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  • Effect of hail protecting nets on the quality of apples

    Today, successful fruit growing depends largely on the security of production. Among the technological elements of a secure growing system, the use of hail protection nets serves special attention. Components of security are the regularity, conspicuous large yields with excellent quality, which determine the prices and profitability as well (Szabó et al., 2010). In the European Union, most of the apple growing countries produce higher yields by 10-20% than Hungary. The conditions of better yields are partly due to a more favourable ecological milieu, partly to more developed technologies and serious discipline of the operations. Our own competitiveness could be developed first of all in those moments. As a consequence of global climatic changes, excesses of weather, i.e. hail-storms became more frequent. Different methods of protection against hail are developed abroad but also in Hungary. The examination of effects of the hail protection nets compared with the check without nets has been the purpose of our experiments. The growing system was the intensive one with high planting densities. Fruits of the two subsequent years have been compared as grown with and without hail protective nets. It turned out that in one season when shoot growth was stimulated, the shadowing effect of the net increased in addition the growth and at the same time braked the differentiation of flower buds, which exerted negative effects on yield of the next year. Let alone this phenomenon, the quality of fruits was not influenced by the hail protection net.

  • The effect of day and night temperatures on apple skin colour formation

    The colour of fruits is considered to be an important quality indicator. Saleability greatly depends on how well covered the colour is of the specific type of fruits. It is a well-known phenomenon by growers that apples get nicer colours in one year while in other years the basically red and green colour cultivars can be differentiated only by morphological characteristic features. Cover colour is one of the phenometric variables and it is a well-known fact that significant differences can be experienced year by year. The experienced oscillation can be the cause of inappropriate water- and nutriment supply, however it can be the result of some kind of plant disease, extremely high or low temperature, setting rate above the average and outstanding fruit density. In the present examination it is postulated that the degree of cover colour is mostly influenced by day and night temperature. Therefore, our study aims to find out whether it is true or not. Cover colour belongs to those phenometric characteristic features, only the final value of which is taken into consideration; due to their nature of establishment or forming time it seems useless to follow closely the change in the time of vegetation. However, determining the start of colouring and knowing the dynamics of full colouring could carry very important information for growers. If it is possible to determine the curve describing the time change of colouring, we have a possibility to estimate it by means of enviroment variables. So it is also possible to model pigmentation in the future. Knowing this, colouring irrigation could be made more efficient in the future. For this, as a first step, it is inevitable to find out what the relationship is between the main meteorogical variables, namely day and night temperature and the difference between day and night temperature, and colour cover. In this study we summarize and show these interrelations.

  • Genetic engineering of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) for resistance to fungal diseases using g2ps1 gene from Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae)

    In the present study, g2ps1 gene from Gerbera hybrida coding for 2-pyrone synthase which contribute for fungal and insect resistance was used. The aim was to work out an efficient approach of genetic transformation for apple cvs. ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Royal Gala’ and ‘MM111’, ‘M26’ rootstocks for improving their fungal resistance using genetic engineering techniques. Adventitious shoot formation from leaf pieces of apples studied was achieved using middle leaf segments taken from the youngest leaves from in vitro-grown plants.
    Optimum conditions for ‚direct’ shoot organogenesis resulted in high regeneration efficiency of  0%, 95%, 92%, 94% in the studied apples respectively. Putative transgenic shoots could be obtained on MS media with B5 Vitamins, 5.0 mg l-1 BAP, or 2.0 mg l-1 TDZ with 0.2 mg l-1 NAA in the presence of the selection agent “PPT” at 3.0-5.0 mgl-1. Shoot multiplication of transgenic shoots was achieved on: MS + B5 vitamins + 1.0 mg l-1 BAP + 0.3 mg l-1 IBA, 0.2 mg l-1 GA3+1.0 g/l MES+ 30 g/l sucrose + 7.0 g/l Agar, with the selection agent PPT at 5.0 mg l-1 and were subcultured every 4 weeks in order to get sufficient material to confirm transformation of the putative shoots obtained. Six, seven, one and six transgenic clones of the apples studied respectively have been obtained and confirmed by selection on the media containing the selection agent “PPT” and by PCR analysis using the suitable primers in all clones obtained for the presence of the selection” bar gene (447 bp) and the gene-of- interest “g2PS1” (1244 bp), with transformation efficiency of 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.1% and 0.3% respectively. These transgenic clones were multiplied further in vitro in the presence of the selection agent ‘PPT’ and rooted in vitro. Rooted transgenic plantlets were successfully acclimatized and are being kept under-containment conditions according to the biosafety by-law in Syria to evaluate their performance for fungal resistance .

