals of genetic improvement are: increasing of the production capacity of utilised plant organs, enhancement of active material accumulation capacity, improvement of sensory quality and technological properties. The most often applied methods are selection, and recently, cross breeding, the results of which can be measured on new materials of caraway (Carum carvi), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Majorana hortensis), poppy (Papaver somniferum), etc. Efficacy of breeding work is established by additional, regular research on the genetics, physiology, floral and reproductive biology, chemosyndromes of medicinal plant species.

 

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Growth and yield of sweet cherry trees on different roostocks
Published September 13, 1999
98-101.

The first nine years' results of sweet cherry rootstock trial from Hungary are presented with the aim to select efficient rootstocks for the local ecological conditions. The trials were established in 1989 with 'Van' and 'Germersdorfi óriás' cultivars on the following rootstocks: mahaleb Sainte Lucie 64, Colt, MxM 14, MxM 97. All the trees we...re headed at 80 cm and trained to a modified Brunner-spindle system. Tree size and yield was measured every year, and the cumulative yield efficiency was calculated.

Based upon the results, mahaleb cherry SL 64 is a vigorous rootstock with good compatibility and productivity. In comparison to SL 64. the trunk cross-sectional area and canopy spread of the 'Van' trees decreased by 10-15% on rootstock Colt, while the trees of 'Germersdorfi orias' on Colt roostock grew even larger than on SL 64. Considerable 30-40 % reduction of tree size was achieved on trees grafted on M x M hybrids. Trees of `Germersdorfi óriás' showed a similar tendency without significant differences. The cumulative yield efficiency of `Van' trees after nine years was highest on rootstock MxM 14, followed by Sainte Lucie 64. Trees on Colt and MxM 97 rootstocks showed low productivity. `Germersdorfi óriás' produced the highest cumulative yield efficiency on SL 64, followed by MxM 14 and Colt and last MxM 97. Biennial bearing index of heavy cropping 'Van' trees was smaller than that of `Germersdorfi óriás'. The trees of 'Van' on MxM 97 showed higher biennial bearing index, while 'Germersdorfi orias' on different rootstocks showed similar tendency, but without significant differences.

MxM 14 and MxM 97 rootstocks reduced the crotch angle of the shoots on both sweet cherry varieties which is disadvantegous to spindle training. Slight suckering (1-3/year) of the rootstocks Colt, MxM 14 and MxM 97 were observed during the first few years.

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Effect of different cultivation methods on strawberry’s antioxidant value
Published December 4, 2018
7-10.

The small fruit and strawberry production is economically important in Serbian agriculture. The fresh fruit is sold in domestic markets, but the frozen and processed is mainly sold in foreign markets. The growers find themselves in an ever-expanding selection of the varieties, but besides the nursery and breeder’s descriptions of new cultivar...s, there are only few exact results for the biological and economical ability of the varieties, which makes easier to choose the proper cultivar. The performance of the varieties in modern strawberry production is worth to investigate by adaptive cultivation methods and production technique. In the case of new strawberry varieties we know neither their needs in production nor their real capability, so they have to be compared with an older, standard control variety (‘Clery’). The breeder’s manuals give only references for the needs of the production technique, of the variety, so it is necessary to have facts, which are based on objective testing results. In this work, a new variety (‘Joly’) is being compared with the control variety. Comparative study of individual varieties are required covering the antioxidant content of the fruits (FRAP) and variability of these amounts in different years of breeding as well as the production techniques under similar circumstances.

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Review of nutritional value and putative health-effects of quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) fruit
Published July 25, 2013
29-32.

Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) has been long regarded to be a health-promoting fruit. Although it is mainly consumed in processed form, its relatively heat-stable polyphenolics were confirmed to be responsible for most of the beneficial effects. This review aims to show basic nutritional information on quince fruit such as carbohydrate, fibre, ...pectin and mineral element contents. In addition, vitamin and polyphenolic contents and composition as well as the physiological effects of quince consumption were also surveyed. Information on presumable protective effects against several diseases including infl ammation, atopic dermatitis, ulcers and cancer is summarized. Potential antibacterial effects of quince polyphenolics were also considered. Polyphenolics are supposed to be responsible for the major part of benefi cial health-effects, and phenolic compounds predominantly accumulate in peel. There exists a considerable extent of genetic variation in phytochemical composition among cultivars, which might be exploited in designing future breeding programs for quince improvement and opening new ways for health-related uses.

