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  • Modelling and comparing two canopy shapes using FEM

    Central leader and Vase form canopy models were built using FEM. Their main characteristics were chosen to be the same. The models were virtually exposed to the effect of steady-state horizontal forced vibration in the frequency range of 0-20 Hz. Acceleration-frequency curves were calculated and drawn to find the best frequency values for the effective detachment and also to see the acceleration differences in the limbs. For the same purpose the direction of shaking was also changed. It was found that for the Central leader canopy shape multidirectional shaking would bring uniform detachment while for the Vase form trees also the unidirectional shakers were appropriate. The acceleration achieved for the Vase form models were much higher than for the Central leader type. The acceleration-frequency curve of the shaker unit can be used to find the best frequency for shaking.

  • A review of the bee pollination research on temperate zone crop plants in the past decade: results and the need of further studies

    Intense research was made on the pollination of cultivated crop plants in the temperate zone region during the past decade. Some 400 publications appeared on the subject and some additional 150 papers on the effect of pesticides to the most important pollinating insects, the honeybee and the wild bees. Progress of knowledge is discussed in this paper based on the most important publications. Most new results relate to field crops and deciduous fruit species and much less to field vegetables and small fruits. Great effort was taken to improve insect pollination of crops grown under cover. All these are connected to the utilization of the honeybee as a pollinating agent and much less to native or managed wild bees. However, a number of questions arose partly from the results of latest pollination research and partly from practical experiences in commercial plant production. These indicate several research tasks to understand and to solve the problems possibly in the near future. The questions concentrate on the effectiveness of bee visits in the pollination of individual crop plants and their different cultivars and on the reliable estimate of the overall amount of bees as well as on the control of bee density during the flowering periods of crops for optimal, controlled pollination in the changing environment of agricultural crop production.

  • Detection and identification of phytoplasmas in peach based on woody indexing and molecular methods

    Symptoms resembling phytoplasma disease have been observed on peach trees in a seed-source plantation of stone fruits in south Hungary quite recently. In this publication we report on the results of woody indexing of symptomatic peach trees on GF 305 indicator in the field and under greenhouse conditions as well as on molecular studies. Phytoplasma infection detected on GF 305 indicators in greenhouse and field indexing was confirmed by PCR. Nested PCR was conducted using universal primer pairs followed by group and subgroup specific primers for the second amplification. RFLP analysis of nested PCR products was performed using Rsal restriction enzyme. Based on the results of molecular studies it can be concluded that phytoplasmas, belonging to the European stone fruit yellows subgroup (16SrX-B) were identified in peach trees. Further studies on symptomatic peach trees originating from different parts of Hungary are in progress.

  • Some flower characters, variety features and environmental effects affecting bee pollination of pear (Pyrus communis L.): a review of the results of latest research

    Intensive research has been implemented on different aspects of the bee pollination of pear in Hungary in the past decade, extending to the following topics: the effect of the opening sequence of the flowers within the inflorescence of pear cultivars on the effectiveness of bee pollination; the nectar production of flowers of pear cultivars; intensity of honeybee visitation and their foraging behaviour at the flowers of pear cultivars; flower constancy of honeybees to pear plantations; competition by weeds in bloom for bee pollination in flowering pear orchards; and some aspects to the bee pollination strategies of pear plantations (the effect of the limitation of bee pollination period on the set and the yield, possible compensation of frost damage of flowers by bee pollination in pear orchards, the optimal size of single cultivar block in pear plantations). The results of these studies are reviewed in this paper and some important aspects that need further studies are outlined.


  • Vegetative Indicators of sour cherry cultivars and resistant clons

    Sour cherry is a hungaricum. Hungary has several excellent and self fertile sour cherry cultivars. Hungarian sour cherries have a name for fruit quality and they are suitable for fresh consumption. Today breeding is focused not only on fruit quality, but also on disease resistance. The new, investigated cultivars have these characteristics too. But growth characteristics are also very important because they contribute to successful production. The vegetative and generative properties of the cultivars are different. If a cultivar is very productive, the ignorance of cultivar-specific pruning may result in the decrease in tree condition and fruit quality. The properties of producing fruiting wood greatly determine the renewal capabilities of cultivars. Knowing these properties is essential in case of sour cherries, the fruit species that requires a lot of sunlight and tends to produce bare wood. The research of candidate cultivars until now focused on fruit quality. Our aim was to investigate the vegetative characteristics of the resistant ‘bosnyák’ cultivar group in detail, defining the growth characteristics of these cultivars.