  • Economics of apple-storage I: Comparative time series analysis of apple producer prices in Germany and Hungary

    Based on standard econometric methods the article analyses the time series of fresh apple producer prices in domestic markets of Germany and Hungary. In Germany, as a consequence of high storage capacities the quantity offered in different parts of the season is relatively stable, that’s why only a rather limited price increasing can be detected. In Hungary, as a consequence of the limited storage capacity this fluctuation is much more important. The modern methods of time series analysis (ARIMA models, stepwise regression) can be efficiently applied for forecasting of price movements.

  • Pollen morphology of fruit species

    Size and surface morphology of pollen has been studied in 87 twit varieties of 10 fruit species during the period of 1990-1995. No preceding work of that type came to our knowledge, yet.

    The samples comprised a wide variety of cultivars included male sterile, self-incompatible, partially self-fertile stone fruits, diploid and hexaploid plums, diploid and triploid apples.

    The large number of species and varieties facilitated the comparison of items within and between the respective species.

    It was stated that the size, shape and surface morphology of pollen is genetically determined and those data, combined with other variety characters, are suitable for the classification and distinction of varieties.

    In assessment of pollen size and shape, their moisture content is crucial. The major diameter of the swollen pollen as well as the length and width of the dry grains are characteristic to species and/or to variety.

    The width and shape changes largely with moisture content. Large grains are proper to quince, apricot, peach and almond, medium sizes are found in apple, sweet cherry, sour cherry, European plum, whereas small size is typical to Japanese plums.

    The low number of varieties studied does not allow conclusions concerning differences within pears, quinces and almonds as species. In the rest of species, valid differences have been registered as between varieties.

    Within species, as apple and plum, the effect of ploidy (i.e. number of chromosomes) was expressed in the size of their pollen. In stone fruit species, the correlation between size. of anthers and size of pollen grains was positive.

    Genetic relations between the self-fertile sour cherry varieties of the Pándy type (Debreceni bőtermő, Kántorjánosi, Újfehértói fürtös) as well as the self-incompatible apricots of "giant" fruit size are supposed to be analysed by pollen studies but there did not turn out any decisive conclusion, yet. Other characters also should be considered.

    The assembly of pollen characters is decisive in the determination of the variety. The ratio of empty pollen grains, the grain size and the density as well as the size of the pits on the surface are best suited to distinguish pollen lots.


  • Branching features of apple cultivars in integrated and organic production technology

    In our study, vegetative characteristics of 39 apple cultivars were evaluated in environmentally friendly production systems. Numbers of the branches of the central leader in different high zones were shown. According to our results, number of the branches of the axis was probably larger in the integrated production system, compared to the organic one, which is related to the conditional status of the trees. Based on our experiences training and maintaining canopies in integrated system was easier, as relative more extensive canopies were needed in organic farming.

  • Inheritance of the characters related to flower formation, blooming and fertilisation in apple

    On the base of observations performed during a period of 20 years the blooming characters-of apple varieties and their progenies the following statements are actual.

    In blooming dynamics there was no difference between paternal and maternal effects. In the assignment to blooming time groups, the paternal effect prevailed whereas in the tendency of flower initiation on long shoots maternal parent was more decisive. Varieties as 'Golden Delicious'. 'Jonathan', 'Red Delicious', 'Rome Beauty' and 'Staymared' and their respective, naturally raised mutants did not differ in blooming characters.

    The possibility of predicting the relation to blooming time groups of early (July, August) ripening individuals is low, whereas late (September. October) ripening ones have a good chance to be medium late in blooming time.


  • Field trials with non-bactericide products to control fire blight in apple orchards

    Recently, novel strategies and chemical agents for prophylactic protection against the bacterial (Erwinia amylovora) disease fire blight are being sought. Resistance-inducing compounds, such as prohexadione-Ca represent promising alternatives. Prohexadione-Ca is the active ingredient of the bioregulator Regalis, currently being introduced in several European countries and overseas. Another product used in this study was Biomit Plussz, a leaf fertiliser providing harmonic supply of nutrient elements, the complete supply is assumed to improve the tolerance against diseases.