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Effects of irregular cropping on nutrient uptake and status of apple trees
Published January 3, 2010
41-44.

Produce of harmonic nutrient balance and status of trees is basic task of growers for qualified fruit growing. The role of crop loaded is essential to grow the productivity of trees without nutrient disorder or other nutritional problems. To reduce the frequency of biennial bearing there are some ways (site and species selection, crop regulatio...n, irrigation, nutrition etc.) from them one is the best easy way the proper site and species oriented nutrition. Sometimes the responsible for irregular cropping is the insufficient fertilization. Observed irregular cropping at two apple cultivars (Malus domestica Borkh., cv. ‘Summerred’ and cv. ‘Mutsu’) in an integrated apple orchard at Hajdúnánás-Tedej, in 2007 resulted a chance to determine nutritional status of “bearing” and “non bearing” trees and investigate the effects of irregular cropping on nutrient uptake and possibilities of correction. Our results pointed out that irregularity is connection on nutrition status of trees. Irregular cropping results in insufficient nutrient uptake and disharmony of nutrients. For this reason, the establishment of nutrient status of “non bearing” trees is could permit a chance to correct and improve the nutrient supply of trees which help to breakdown the vicious circle of irregularity.

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High antioxidant - and anthocyanin contents of sour cherry cultivars may benefit the human health: international and Hungarian achievements on phytochemicals
Published June 20, 2006
45-47.

Evidence suggests that a diet with high fruit and vegetable consumption may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Recent research has proved that sour ch...erry (Prunus cerasus L.) is a valuable natural source of some bioactive compounds important in human health preservation. According to the published data, the most important biological effects of sour cherry are connected — directly or indirectly — to their endogenous antioxidant behaviour as well as to their specific pattern of anthocyanin components. In the present work, we measured the total antioxidant capacity of some Hungarian sour cherry varieties in combination with their anthocyanin-, and vitamin-C content. In 2003, twelve clones were selected and grafted from a local sour cherry population called "Bosnyák" sour cherry grown in small home gardens and farms of the village Csengod (Great-Plain Region, South Hungary). Other Hungarian sour cherry varieties, i.e. cv. Újfehértói fürtos, cv. Érdi bőterrnő, cv. Debreceni bőterrnő, cv. Csengődi and cv. Kántorjánosi served as a control.

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Floral biology of medicinal plants II. Lamiaceae species
Published June 6, 2000
137-140.

Several species in the Lamiaceae family are therapeutically significant medicinal plants. Such as sage (Salvia officinalis L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), peppermint (Moldier piperita L.). marjoram (Majomna hortensis Winch), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), Origanum spp., hyssop (H...yssopus officinalis L.), Lavandula spp., basil (Ocimum basalicum L.), lemon-balm (Melissa officinalis L.) are regularly produced in Hungary. Nevertheless, data on their floral biology are not satisfactory. This review intends to gather information on the characteristic constitution of flowers and inflorescences, blooming dynamics, pollination mechanism and crossability of some of the most significant medicinal and spice species

Flowers are mainly hermaphrodite, however, also monoeceous ones are turning up: pistillate flowers marjoram, tyme, oregano. In flowering of a plant individual, a basipetal blooming sequence is described. These species have a floral structure fully adapted to pollination by insects, and the majority of them is an excellent honey-plant (lavandel, hyssop, sage, etc.).

Flowers exhibit characteristic proterandry, therefore autogamy is considered to be almost impossible, and geintonogamy as well as xenogamy to be the most characteristic ways of fertilization. However, in several cases self-fertilization proved to be also successful. Crossability among cultivars or species is depending on the genotype combination and usually produces less seed than the above forms of fertilization.

 

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Scheduling of ornamental plant production
Published April 18, 2000
76-86.

