Rooting ability of in vitro apple shoots of 'Red Fuji' grown on proliferation media with different hormone content were tested at three IBA levels in root induction media. Rooting percentage could be slightly increased with an increase in IBA concentration in proliferation media. The highest IBA concentration (3.0 mg 1-1) in root ind...uction media showed strong inhibitory effect on rooting capacity of in vitro shoots. The highest rooting percentage (95%) could be achieved by shoots grown on proliferation media containing TOP or BA+KIN as cytokinins before rooting.
Rooting of in vitro 'Royal Gala' shoots was studied under different conditions of root induction and root elongation phase. The rooting capacity was affected by both rooting phases. Very high rooting percentage could be reached with both liquid and solid root induction media. Raising the temperature from 22 °C to 26 °C during root in...duction phase increased the rooting percentage. Presence of activated charcoal in root elongation media can affect the number of roots per rooted shoots and can increase the rooting percentage, the length of roots and the rate of survival depending also on other conditions during rooting. Presence of NAA in root elongation media reduced the number and the length of roots considerably. Favourable effect of activated charcoal on rooting was mainly due to adsorption of NAA.
Different aromatic cytokinins (BA, BAR, TOP and KIN) were tested alone or in combination for the shoot proliferation response of ‘Húsvéti rozmaring' apple scion. The best multiplication rate was achieved by dual cytokinin application (1 mg 1-1 BA + 1.5 mg 1-1 KIN). The rooting capacity was aff...ected considerably by the position of shoots: transfer of the three-week-old shoots to the same or other proliferation medium in vertical position inhibited the following rooting totally. Post-effects of different cytokinins (BA and TOP) on subsequent rooting could be detected: BA increased the number of roots markedly, while TOP resulted in significantly longer roots.
Shoot multiplication responses of three apple scions to different concentrations of BA and BAR as single source of cytokinins and in combination with two concentrations of KIN were studied. The effects of hormones depended on genotype, type and interactions of different cytokinins. Use of BAR significantly enhanced the shoot multiplication of c...v. Jonagold (6.5 shoots per explant). The multiplication rate of cv. Jonagold could not be improved by using the combination of BAR and KIN. The best proliferation was achieved by 1.0 mg 1-1 BA combined with 1.0 mg 1-1 KIN of cv. Prima..(8.1) and of cv. Galaxy (10.4).The effect of 0.5 mg 1-1 BA along with 1.5 mg 1-1 KIN was similar on multiplication rate (10.9) of cv. Galaxy.
In organic farming systems the focus is on prevention with regards to plant protection. To follow the rules of Good Agricultural Practice one is able to avoid serious yield losses; if it is not possible the use of allowed materials are permitted. Organic farmers have less material to protect their plants so it is necessary to find effective pot...ential materials. Bacterial and fungal diseases of tomato and pepper can cause serious losses in yield. Different materials were tested against some plant pathogen bacterial (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and fungal (Phytoptora infestans, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotium) strains in order to find potential materials in the field of organic seed treatment. In vitro trials have shown that vinegar, cider vinegar, red wine vinegar, white wine vinegar, cinnamon and thyme oil have inhibiting effect against the causative agent of bacteria and fungi. Germination test has shown that examined vinegar types do not decrease germination ability if the concentration is low, but in higher (more than 5%) concentration it ruins the germination ability. Even in 0,5% concentration of red — and white vine vinegar have good effect on germination capacity.
The model of a pollen mixing device was tested in sunflower culture in order to detect the effectiveness in helping the out-going honey bees to carry more and different varieties of pollen grains on the body and body hairs. This model is build from line hairs of brushes facing each other that can keep and release pollen grains. The brushes are ...functioning as pollen receiver-transmitter units. The effectiveness was tested by examining the number and the species of the pollen grains adhered to the bees passing through the entrance. The amount of pollen and the number of pollen species on the hive with the device was significantly higher than on the control hive.
The data were analysed by variance analysis and significant differences were found according to the number and species of pollen grains between the incoming and outgoing bees.
In ecological farming systems farmers can't use chemicals against pests. In ecological plant protection the aim is to prevent diseases; if it is not possible the use of allowed materials are permitted. Until now there haven't been enough effective and environmental friendly materials for seed treatment in organic farming. Seed borne diseases of... tomato and pepper can cause serious losses in yield, so finding appropriate inhibitors has a great importance. Different materials were tested against these bacterial strains for seed treatment in this study. In vitro trials have shown that vinegar, cider vinegar, red wine vinegar and white wine vinegar have inhibiting effect against the causative agent of bacterial canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis), bacterial speck (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato) of tomato. These materials also have inhibiting impact on the causative agent of bacterial spot of pepper (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria). Seed treatment with (natural alkaline material) sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) had no effect on the examined bacterial strains. Among examined essential oils cinnamon oil seemed to be the most effective, but all oils decreased the germination ability. Thyme and savory teas were effective against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Other examined materials had insufficient bactericide impact (sucrose, NaCI, ethanol, valerian extract, peppermint tea). The germination test has shown that examined vinegar types don't decrease germination ability.
Differences in the attractiveness of pollen according to plant families and species for the honeybees had been examined by researchers, but pollen samples of cultivars were not tested yet. This examination attempts to evalu2te the differences in attractiveness of pollen of some cultivated and ornamental apples to honeybees. We applied biotest w...ith equal amounts of hand collected pollen samples and by a nucleus of bees with brood. The evaluation was based on the number of visitation by foraging honeybees on the samples during the time of the experiment which was determined. Pollenkitt samples were also tested in a separate experiment.
The data were analysed by variance analysis and significant differences were found according to the number of bee visitation in the attractiveness of the pollen and pollenkitt samples of apple cultivars.
The visualisation of pollenkitt was done by light microscope and SEM.
Rooting responses of rootstocks cvs. JTE-F1, M. 26 and MM. 106 were studied to different concentration of IBA in root induction media and to presence of activated charcoal in root elongation media. High rooting rate (>90%) could be achieved in cvs. JTE-H and M. 26, while cv. MM. 106 showed weak rooting ability at each IBA level tested. Incre...asing IBA content depressed the rooting only in cv. M. 26. Presence of activated charcoal decreased considerable the rooting rate in cv. M. 26 and decreased the number of roots in cvs. JTE-H and M. 26. These cultivars developed longer roots on media containing activated charcoal, while cv. MM. 106 did not showed any reaction for it.
Shoot multiplication responses of rootstocks cvs. M.26, MM.106 and JTE-H to different concentration of BA, BAR and IBA in eight various combinations were tested on MS-medium. The effect of hormones depended on genotype, type of cytokinin and interaction of cytokinin and auxin. Shoot multiplication was significantly enhanced with the use of BAR ...as cytokinin. High multiplication rate could be achieved in cvs. M.26, MM.106 and JTE-H: 7.7, 6.9 and 9.9 shoots per explant, respectively.