    Treatments' effects of both of these products were compared to the effectiveness of treatments with antibiotics repeated twice, three or four times a season.

    In the years of 2001 and 2002, the effectiveness of both Regalis and Biomit Plussz in reduction of incidence of shoot blight was similar, or proved to be superior to the check treatments consisting of repeated sprayings of antibiotics. Last year (2003) treatments of streptomycin resulted — although within the same magnitude — in a somewhat better control of shoot blight than sprayings with the other compounds.

    As regards severity of blossom blight, inconsistent results were recorded concerning both Regalis and Biomit Plussz.

    In general, prohexadione-Ca is less efficient for controlling flower infection by E. amylovora as compared to shoot infections, since successful prophylactic treatments are difficult to carry out early in the season. The highest effectiveness in fire blight management can, therefore, be achieved by using prohexadione-Ca (as preventive protection) in combination with streptomycin or other suitable antibiotics (as curative protection).

  • Single and dual effects of different cytokinins on shoot multiplication of different apple scions

    Shoot multiplication responses of three apple scions to different concentrations of BA and BAR as single source of cytokinins and in combination with two concentrations of KIN were studied. The effects of hormones depended on genotype, type and interactions of different cytokinins. Use of BAR significantly enhanced the shoot multiplication of cv. Jonagold (6.5 shoots per explant). The multiplication rate of cv. Jonagold could not be improved by using the combination of BAR and KIN. The best proliferation was achieved by 1.0 mg 1-1 BA combined with 1.0 mg 1-1 KIN of cv. Prima..(8.1) and of cv. Galaxy (10.4).The effect of 0.5 mg 1-1 BA along with 1.5 mg 1-1 KIN was similar on multiplication rate (10.9) of cv. Galaxy.

  • The effect of spring frosts on the nectar production and the bee visitation of fruit trees

    Fruit tree species suffered very strong spring frosts in 1997 in Hungary. This caused partial or total damages at buds and flowers depending on site and time of blooming. It was demonstrated at a number of experiments that frost and cold weather also strongly affected the nectar production of surviving flowers. No or very little amount of nectar was measured in flowers first of all of early blooming fruit tree species (apricot) but also of pear and apple in some places. In spite of this fact intensive honeybee visitation was detected in the flowers of fruit trees that suffered partial frost damage only at those sites where honeybee colonies were placed in or at the experimental plantations and the lack of sufficient amount of nectar did not affected bee behaviour seriously on fruit flowers. This means that bad nectar production failed to affect bee visitation of fruit trees definitely. The reason for this was the fact that not only fruit trees but another early bee plants (wild plants, too) suffered frost damage. Accordingly, in lack of forage bees intensively searched for food at blooming fruit trees with some living flowers. Consequently, there was an acceptable yield at those plantations where bud and flower damage was not complete. Accordingly, intensive bee visitation (that is moving additional bee colonies to overpopulate fruit orchards with honeybees) can be an effective tool to decrease or eliminate the detrimental effect of spring frost on the yield of fruit trees where bud or fruit damage is not too high.


  • Organic versus integrated apple growing: II. differences in fruit quality parameters

    The aim our study was to establish whether significant differences in nutrients uptake and quality of fruit exist
    between organic and integrated grown apples. The study was performed at the orchard Fruit Research Station, University of Debrecen, at Debrecen-Pallag during 2002–2004. Diameter (mm), weight (g), firmness (N/cm2), dry matter (%) and Vitamin C in fruit were determined. Diameter data showed that the size of apples strongly depended on cultivars and organic apples were larger than integrated ones. Moreover, the effect of year and species strongly affected the apple diameter, size and weight. Measured data of firmness were good agreement in data of diameter and weight. Larger fruits have lower values of firmness due to the structure of fruit flesh. Dry matter content of apples varied between 14.66 and 18.07 in integrated, and 12.87 and 17.29 in organic apples according to cultivars. Values were affected by years and cultivars. From results it was evident that the dry matter content of apples affected by production system. It was lower in organic samples than integrated ones.Vitamin C content of apples was stronger affected by species and years than production system.