The production of ornamental plants represents an important branch of our horticulture. The growing area is relatively small (round 2800 ha), the production value, however, a rather large. Notwithstanding, its financial balance is inactive because the demand surpasses the supply copiously.

The most popular plants are as follows: carnati...on, gerbera, rose, bulbous flowers, chrysanthemum, other cutflowers, cutgreens and Gypsophyla — their total production value makes up to Ft 8-9 billion. The area of ornamental nurseries — about 800-900 ha — is to be found mostly on the western part of our country.

Our accession to the EU will have undoubtedly an impact on our ornamental plant production. We must take into account, that in greenhouse production the specialization extends all over the world, field production over a limited region. Our chances will not deteriorate by joining the EU. The buyer — chiefly because of ecological purposes — will prefer the domestic product to the foreign one. By the way, our products will be competitive, as far as quality or price is concerned, with those of western Europe. Last but not least, we may hope a greater saleability of home-bred, special varieties and cultivars, the so-called "hungaricums", both in the domestic as well as export markets. It is anticipated that we will have a good turnover with potted ornamental plants and flower seedlings. Our nursery products will become marketable too.

To exploit the opportunity, of course, the necessary conditions are to be created. First of all, we need development in research, with special regard to breeding, at the same time in education, in extension service, in the training of experts, on a high level. Some tasks can be solved, no doubt by improvement of the organisation within the branch. At the same time the state subsidy is indispensable in order to promote both the technical and the research activities. State subsidy is also necessary to build up more advantageous conditions of sales like in some foreign countries (e.g. the Netherlands).

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Prediction infection risk on the basis of weather-related factors and Erwinia amylovora colonization in apple and pear flowers
Published May 10, 2004
39-54.

Current infection risk prediction models utilize environmental parameters and field records, but do not take into account the estimated inoculum potential within the orchard. The object of this study was to survey the accuracy of three simple prediction methods under Hungarian climatic conditions, which could easily be used by the farmers. We a...lso tested whether the accuracy of infection risk predictions can be improved by taking into consideration the incidence and/or rate of flower colonization by Erwinia amylovora.

After preliminary investigations in 1999-2001, data concerning the weather-related infection risk were recorded in 5 apple and 1 pear orchards in 2002, and in 12 apple and I pear orchards in 2003. The weather data were processed by the easy-to-use risk assessment models of the mean temperature prediction line (MTL), Smith's Cougarblight 98C and Billing's integrated system (BIS), and by the MaryblytTM 4.3 computer-assisted model for reference. The population size of E. amylovora in the flower samples was estimated within an order of magnitude by PCR.

For all years and orchards tested, Maryblyt indicated 35 days on which there was an acute infection risk. The same days were indicated by all 3 methods in 23 cases (66%), 8 days were indicated by 2 methods (23%) and 4 days were indicated by 1 method only. A similarly good correlation was found for prediction of the date of the first massive infection risk: in 2003, for instance, there was a perfectly consistent prediction by all 4 models in 9 of the 13 participating orchards. A coincidental forecast was provided by 3 of the 4 models in the other 4 orchards.

The results indicate that any of the risk assessment models could provide an increased accuracy of the actual infection risk prediction if combined with an estimation of the incidence of Erwinia amylovora colonization in the open flowers. We found no convincing differences in the size of the epiphytic population in flowers of cultivars possessing high or low susceptibility to Erwinia amylovora.

We conclude that the easy-to-use methods tested could be used by the fanners to recognize weather-related risks, especially when coupled with an estimation of the proportion of the pathogen-infested flowers. This local prediction would provide rapid information (faster than the regional forecast systems) specifically for a given orchard.

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Attempting Regeneration from Cultured Cotyledons and Plant Regeneration from Cotyledonary Nodes in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
Published May 24, 1999
57-60.

Dry seeds from two cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were germinated on sterile cotton and sterile deionized distilled water. Cotyledonary node tissue of seedlings were cultured on Murashige and Skoog(MS)-based media supplemented with different combination of N6-benzyl-aminopurine (BAP) and indole-3-acetic aci...d (IAA), and benzyladenine (BA) and a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The results revealed that the regeneration percent and the average number of buds and shoots per explant were influenced by the type of explants and exogeneously added hormones. Multiple shoot induction on dry bean cotyledonary node that contain 4-5 mm from cotyledons and hypocotyl on a medium containing full concentration of MS inorganic salts supplemented with 0.5mg/1 BA and 0.1mg/1 NAA was feasible and the method can be applied in transformation experiments.