  • Irrigation Requirements for Grape Crop under Climate Changes Conditions in Egypt

    The present work is mainly directed to discuss sensitivity of climate changes upon the irrigation demand for grape crop in Egypt. The Penman Monteith equation was used to calculate reference Evapotranspiration (ETo) under current and future climate for the two locations (El Menya and El Beheira). The historical climate data for ten years from (2000 – 2010) was used as current climate to calculate irrigation requirement for grape crop under Egyptian conditions. Two climate changes scenarios have been applied as changes in temperature. The first scenario supposed that increasing in temperature of 1.5°C would happen, and the second scenario supposed that increasing of 3.5°C would happen to calculate reference Evapotranspiration and irrigation requirement for future climate. The results showed that the evapotranspiration and irrigation requirement for grape crop at El Menya location higher than El Beheira location. Irrigation demand for grape plant under two climate changes scenario will increase in El Menya and El Beheira locations. El Menya location will take the highest irrigation demand under climate changes. Therefore, possible adaptation countermeasures should be developed to mitigate the negative effects of climate changes for the sustainable development of agro-ecosystems in Egypt.

  • Challenges of the vegetable and fruit market

    The situation of the horticulture sectors have been in the limelight of the professional and economic decision makers all over Europe. This article analyses the situation of the sector from economic point of view and reveals the main reasons of its low income and high risk. It concludes that one of the biggest problems is the trading uncertainty in the vegetable and fruit sector that is caused by the asymmetric market structure of the post-regime era. Since sizes of vegetable and fruit plantations do not allow producers to supply individually the extremely concentrated food retail trade or the processing trade they must find alternative ways for trading their products. The study introduces two alternative solutions. One alternative is foundation of modern multi-level producer co-operatives with the help of EU subsidies. Secondary and tertiary co-operatives may achieve better market position and lower trading price risk with managing production, professional marketing, and improving the information flow. The other alternative is searching for new trading channels such as local provision, restructuring of local markets, and direct trade (home delivery and pick-it-yourself programmes). The shorter producer-consumer distance means better quality at lower price for customers and income in the case of smaller amount of products for producers. It is concluded that both solutions together or separately may help individual producers in their trading problems. However, whichever way they choose, producers must co-operate.

  • Experiments on the Resistance or Pepper Cultivars to Macrophomina phaseolina

    The ashy stern blight of pepper (Capsicum annuum) is often caused by Macrophomina phaseolina. Serious wilt disease occurred between 1994 and 1996 of pepper plants in Hungary. In 1996-98 screening experiments were made on many pepper cultivars. Culture (Knopp) solution experiments, pot experiments, greenhouse and field trials were carried out. We determined the incidence of disease by visual examinations, testing on PDA culture, and light microscope. There were significant differences in susceptibility of cultivars and breeding materials.


  • Comparative analysis of the production risk of major fruit species

    Hungary possesses excellent agri-ecological potentials even in an international comparison. Despite their decreasing economic weight, agriculture and food production are of great significance, since the supply of the population with high quality and inexpensive food is a fundamental social demand and one of the essentials of the quality of life. The development of vegetable and food production is of great importance both from the aspect of healthy nutrition and comparative advantages (cheap workforce, professional expertise, traditions of production, climate favourable for quality). Within the Hungarian fruit production apple and sour cherry are essential branches in virtue of their significance. It is widely known, that – though to a different extent in the case of certain fruit varieties – satisfaction of the need for appropriate habitat is one of the important conditions of a decent quality and secure production. In my research, I analyse the territorial distribution, production standard and production risk of the Hungarian apple and sour cherry branches. I did not have the opportunity – because of the imperfections of the database – to compare long time series, therefore I examine the random effects affecting production by using the data of 3 years (they have the same content). I ranked and assessed each habitat and the production risks of certain fruit species compared to each other on the basis of indexes of relative deviation.

