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The future of the apple growing branch in Hungary
91-98.

The present study deals with the actual situation of the Hungarian apple production in order to outline the chances of the future and the trends of the development to be anticipated. The general conclusion is accepted that on the long run Hungarian apple production ought to be reorganised. The conditions of keeping the position on the international market are outlined. The main concern is the aging of the plantations, i.e. 40%of them being more than 25–30 year old, and produce apple being suitable for processing only. Organisation of growers is rudimentary, export markets are limited, and buyer’s market is everywhere dominant and is getting more severe. All those circumstances anticipate the reduction of the apple growing branch from the present 35 000 hectares to 15–20 000 hectares within a period of less than 10 years.

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Review of the molecular background of self-incompatibility in rosaceous fruit trees
7-18.

This review gives a presentation of the gametophytic self-incompatibility system in the roscaeous fruit trees. Studies to discover the pistil (S-ribonucleases) and pollen-part components (F-box molecules) are summarized and models for the self-incompatibility reactions as well as their molecular background are discussed. We describe how mutations within the S-RNase or F-box genes can contribute to the transition from self-incompatibility to the self-compatible phenotype in many fruit tree crops. The current state of the arts is compared to the information obtained in other plant species possessing similar incompatibility system.

152
197
Translocation of diquat dibromide
105-107.

The aims of our work were to answer the following questions: 1. Diquat dibromide at different concentrations is a contact or systemic herbicide? 2. if translocation occurs what is the extent and direction of it. 3. by what concentration it is translocated in hydroponics. It has been stated that diquat dibromide at different dilutions (40-5%) had systemic effect in Robinia pseudo-acacia in the fields. Its translocation has been occurred apically first, and later basipetally. The extent of translocation depended on the concentration. In hydroponics diquat dibromide has crytallized on the leaf surface of Galinsoga parvif lora and all concentrations (40-0.078%) proved lethal. Recognition and application of systemic characteristics of diquat dibromide is reported here for the first time. Improvement of application method is in the focus of our future work.

99
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Branching features of apple cultivars in integrated and organic production technology
11-14.

In our study, vegetative characteristics of 39 apple cultivars were evaluated in environmentally friendly production systems. Numbers of the branches of the central leader in different high zones were shown. According to our results, number of the branches of the axis was probably larger in the integrated production system, compared to the organic one, which is related to the conditional status of the trees. Based on our experiences training and maintaining canopies in integrated system was easier, as relative more extensive canopies were needed in organic farming.

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Micro area based spatial distribution of apple scab in an organic apple orchard
21-23.

In this study, the objective was to report a two-year investigation on micro area based spatial distribution of apple scab in an organic apple orchard. Results showed that number of symptomatic plant part ranged between 587 and 623 on leaf and between 46 and 78 on fruit for an individual tree. Number of asymptomatic plant part ranged between 1034 and 1321 on leaf and between 119 and 193 on fruit. Disease incidence ranged between 35 and 40% on leaf and between 27 and 33% on fruit. Disease aggregation index ranged between 0.115 and 0.298 on leaf and between 0.117 and 0.221 on fruit. Three of the four trees showed significant within canopy aggregation of disease for leaf apple scab symptoms in both years. For fruit apple scab, two of the four trees showed significant random patterns in both years.

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Induce the plant resistance to pathogen infection
89-93.

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a mechanism of induced defense that confers long-lasting protection against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. Salicylic acid (SA) is the signal molecule which is required for induce SAR and is associated with accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins, which are thought to contribute to resistance. SA paly vital role in some related resistance gene expression in plant cell which have direct or indirect effect on pathogen growth as SA has direct toxicity for pathogen and in the same time has stimulation effect for some enzyme related to reduce the oxidative burst.

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First results of varios sour cherry cultivar on Oblacsinska as interstocks and Prunus mahaleb rootstocks
87-90.

At the experiment orchard of the Fruit Research and Extension Institute, Újfehértó, Hungary in spring 2000 a trial was designed included: Erdi bőtermő, Debreceni bőtermő, and Csengődi sour cherry (Prunus avium L) cultivars which were budded at 1999 on Oblacsinska sour cherry (as a dwarf inter stock), which had been budded on Prunus mahaleb seedlings at 1998 with the aim to investigate the dwarfing effects of Oblacsinska sour cherry cultivars on scion cultivars. Trees of each cultivar directly on Prunus mahaleb seedling, severd as controls. Use of Oblacsinska as an interstock reduced the rootstock trunk diameter. Trees of Debreceni bőtermő, and Cseng6di sour cherry cultivars with Oblacsinska interstock were smaller than similar trees grafted directly onto Prunus mahaleb as a rootstock. Trees of Erdi bőtermő grafted on Oblacsinska interstock which buded on Prunus mahaleb were the smallest. Growth of the trees was reduced also by using of the Oblacsinszka as interstock for other examined cultivars.

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Evaluation of crop yield and fruit quality in organic apple production
7-10.

In this study, crop yield and fruit quality parameters (soluble solid concentration, sugar, total acid, and vitamin C content) of 15 apple cultivars including old, resistant and currently grown cultivars. The highest fruit yield among all 15 cultivars was obtained on CV. Jonagold with 15.5 kg/tree, while the lowest yield was measured on the resistant cultivar Reanda with 8.1 kg/tree. There were no significant differences among the cultivars in fruit diameter ranging from 70 mm in the case of cv. Húsvéti rozmaring to 82 mm for cv. Mutsu. Values of soluble solids concentration of the cultivars varied between 15.5% for cv. Téli Banán and 19.2% for cv. Renora. Sugar content values showed a similar tendency to soluble solids content. The highest and lowest total sugar content was observed on cvs. Jonagold and Renora and cv. Re­tina with 17% and 12.4%, respectively. Total acid content values ranged between 0.18% and 0.53% for cvs. Jonagold and Remo, respectively. Values of vitamin C content for the 15 apple cultivars varied between 2 mg% and 4 mg% for cv. Retina and cv. Mutsu, respectively.