 

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Relationship between several meteorological factors and phenological features of pear cultivars
Published July 2, 2016
67-73.

The aim of this paper was to investigate the fl owering characteristic of apples and their relationship to meteorological parameters. The trees observed are grown at Újfehértó, Eastern Hungary in the plantation of an assortment (gene bank) with 586 apple varieties. Each of the varieties were observed as for their dates of subsequent phenopha...ses, the beginning of bloom, main bloom and the end of bloom over a period between 1984 and 2001 during this period the meteorological data-base keeps the following variables: daily means of temperature (°C), daily maximum temperature (°C), daily minimum temperature (°C), daily precipitation sums (mm), daily sums of sunny hours, daily means of the differences between the day-time and night-time temperatures (°C), average differences between temperatures of successive daily means (°C). Between the 90th and 147th day of the year over the 18 years of observation. The early blooming varieties start blooming at 10–21April. The varieties of intermediate bloom start at the interval 20 April to 3 May, whereas the late blooming group start at 2–10 May. Among the meteorological variables of the former autumnal and hibernal periods, the hibernal maxima were the most active factor infl uencing the start of bloom in the subsequent spring.

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Agroclimatological properties of growing sites assigned to apple and pear production in Hungary
Published September 13, 1999
95-97.

Apple and pear growing sites in Hungary are classified into four regions according to the Hydro-thermic Coefficient: dry, moderately dry. moderately humid and humid. Most of the plantations of apple and pear are located in regions considered as moderately dry and moderately humid. Within that category, the two respective species have different ...preferences, i.e. the ecological features of Hungary give different opportunities for apple and pear growing. Apple is grown almost everywhere in the country, successfully. The selection of cultivar-regions is needed mainly for increasing competitiveness on the market. Main apple growing regions are listed in 3 large groups. For the definition of cultivar-regions, mainly the configurations of soil and precipitation, i.e. conditions of the soil and opportunities of gaining water were decisive. Market factors are also considered. The area assigned to pear is much less than that of apple, in Hungary. Some well known and popular varieties would require high air humidity which cannot be presented in most of Hungary. Therefore, the possibility to establish regions for pear varieties is restricted, we have to create a particular micro-environment. Two groups are potential. The first one comprises sites where the annual precipitation is 700 mm, at least. There, apple and pear production would compete each other. In more dry habitats (less than 700 mm annual precipitation), micro-environments should be found and only drought-resistant, mainly summer-ripe cultivars should be chosen with, preferably, low tendency of sclereid formation. In that case, neither irrigation could help to produce adequate quality in varieties sensitive to low air humidity.

 

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Apple powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera leucotricha: some aspects of biology
Published July 25, 2013
19-23.

Apple powdery mildew (Podoshphaera leucorticha) occurs wherever apples are grown. One of the most important fungal disease of apple which causing severe econimic loss on susceptible apple cultivars. Biology of the pathogen is widely investigated all over the world in the past 100 years. In this review, a summary from this enormous research is m...ade for biology of apple powdery mildew in the following aspects: geographical distribution, morphology, taxonomy of the causal agent, symptoms, host susceptibility, resistance durability and disease cycle.

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Effects of self and cross pollination on fruit set and fruit quality of sour cherry cultivars
Published January 3, 2010
31-36.