  • Relationship between flowering, fruit setting and environmental factors on consecutive clusters in greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L) Karsten)

    The main season of greenhouse tomato begins late winter or early spring in the northern Temperate Zone. During this period decisive environmental factors affect flowering and fruit setting.

    In the present experiments, progress and dynamics of greenhouse tomato flowering and fruit set were examined in 1999 and 2001 spring. The beginning and the end of flowering and fruit set, the number of flowers and fruits set in each cluster were recorded. Flowering and fruit set characteristics were analysed with respect to the accumulated PAR and temperature were calculated for each cluster. One flower required 31.3 mol M-2 of accumulated PAR and 38 °C of sum temperature as an average for anthesis. One fruit required 27.9 mol m-2 of accumulated PAR and 33.3 °C of sum temperature as an average for fruit setting.

  • Investigation on the transmission of some Tobamoviruses by pollen and seed in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Five pepper cultivars were mechanically inoculated with isolates of three Tobamovirus species, viz. the "Gelb" strain of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-G), the XM-isolate of dulcamara yellow fleck virus (DYFV-XM) and the Nov/H isolate of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMV-Nov/H), respectively. Symptoms caused by the viruses were characterised. The viruses were sucessfully re-isolated from different organs (roots, leaves, fruit parts) of susceptible peppers to test plants. It was estabilished, that the pollen of diseased peppers carried infective virions at least on their surface. Washes of seeds were highly infective, but no infectivity was found after treatment of the seeds with 2% NaOH or 10% Na3PO4. No infectivity of inocula prepared from seed-coats of alkaline treated seeds was established. Infection of young seedlings grown from untreated seeds was demonstrated, while the seedlings came from alkaline treated seeds remained free of infective virus. The possible role of pollen and seed in the epidemiology of Tobamoviruses pathogenic to pepper as well as the importance of seed treatment is discussed.

  • The effect of spring frosts on the nectar production and the bee visitation of fruit trees

    Fruit tree species suffered very strong spring frosts in 1997 in Hungary. This caused partial or total damages at buds and flowers depending on site and time of blooming. It was demonstrated at a number of experiments that frost and cold weather also strongly affected the nectar production of surviving flowers. No or very little amount of nectar was measured in flowers first of all of early blooming fruit tree species (apricot) but also of pear and apple in some places. In spite of this fact intensive honeybee visitation was detected in the flowers of fruit trees that suffered partial frost damage only at those sites where honeybee colonies were placed in or at the experimental plantations and the lack of sufficient amount of nectar did not affected bee behaviour seriously on fruit flowers. This means that bad nectar production failed to affect bee visitation of fruit trees definitely. The reason for this was the fact that not only fruit trees but another early bee plants (wild plants, too) suffered frost damage. Accordingly, in lack of forage bees intensively searched for food at blooming fruit trees with some living flowers. Consequently, there was an acceptable yield at those plantations where bud and flower damage was not complete. Accordingly, intensive bee visitation (that is moving additional bee colonies to overpopulate fruit orchards with honeybees) can be an effective tool to decrease or eliminate the detrimental effect of spring frost on the yield of fruit trees where bud or fruit damage is not too high.


  • Preliminary results of renewal pruning an 18 years old sour cherry trees

    Sour cherry is a light demanding fruit species. As most of the crop is developing from buds on one year old shoots and 2-yearold wood, the formation of bare wood can be seen apparently in a badly maintained canopy. The formation of „whip shoots” indicates the degree of bare wood. Unfortunately in many gardens and commercial orchards sour cherry trees resemble willow trees. Owners often decide to grub old orchards, although the useful cropping lifespan of the trees planted in a correct spacing can be 20-30 years on a move vigorous rootstock. Therefore renewal pruning can contribute to the full renewal of the orchard, but the length of its effect is depending on the growth characteristics and renewal capabilities of the cultivar. The growth characteristics of the cultivars are different. The regeneration capabilities of different aged wood are also different. These differences emphasize the need for cultivar specifi c pruning. Knowing the reactions to renewal pruning, we can ensure regular high crops with excellent quality by applying cultivar specifi c rotation pruning.