  • Investment appraisal of a plantation establishment for intensive apple production

    For fruits, establishing intensive apple-orchards requires the highest amount of investment cost, while the returns depend on many factors. Based on farm and bibliography data we appraised an investment in a model in some variations that are the most used in practice (100% owner's capital and 55% owner's capital +45%o subsidies). The profitability of the investment has been analysed using the methods of NPV (Net Present Value) and DPP (Dynamic Payback Period). The essence of our analysis is a sensitivity analysis with the optimistic, pessimistic and realistic combinations of the yield and the market price. Plantation establishment financed by only own (corporate's) sources turns into profitable over 7-10 years in average and favourable cases, but the opposite is the case in unfavourable circumstances. By subsidy of 45% for investments, it is highly possible to return by the fifth or sixth year after the year of establishment, but it can return by the twelfth year even in unfavourable case.

  • Economic figures of apple production at national level of Hungary

    After the change of the political system the main looser was in Hungary the fruit-growing branch. The yields varied at high amplitudes, and the production increased slowly in spite of multiple planting activities. The European Union ranked fruit production “loosely” to the products, which allows the extension of its markets. Thus I decided to analyse the economic relations of the period between 2002 and 2008 in order to reveal the main effects of movements. The pictures are the resultants of a heterogeneous population, which cannot be influenced on the level of enterprises. But they are utilised for the recognition of challenges and trends on the level of branches of economy. The immediate costs increased the production monotonously, which cannot be compensated by a thrifty management of the general costs. Thus costs of production increased dramatically, whereas the marketing of products could not realise the values.

  • Effect of acidity on growth rate and stroma formation of Monilia fructigena and M. polystroma isolates

    The effect of acidity (pH) ranges on the mycelial growth and stroma formation of Monilia fructigena Pers: Fr. and of M. polystroma van Leeuwen was determined on agar plates and apple fruits. Four isolates of each of the brown rot fungi and two apple cultivars, `James Grieve' and 'Cox's Orange Pippin', were used for the study. For the agar plate study, a range of the initial pH was prepared from 2.5 to 6.5. The dishes were inoculated with a 4 mm plug of each isolate and incubated at 23 °C in darkness. The mycelial growth was measured after 1.5, 4, 7, 10 and 20 days of incubation. After a 30-day incubation, stroma formation was determined by image analysis and weighing of mature stroma. In the fruit experiment, both cultivars were inoculated with one isolate of M. fructigena and of M. polystroma. The pH changes were determined after 7, 14, 28 and 35 days of incubation in both healthy and inoculated fruits. The fastest mycelial growth was at pH 4.5 for M. polystroma and at pH 3.5 for M. fructigena. After a 30-day incubation, M. polystroma isolates produced twice or three times more stroma compared to M. fructigena isolates. For both brown rot fungi, the amount of mature stroma increased from pH 3.5 to 5.5, and then decreased at pH 6.5. Results of the.fruit experiment showed that healthy fruits were quite acidic (pH < 3.5), but pH rapidly increased in the inoculated fruits for both cultivars, reaching pH 4.6-5.4 depending on cultivar and fungus isolate. On both cultivars, the stroma developed at a significantly higher pH for M. polystroma than for M. fructigena. Biological and practical implications of the results are discussed.

  • Structural differences arise between fruit cuticles of two apple cultivars during long term cold storage

    Apple fruits are covered by hydrophobic cuticle that provides protection against desiccation, pathogens, excessive water absorption and radiation. The features of cuticle affect the quality and storability of the fruits. It was aimed to evaluate the correlation between peel ultrastructure and weight loss in fruits covered by waxy bloom (cv. Florina) and without bloom (cv. Red Rome van Well) during 4-month cold storage. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) was used for visualization of the fruit surface and fruit weight was also measured. Several studies have revealed that there may be correlation between the ultrastructure of cuticle and its water permeability. Our results confirmed this phenomenon in case of two cultivars. The weight loss per fruit surface area unit of ‘Florina’ was found significantly higher than that of ‘Red Rome van Well’. At the same time the cuticular surface of the fruits contained more micro-cracks in case of the former cultivar. These data confirmed the relationship between the density of cuticular micro-cracks and the water vapour permeability. We concluded that this feature is more significant than the amount of natural waxy bloom on fruit surface.