An experiment conducted using factorial based on randomized completely block design during 2005 and 2006. Flowers of Érdi bőtermő, Érdi jubileum and Cigány meggy before anthesis and in balloon stages were isolated with paper bags from guest pollens and pollinated in appropriate time. The averages of final fruit set showed the advantage of ...open pollination (14.6% fruit set) in compare with artificial self pollination (13.0% fruit set) and natural self pollination (4.4% fruit set). Siah mashhad sweet cherry cultivar with more than 70% overlap of flowering and 9.8% fruit set in 2005 and 17.9% in 2006 was the best among applied pollinisers for Érdi bôtermô sour cherry cultivar.Also, Siah mashhad sweet cherry with more than 50%overlap of flowering time and 25.8%fruit set was the best polliniser for Cigány megg. Among the pollinisers, Siah mashhad was the best for Érdi jubileum with more than 50% overlap and 15.22% fruit set. Meanwhile, pollens of Siah mashhad caused the increase of fruit size in Cigány meggy cultivar. phenomenon. Pollens of Siah mashhad caused reduction in total soluble solids of Érdi bôtermô fruits, however, it does not have any significant effect on the acid rate of fruits.

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Floral biology of medicinal plants I. Apiaceae species
Published June 6, 2000
133-136.

The Apiaceae family consists of several species which are well known for their therapeutical use and also as spice plants. Although fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), caraway (Carton carvi L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.), angelica ...>(Angelica archangelica L.) and lovage (Levisticum officinale Koch.) are also economically considerable cultures, data on their flowering biology are rather scarce. This review supports data on the characteristic constitution of flowers and inflorescences, flowering dynamics, pollination mechanism and crossability of some of the most significant medicinal and spice species.

The inflorescence is a compound umbel. Flowers are hermaphrodite, however also monoeceous, mainly male flowers are turning up too. In blooming of a plant individual, a strict sequence is observed. The main umbel is the first to bloom, followed by the different range umbels in order of their range. In their pollination, both wind and insects are considered to be active. For each species, proterandry is characteristic. Although autogamy is considered to be almost unpossible, and geintonogamy as well as xenogamy to be the most characteristic ways of fertilization, several cases of self-fertilization proved to be also successful. Crossability among cultivars or species is depending on the genotype combination and usually produces less seed set than the above forms of fertiliiation.

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Summer pruning of sweet cherry trees and an inquiry of winter frost damages
Published December 4, 2011
41-44.

One of the most demanded research projects is the intensification of fruit production. The use of dwarfing stocks is a moderate solution as their effect is scarcely satisfactory. Climatic conditions of Hungary are continental in Eastern Europe, where Atlantic and Mediterranean effects are interacting with the continentals in a kind of basin wit...h characters of its own. Capricious meteorological episodes are often disturbing the security of development and fruiting of trees:
• winter frosts are damaging the cambium and fruiting structures of trees
• late spring frosts destroy cambium and flowers
• early autumn frosts hurt the leaves
• excessive precipitation impairs the growing fruits
• drought periods during the summer caused water stress disturbing water husbandry.

Vigorous stocks still prevail in the practice, and they ought to withstand challenges of weather hazards. The strong vigour of plants delaysthe process of senescence and the tendency of getting bald, and regeneration of plants is a sign of vitality. In present research, the trees have been trained on vigorous Prunus mahaleb stocks. Summer pruning was one of the important tools of intensive growing techniques. They were compared with traditional techniques and with plastic foil protected trees observing the vegetative as well as generative growth of them.

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Development in intensive orchard systems of cherries in Hungary
Published September 19, 2007
76-86.