  • Organoleptic evaluation of pear varieties grown at different sites

    It was stated as a summary that a system of testing pear varieties on scale of 100 degrees, weighing 11 properties, gives a comprehensive information on qualities of pear varieties. The points of the form to be filled out, distinguishes the appreciation of accessory flavours and tastes from the main properties. Under the title of taste, sweet and acid taste are evaluated separately. The presently used system is a step forward as the composed characters do not influence the judgement of each other. In the representation of results, the 100 degree system was more efficacious than the usual 5-point system because there was no need of using fractions, and the graphic profile is more expressive, so the commodity is better visualised. The assembly of the jury was divided into two groups as below and above 35 year old persons. The two groups judged differently the acidity, sweetness and the thickness of the fruit peel. It was suggested that the choice of the produce should consider the differences in taste and give up the idea of being equally favourable for both groups. The samples of different growing sites revealed that the best quality is produced at Nagykanizsa, and this capacity would be able to supply the market also in the large super-markets and chain of department stores in Hungary.

  • Apple powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera leucotricha: some important features of biology and epidemiology

    In this review, some important features of biology and epidemiology are summarised for apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha). In the first part of the review, the geographical distribution or the pathogen are discussed, then the morphology and taxonomy of the causal organism are described. Disease symptoms or apple powdery mildew are also shown and then host susceptibility/resistance is discussed in relation to durability of resistance. In the second part of this review, the general disease cycle of powdery mildew on apple are demonstrated and some basic features of powdery mildew epidemiology (such response of the pathogen to temperature, relative humidity, and rain as well as spore production, spore dispersal, diurnal patterns and temporal dynamics of the pathogen/disease) are also given on apple host.

  • The impact of irrigation on the yield and tuber fraction distribution of potato cultivars

    Potato is one of the most important plants in human nutrition, it is grown in about 140 countries. As a food, it can be prepared in many ways, it is easily digestable with proteins of high biological value, favourable dietetical-physiological characteristics, high starch content and good taste. An increase in its consumption would be favourable from the dietetical point of view. In Hungary, the growing area of potato has decreased considerably for the last decades and we are lagging behind the Western-European countries regarding yield. The experiments were carried out at the Experimental Site of the University of Debrecen at Látókép between 2002 and 2004. In the large-plot experiment, the yields and the distribution of the tuber fractions were studied for 9 medium early cultivars. The experiment was set up on 50 m2 plots on calcareous chernozem soil. Among the studied cultivars, 3 were of Dutch (Desiree, Kondor, Kuroda) and 6 were of Hungarian breeding ('Góliát', 'Hópehely', 'Kankan', 'Lilla', 'Százszorszép', and 'White Lady'). The experiment was set up in 4 repetitions in a randomized design, two of the repetitions were irrigated while two were non-irrigated.

  • Effects of weather characteristics on blooming dates in an apple gene bank plantation between 1984 and 2001

    The aims of this paper was to investigate the flowering characteristic of apples and their relationship to meteorological parameters. The trees observed are grown at Ujfehert6, Eastern Hungary in the plantation of an assortment (gene bank) with 586 apple varieties. Each of the varieties were observed as for their dates of subsequent phenophases, the beginning of bloom, main bloom and the end of bloom over a period between 1984 and 2001. During this period the meteorological data-base keeps the following variables: daily means of temperature (°C), daily maximum temperature (°C), daily minimum temperature (°C), daily precipitation sums (mm), daily sums of sunny hours, daily means of the differences between the day-time and night-time temperatures (°C), average differences between temperatures of successive daily means (°C). Between the 90th and 147th day of the year over the 18 years of observation. The early blooming varieties start blooming at 10-21 April. The varieties of intermediate bloom start at the interval 20 April to 3 May, whereas the late blooming group start at 2-10 May. Among the meteorological variables of the former autumnal and hibernal periods, the hibernal maxima were the most active factor influencing the start of bloom in the subsequent spring.

  • The effect of nitrogen supply on specific yield and fruit quality of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of nitrogen supply on yield and fruit quality of apple cultivars and to explore the relationships between canopy density and the different fruit quality parameters.