  • Relations of phenometrical indices of apple fruits with weather variation in the assortment of varieties of an apple gene bank

    The purpose of phenometry is to examine the measurable parameters of the plants in order to follow up the consequences of weather processes. We should fi nd the reasons, why the diameter of fruits grows larger in one season and smaller in the next. Variation may occur as a response to insuffi cient provision of water or nutrients, but also because of pathological effects and of extremely high or low temperatures, moreover, of extraordinary heavy fruit load. There are phenometrical characteristics, which consider the fi nal consequences (density of fl owers, fruits set, drop of fruits), whereas other parameters could be followed up (size, length and width of fruits) as the dynamic components of growth. The quantitative parameters of growth are functionally related to each other, where the weather conditions, soil humidity and nutrients are on the input side, thus it is possible to model the growth of fruits as a function of the environment. Initially, the relations between the main weather variables and the phenometrical data have to be cleared. In the present study, the interactions between the mentioned phenomena are presented and numerically defi ned.

  • Microclimatic studies on different aged apple plantations

    The purpose of measuring parallel canopy and out of canopy microclimates was to find out in what extent climatic parameters measured in different aged canopis differ from each other and from the values characteristic to out-of-canopi areas. The importance of phytoclimatic researches seems to lie in the fact that if the reactions of fruit trees towards meteorological elements are continuously followed, we have the possibility to provide growers with information. These pieces of information are like defining the optimum time of phitotechnical interventions (summer pruning, sorting sprouts, thinning fruits, etc.), the necessity of applying mulching, defining the method and time of irrigation and applying plant protection activities. By means of phytoclimatic researches, it is possible to react to unfavourable meteorological impacts within a certain extent. It is also possible to successfully reduce the risks of late spring and early autumn frost damage, as well as the risks, content and measure of experienced heat and water stress conditions by finding out about the physical characteristics of the canopis' internal area.

  • Effects of crop load on tree water use in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.)

    Sap flow rate measurements were carried out during two consecutive ('on' and 'off') years in an apple orchard cv. 'Florina' M.26 to analyse the effects of various crop load on tree water use. Sap flow rate was measured by thermal dissipation method in trunks of nine trees from June to the harvest. Crop load was between 0.2-9.0 fruits • cm -2 of trunk cross section area (equal to 0.5-35.0 fruits•m-2 of leaf area), trunk diameter varied between 4.7-8.7 cm.

    Total leaf area was estimated by leaf counting or using shoot girth and leaf area relationship. In both years, fruit growth rate was determined by measuring diameter of 280 marked fruits with 7 days frequency. Fruit volume calculated as a function of fruit diameter based on a previously determined relationship.

    Total leaf area of trees ranged from 4.4 to 19.5 m2 and it was closely related to trunk cross section area. At high crop load the fruit growth rate peaked in August with and the leaf area specific total fruit volume reached 61 m2 before the harvest.

    There was a linear relationship between total leaf area and daily water use, while the leaf area specific water use was influenced by crop load rate. The relationship was described by piecewise linear regression with the breakpoint at crop load rate of 12 fruits•m2 of leaf area. At low crop load the slope of the fitted regression line was less than at high crop load rate.

  • Effects of meteorological factors on fruit qualities of 'Fuji' apple in Korea

    'Fuji' apples from five different growing regions in Korea were analyzed for internal and external quality attributes which included fruit shape, color and sugar. Significant relationships were observed between final fruit color (a*) and air temperature in August. Red color was poorly developed where the average temperature in August was over 25 oC. The sugar composition was significantly different depending on region. The sucrose content decreased with increasing temperature above 16 oC during the harvest season. The fruit shape was not affected by agro-climatic conditions in this study.


  • Drought stress monitoring by laboratory and satellite spectral methods in an apple orchard

    An orchard can be examined on the basis of spectral data, using such methods with which the reflected radiation can be divided into a large number of (several hundreds) small spectral channel (some nm). Based on the spectral characteristics of the canopy, or the different index numbers calculated from hyperspectral data the water supply conditions of foliage can be well characterized. The research site is an intensive apple orchard, which located in Debrecen University, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Farm and Regional Research Institute at Pallag. During our experiments the evaluation of spectral, non-invasive measurement method are carried out for detecting stress symptoms caused by drought. Furthermore, MODIS NDVI time series data were analyzed for orchards situated in North-Eastern part of Hungary in drought effected and wet years in order to detect differences. Significant differences in NDVI values were detected after the end of June.