High density central leader systems, the so called "spindle trees" are spreading in intensive stone fruit orchards established for hand picking in Hungary. Results of Brunner (1972, 1990) and Zahn (1967, 1996) inspired the researchers to implement their theories into practice under our climate and special soil conditions. For ...sweet cherry it is essential to apply an orchard system appropriate for hand picking because of the European market requirements. In intensive sweet cherry orchards two new training and orchard systems are developed and adapted to environmental conditions in Hungary based on previous inventions. The first step of the development is represented by modified Brunner-spindle, which applies the delayed heading of the central leader and the sectorial-double-pruning system from Brunner (1972), resulting intensive orchard of 600-800 trees/ha density, planted on standard vigour rootstocks. Modified Brunner-spindle trees are developed with a central leader and wide-angled branches on it. Light bearing wood is positioned on the central leader and wide-angled branches. During training, shoots for branches are bent or a sectorial double pruning is used. The growth of central leader is reduced by delayed heading, and the strong upright shoots are pinched in summer. Based upon tree size spacing of 5 m between row and 2.5-3 m between trees is recommended, tree height is around 3.5-4 m. This training system is useful for hand-picking; 60-70% of the crop can be harvested from ground. Modified Brunner-spindle is suitable for either standard or moderate vigorous rootstocks. The cherry spindle is an intensive orchard planted with 1250-2300 trees per hectare and it is recommended for sweet and sour cherries on semi dwarf to vigorous rootstocks, depending on soil fertility and quality. Trees are 2.5-3.5 m high, 75-80% of the crop can be harvested from the ground. Permanent basal scaffolds are developed on the basis of the canopy to counteract the stronger terminal growth. The tree is headed only once, after planting, from the following year the central leader grows from the terminal bud. The central leader developed from the terminal bud results moderated growth in the upper parts of the tree head. The strong upright shoots that may develop below the terminal bud are pinched to 3-4 leaves in the summer or removed entirely. The weaker, almost horizontal shoots growing from the central leader form fruiting twigs in the following year if their terminal bud is not removed. Brunner's double pruning is used only once or twice on the permanent basal branches because of its good branching effect. Trials on various rootstocks are running to find optimum spacing and fruiting wood management. The training and pruning guidelines are discussed in the paper. The average crop of bearing years is around 20-30 t/ha depending on site and cultivars. This new system is spreading in Hungary, around 70 ha sweet and sour cherry orchards are trained according to our guidelines.

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A critical evaluation of methods used for S-genotyping: from trees to DNA level
Published April 19, 2006
19-29.

Fruit setting behaviour of fruit trees remains to be in the focus of plant breeders and growers. Realizing that most species (cherry, apple, pear etc.) are self-incompatible and certain cultivars are cross-incompatible, mutual fertility properties and their reliable determination are of great interest. This review gives a comprehensive descript...ion of all known S-genotyping procedures, i.e. the classical fruit set analysis after open field test crosses; pollen tube growth monitoring with fluorescent microscopy; stylar ribonuclease electrophoresis (using different types of isoelectric focusing and 2-dimension polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis); as well as the most recent polymerase chain reaction based DNA-level analyses and DNA sequencing. The review presented not only gives a compilation of the bases of the methods described but also provides a critical evaluation and a comparative characterization of their applicability.

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A review of the bee pollination research on temperate zone crop plants in the past decade: results and the need of further studies
Published August 14, 2002
7-23.

Intense research was made on the pollination of cultivated crop plants in the temperate zone region during the past decade. Some 400 publications appeared on the subject and some additional 150 papers on the effect of pesticides to the most important pollinating insects, the honeybee and the wild bees. Progress of knowledge is discussed in this... paper based on the most important publications. Most new results relate to field crops and deciduous fruit species and much less to field vegetables and small fruits. Great effort was taken to improve insect pollination of crops grown under cover. All these are connected to the utilization of the honeybee as a pollinating agent and much less to native or managed wild bees. However, a number of questions arose partly from the results of latest pollination research and partly from practical experiences in commercial plant production. These indicate several research tasks to understand and to solve the problems possibly in the near future. The questions concentrate on the effectiveness of bee visits in the pollination of individual crop plants and their different cultivars and on the reliable estimate of the overall amount of bees as well as on the control of bee density during the flowering periods of crops for optimal, controlled pollination in the changing environment of agricultural crop production.

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Self fertility of pear varieties conditioned by natural self pollination (autogamy)
Published February 23, 2000
110-113.

Authors studied the autofertility depending on natural self pollination (autogamy) in 59 pear cultivars during 4 seasons at three locations with different ecological conditions (Helvetia, Kecskemet-Kisfai, Keszthely). The aim of the experiments was to determine the autogamous tendencies of varieties hitherto unexplored in the Hungarien gene ban...k, or to check data found in the literature. A total of 42616 isolated pear flowers produced 1.2% fruits with at least one viable seed in each. The 59 varieties observed did not set fruit by autogamy on either of the three sites during the four years of the study. The triploid (3n=51) varieties were entirely self-sterile. According to the highest autogamous fruit set, during the experimental period, the varieties have been assigned to four groups: (1) Entirely auto-incompatible (0% fruit set), (2) auto-incompatible (0.1 to 0.9%), slightly self fertile (1.1 to 5%) and (4) self fertile (5.1 to 10%). According to the number of viable seeds per fruit resulting from autogamy, the varieties are assigned to three groups as (1) low seed content (less than 3 seeds per fruit), medium (3.1 to 5) and (3) high (more than 5 seeds). Thus, the assessment of the number of seeds per fruit resulting from autogamy is indispensable as a proof of the absence of parthenocarpy.