    The experiments were carried out at Kálmánháza, in Eastern Hungary in a private orchard in 2003-2004. The response of four apple cultivars ('Elstar', 'Gala Prince', 'Granny Smith', 'Idared') to different nitrogen dosages was studied. The assessed and calculated indices were: yield, fruit diameter, fruit height, shape index, fruit mass, firmness, dry matter content and colouration. The results indicated that nitrogen fertilization has a significant effect on the yield and fruit quality of apple cultivars. The calculated specific yield values were reduced by the application of nitrogen via the increase in the volume of the canopy. An opposit trend was observed for fruit diameter, fruit height and fruit weight, which increased with increasing nitrogen supply. The reduced shape index caused flattening of fruits.

    However, the improvement of fruit quality via increasing nitrogen dosage is only virtual, since these dosages increase the fruit size, but firmness, dry matter content and colouration are diminished, which decreases the value of the fruits on the market.

    The authors also studied the relationships between canopy density responsible for assimilation and light supply of the fruits and the different fruit quality parameters. The closest linear inversely proportional relationship was found in the case of colouration. There was a negative linear relationship between canopy density and firmness or dry matter content. The relationship between canopy density and fruit mass could be described by a quadratic polinomial function.

  • Economics of sea buckthorn production and processing in Hungary

    This study focuses on the business management-related advantages and disadvantages of sea buckthorn production and processing based on economic analyses. It is the main objective of the authors to identify the expected economic findings in a high standard plantation with different average yields. A deterministic model calculation was performed on the basis of technological processes, using the primary data collected from enterprises dealing with sea buckthorn production. The calculation is based on the assumption of a 10 hectare plantation with intensive production technology (high soil quality (golden crown value: 32 GC per ha), irrigation, high plant density per hectare). The cost and income relations and the long-term return of the plantation were examined in the case of different average yields (12 t ha-1, 18 t ha-1 and 24 t ha-1). Under the economic circumstances of 2016, the planting cost of an intensive plantation is around 4-4.1 million HUF ha-1. In the years following the fruit-bearing stage, direct production costs are between 2.5-3.9 million HUF ha-1, depending on the given average yield. On the contrary, 5.6-11.1 million HUF ha-1 revenue can be reached based on the current market prices, resulting in a gross margin of 3.1-7.1 million HUF ha-1. Under the modelled circumstances, return is realised on the plantation’s costs in 6-8 years. The net present value (NPVr=3.24%) calculated for the 15-year-long life cycle of the 10-hectare plantation is between 151-466 million HUF, while the internal rate of return (IRR) is between 23-45%. From the business management aspect, the advantage of sea buckthorn production is that it provides better income and return at a planting cost which is similar to that of other small fruits and berries. At the same time, the disadvantage of sea buckthorn production is the fact that yields are harvested every two years due to the technological characteristics of harvesting. The negative impact of this bi-yearly yield on liquidity can be eliminated with the so-called delayed planting.

  • Evaluation of morphological parameters and bioactive compounds in different varieties of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. esculenta GURKE var. rubra L.)

    Beetroot consumption based on pickled beets generally in Hungary which is due to the higher yield from second crop harvested in autumn and processed by manufacturing industry. Researches of the past years confirmed its favourable nutritional-physiological effects on human body so demands, as for fresh salad, also increased. The trial aimed at testing the interaction of varieties on quality parameters and in the same time suggestions are made how to use different varieties of beetroot according to its quality. Morphological and sensory evaluations were examined on 10 varieties of beetroot harvested in autumn. The regular spherical shape can reduce the refining loss during the processing of beetroot which is beneficial for the manufacturing industry. In our trial the root shape of Libero, Mona Lisa and Rubin varieties approached most the regular spherical shape (diameter/length – 1.0) which is favoured by not only processing industry but also fresh market. The highest red pigment content (betanin) was observed in Mona Lisa, Akela and Cylindra (34.58–47.66 mg/100 g). A similar trend could be observed in yellow pigments (vulgaxanthins) which proves the close correlation between the quantities of the two pigments (r=0.898). Highest total polyphenol (77.13–83.37 mg GAE/100g) and flavonoid (21.73–22.73 mg CE/100g) contents were detected in Akela, Mona Lisa and Bonel. These varieties are favourable for fresh salad and they can satisfy processing requirements also. Highest water soluble solids content was found in Akela (7.15%). In our conditions nitrate (NO3-N) values below 900 mg/kg were examined in all of the varieties which is favourable in the case of beetroot.