  • Comparison of apples from organic and integrated farming

    Prima’, ‘Gala’, ‘Remo’, ‘Topáz’, ‘Idared’, ‘Releika’, ‘Resi’, ‘Rubinola’, ‘Rajka’, ‘Rewena’ and ‘Florina’ apple cultivars, both from organic and integrated farming, from Pallag and Újfehértó, were compared. Average size, weight, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total polyphenols, free radical scavenging capacity expressed as Trolox equivalent (TEAC), copper and zinc were determined at harvest and after cool storage. Organic apples were more acidic, while integrated fruits had mostly higher copper and zinc content. Total polyphenols and TEAC values did not show a significant difference as a function of farming technology. A principal component analysis shows the separation of provenances as well as stored and fresh apples. Results are considered as preliminary.

  • Down-regulation of ethylene production in carnation (Dianthus Caryphyllus L.) by an apple derived ACC-cDNA

    Transgenic carnations were produced with an apple derived antisense ACC-synthase cDNA. Transgenic carnation regenerants were potted in glasshouse. All transformed plants showed normal growth and were true-to-type. Ethylene production — measured at full opening stage — lowered by 30-60 %, no plant with 100 % decrease was identified. The vase-life has been observed for 5 years. 38 % of the transformant carnations showed a higher a relative value in days by more than 2 days to 6 days. Twenty six plants were found exhibiting the most marked alterations in the tested trait. In these plants ethylene production decreased by 37-67 %, they have longer vase-life (by 4 days or more). Since the fragrance variety 'Bíbor' was the plant material for genetic modification of vase-life, this trait has been conserved after transformation in spite of the fact that the position of transgene integration cannot be directed.

  • Pomology of gene resources bearing resistance to Erwinia amylovora

    The ecological farming and an increasing demand for healthy fruits free from chemical residuals necessitated the reevaluation of the existing cultivars and breeding suitable cultivars for the new requirements. We have gathered the old genotypes known in the Carpathian Basin, and we have selected the most suitable ones according to fruit quality and resistance to diseases in the last fifteen years. The main aim was the selection of resistant genotypes against fire blight and powdery mildew as gene sources for our breeding program. On the other hand, we consider the best quality traditional cultivars as extensive landscape elements (wayside tree rows or extensive squash producing plantations).

    During the pathological evaluation 'Szemes alma', 'Pónyik', 'Sikulai', 'Tordai piros 'cavil' and 'Szabadkai szercsika' cultivars proved to be good resistance sources (due to their outstanding resistance to fire blight). The latter four cultivars are not susceptible even to fungal diseases, and their quality is also acceptable so those are commendable for ecological farming or for renewing the sparse orchards. According to fruit quality and low susceptibility to diseases 'Batul' and 'Vilmos renet' can also be offered for extensive organic production.

    We have made original or renewed pomological descriptions of the selected cultivars, and we also publish their characters according to the terms of UPOV TG/14/8 based on to our evaluations.

  • Effect of dry and wet years on primary inoculum source, incubation period and conidial production of Venturia inaequalis

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of epidemics caused by the selected model-pathogen, Venturia inaequalis in relation to weather elements, with special respect to the increasing or decreasing effects of the specific weather elements. First, those weather elements are discussed which have a role in the development of scab epidemics. Subsequently, by accepting the thesis that climate change includes also weather extremes, an extremely hot and dry year (2003) and a colder year of higher than average precipitation (2004) were chosen as models. The presented examples verified that the variability of weather elements had had an undoubtable effect on the development of epidemics. The variability of weather elements manifests in the unusual behaviour of the pathogen, resulting in no or extreme disease epidemics. The extremities are well demonstrated by the fact, that in a year of drought an efficient protection can be achieved by considerably less applications than average, while in the next rainy year, the susceptible cultivar cannot be protected effectively even with such a high number of applications as is usual under humid Western-European climate conditions. It can also be noted, that the pathogen has a very good adaptability under unfavourable weather conditions. Consequently, more efficient management strategies should be developed for protection against the effects of extremities. However, it should be emphasized that it is very difficult to adapt to the variability and extremities of weather in the practice, because no long-term, accurate and reliable information is available about the variability of these elements.

  • Disease warning models for brown rot fungi of fruit crops

    In this review, disease warning models for brown rot fungi, including Monilinia fructigena, M. laxa and M. fructicola, were summarized. Few studies have been made to relate epidemiology and disease warning in brown rot infection caused by M. fructicola and M. laxa in order to predict infections or develop decision support models for fungicide applications during the growing season. More recently a disease warning model and a decision support system were also performed for M. fructigena for organic apple orchards. This review gives an overview on some details of the above disease warning models and decision support system.