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The role of pruning in the intensification of plum production
Published June 20, 2006
83-86.

In an orchard planted in the spring of 1997, four kinds of spacing have been applied (4.0 m x 1.5 m, 4.0 m x 2.0 m, 5.0 m x 2.5 in and 6.0 m x 3.0 m). Four cultivars (‘Cacanska lepotica', Stanley' ‘Bluefre' and ‘President') grafted on Myrobalan rootstock were studied in the experiment aimed to explore the performance of plums under differ...ent spacing and training conditions.

It could be stated that the trees grown on vigorous rootstock are prone to be cultivated much more intensely (smaller tree size, higher tree density) by the consequent use of green pruning technique. The most favourable economic combination (yield and labour costs) was found to be: 4.0 in x 2.0 in and 5.0 x 2.5 in (800-1200 tree/hectare), whereas the most adapted was the cultivar: 'Stanley'.

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Flavonoids, chalcones and phenyl-propanoids in apple and pear flowers
Published May 10, 2004
35-38.

The presence of phloretin-glycosides in the hypanthium and pistil of apple and pear flowers can be verified. Thin layer chromatography is a reliable method for detecting phloretin, gained by acidic hydrolysis. The dominance of phloretin was equally characteristic for flowers in apple (`Sampion', 'Freedom') and pear (Tem-re Bosc', 'Co...nference') cultivars treated with various bioregulators (Biomit, Bion 50WG, Regalis), no significant difference could be found visually as compared to control samples. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid was detected in all apple and pear samples, rutin was present only in pear, and hyperoside was found only in a few apple samples.

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Evaluation of the growing and fruit bearing characteristics of the ‘Lapins’ sweet cherry cultivar grafted on rootstocks with different vigor
Published April 11, 2017
15-18.

Sweet cherry is currently considered as a fruit with high interests. The amount of the produced yield is well saleable in the world and also in Hungary year by year, moreover often there is a shortage with the high quality fruits. Researches with the sweet cherry production focus on the intensity growing all over the world, namely the realizati...on of producing with small trees ensuring high quality and quantity. In our examinations ’Lapins’ sweet cherry cultivar was evaluated grafted on rootstocks with different vigor (Gisela 5, Gisela 6, Colt) at the University of Debrecen, Pallag Experimental Station. According to our results trees grafted on Colt rootstock can be described with very low yields due to the excessive high vigor. Trees with Gisela 5 and Gisela 6 rootstocks showed excessive high productivity, as size of the fruits did not reach the required values.

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Susceptibility of European pear cultivars to Venturia pirina Aderh. infection at a variety collection in Hungary
Published July 2, 2016
41-47.

Field sensitivity of 271 European pear genotypes were evaluated in a large variety collection of pear in Hungary during a nine years survey. Substantial differences were detected in the rate of pear scab infection of leaves and fruits. Some 18 per cent of the inspected genotypes remained completely free of infection even in the years with weath...er favouring to the disease. On the other hand, 78 % of the inspected genotypes were infected in some or more extent. The rate of infection was generally higher on leaves than on fruits. 18.6 % of the genotypes inspected were tolerant to leaf infection and their majority (81.1 %) were tolerant to fruit infection. Some one fi fth of the genotypes (19.7 %) were highly susceptible to leaf infection but only minor rate of them (2.2 %) were highly susceptible to fruit infection. There were 44 genotypes that could be regarded as tolerant to pear scab leaf and fruit infection under fi eld conditions. Some of these genotypes may be suitable to commercial pear growing with highly reduced chemical control against pear but their yield capacity and fruit quality should be evaluated.

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