  • Effects of different rootstocks on the morphologic parameters of watermelon grafts during transplant production

    Before Hungary joined the EU watermelon production was a key sector of the Hungarian vegetable industry. Its production area shrank by nearly 60 % since 2004, it is only 5000 ha today. Stable and reliable market failed to evolve in the last years and extreme weather events occurred more frequently. An unfavourable growing season can notably affect the production volume of the next season. Information gathered in the last years support the assumption, that suitable stocks can help eliminate the issues caused by extreme weather or short-term crop rotation. Choosing the right grafted or non-grafted transplant is not enough any more, growers also have to select stock. In fruit and vine production choosing the stock, which is the most suitable for the technology is evident and this approach should be widely adapted by watermelon growers as well. In this research we investigated the growth parameters of different watermelon stocks and their effect on the scion during the transplant production. Measurements were carried out on seven different stock-scion combinations of the scion ’Topgun F1’ hybrid. Two of the stocks were interspecific (Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata) and five stocks were Lagenaria-type (Lagenaria siceraria) stocks. We made and recorded observations of the transplants’ length (cm), diameter of the stock and scion (mm), number of leaves (piece), root length (cm), root mass (g) and shoot mass (g). We concluded that early pricking out of transplants with interspecific stocks is successful due to their hardiness and vigorous growth. The effect of the ’Shintosa camelforce F1’ interspecific stock was outstanding. Furthermore, the results confirmed the practical observation that the root system of interspecific stocks grow vertically more allowing them to take up water and nutrients from lower soil layers in poor sandy soils. From the Lagenaria group the root system of the ’DG-01 F1’ was similar to the interspecific stocks’. It can be grown even in sandy soil, however other Lagenaria-type stocks are more suitable for production in hard soils with nutrient supply because of their compact root system. This study can serve as a basis for further research in the topic that can conduce to site- and technology-specific stock selection.

  • The size of the canopy of sour cherry trees depends on the time of pruning

    The intensive culture of sour cherry is achieved by training of trees to form smaller canopies not by means of dwarfing rootstocks but by growth moderation techniques. The rootstocks traditionally used cause vigorous growth, and it is up to the technology to apply procedures less utilised earlier for that purpose. One of those techniques is the transfer of hibernal pruning to the estival period. The best term of the latter is the period of 1-3 weeks after fruit harvest.

    The prolongation of the period of favourable illumination and the reduction of the canopy size facilitate higher densities of planting (number of trees per hectare) and a better exploitation of the crown (specific yield). The regular use of summer pruning resulted also in a better quality of fruit.

  • Hungarian apple growing and marketing on the doorstep of the European Union

    The scope of apple growing and marketing has been determined by the economic and political systems in the recent decades. One may follow the booms and collapses in the Hungarian apple industry. Re-establishment of the market economy gives new chances for recovery in the fruit section as well.

    Reconstruction of the apple industry has started with private ownership of lands. In the present work we characterise the still existing apple farms inherited from the previous system, present the newly established orchards in detail, deal with the present state of apple commerce and finally, we try to predict the near future of Hungarian apple industry.

  • Pál Maliga, founder of the research in floral biology of fruit species in Hungary

    Pál Maliga founded the Hungarian research in floral biology of fruit species during his more than forty-year-long carrier. Almost all pome and stone fruit species have been covered by his activities, but he also dealt with the fertility of walnut and chestnut. Regularities have been revealed and the methodical studies opened the way to approach and elaborate alternatives for the association of varieties in planning high yielding commercial plantations. In his breeding activity the choice of crossing parental varieties was based on the knowledge in fertility relations. The obtained sour cherry varieties represent the world-wide maximum quality, reliability and security of yields. Hungarian renewed sour cherry cultivation owes its fame and prosperity to those varieties, nevertheless also to the radical knowledge of the biological bases of fertility.

  • GIS utilization in the site selection of a new fruit plantation

    GIS utilization in the site selection of a new fruit plantation