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Effects of indole-3-butyric acid levels and activated charcoal on rooting of in vitro shoots of apple rootstocks
25-28.

Rooting responses of rootstocks cvs. JTE-F1, M. 26 and MM. 106 were studied to different concentration of IBA in root induction media and to presence of activated charcoal in root elongation media. High rooting rate (>90%) could be achieved in cvs. JTE-H and M. 26, while cv. MM. 106 showed weak rooting ability at each IBA level tested. Increasing IBA content depressed the rooting only in cv. M. 26. Presence of activated charcoal decreased considerable the rooting rate in cv. M. 26 and decreased the number of roots in cvs. JTE-H and M. 26. These cultivars developed longer roots on media containing activated charcoal, while cv. MM. 106 did not showed any reaction for it.

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Vegetative parameters of apple cultivars in integrated and organic production systems
15-18.

Success of apple production is highly influenced by the applied production system and the planted cultivar. In this paper growing characteristics of 39 apple cultivars were studied in integrated and organic production systems. These kind of parameters are less studied in the cultivar and training system examinations, although they have huge effect on the training and maintaining of canopy, on the pruning necessity, ultimately on the production costs. According to our results the thickness of the central axis of apple trees showed significant differences between the integrated and the organic systems. Axis of the trees with lower trunk thickness tapers more slightly in the integrated production system, than in the case of the trees with thicker trunk in the organic system. Thicker axis is not accompanied by thicker trunk, namely the thickness of the central leader starts to decrease stronger in the organic production system, compared to the integrated one.

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Self-incompatibility alleles in Esatern European and Asian almond (Prunus dulcis) genotypes: a preliminary study
23-26.

Almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb.] as one of the oldest domesticated plants is thought to have originated in central Asia. Gametophytic self-incompatibility of almond is controlled by the highly polymorphic S-locus. The S-locus encodes for an S-ribonuclease (S-RNase) protein in the pistils, which degrades RNA in self-pollen tubes and hence stops their growing. This study was carried out to detect S-RNase allelic variants in Hungarian and Eastern European almond cultivars and Turkish wild growing seedlings, and characterize their S-allele pool. Five new alleles were identifi ed, S31H, S36-S39 in Eastern European local cultivars. The village Bademli and Akdamar island are two distinct places of almond natural occurrence in Turkey. Trees growing wild around Bademli city showed greater genetic diversity than those originated on Akdamar island. Many of the previously described 45 S-RNase alleles have been also detected in these regions. Homology searches revealed that Turkish almonds carried some P. webbii alleles indicating hybridization between the two cultivars and massive introgression events. Our results supply long-awaited information on almond S-allele diversity from regions between the main cultivation centres and the centre of origin of this species; and are discussed from the aspect of methodological developments and evolution of the cultivated almond.

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What mechanisms are involved in cabbage-clover intercropping and a further proof of the 'host plant quality' hypothesis
47-51.

Over 10 years of field trials show reductions of most of the pests in Brassicas undersown by clover. The pest-reducing effects are due to the 'appropriate / inappropriate landings' hypothesis (Finch, 1996), and the 'host plant quality' hypothesis (Theunissen, 1994). To find out the mechanisms within the 'host plant quality' hypothesis in the most promising intercropping (collards undersown by clover) glasshouse experiments were conducted to see whether intercropping influences the mean relative growth rate, fecundity and time of maturity of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) a common pest of Brassicas.

The treatment modelling intercropping showed the smallest mean relative growth rate, delayed the maturity and slowed down the growth of cabbages. The treatment modelling monocropping showed the highest mean relative growth rate and the maturity was reached earlier. These results may indicate that intercropping delays the growth of settled aphid populations, giving another proof that in the case of clover undersown cabbages the 'host plant quality' hypothesis is likely to be acting. The differences between treatments where the roots of clover and cabbages were separated and allowed to grow together suggest that the effect is via the roots by competition.

 

103
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Effect of a nanotechnology-based foliar fertilizer on the yield and fruit quality in an apple orchard
29-32.

Nutrient management is a determining element of the technology in fruit production. Significance of foliar fertilization has been increased continuously over the last years, as it can improve directly the vegetative and generative performance of the trees. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of a nanotechnology-based foliar fertilizer (Bistep) with 1, 3, and 5 l/ha dosages on the yield and fruit quality parameters in an apple orchard during 2016 and 2018. According to our results, crop load increased with 29% in the third year of the experiment with the application of 5 l/ha Bistep treatment compared to the control treatments. Fruit weight was also improved in each year, as values of fruit weight in all treatments were higher than the control one (3.0-13.0% growth). Fruit surface color increased with 2-18% due to the foliar fertilizer. During the three years, leaf length was 9.5-9.9 mm on the control trees, as 9.8-10.4 mm was measured on the fertilized ones. In conclusion, yield and fruit quality can be improved in apple orchard using a nanotechnology-based foliar fertilizer.

385
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Tending operation models for white poplar (Populus alba L.) stands growing under sandy soil conditions
125-127.

Integrated research aimed to intensify the practices of afforestation especially of white poplar and grey poplar woods. A new, simplified tending procedure has been developed to substitute earlier models considering the target diameter by right spacing as a tool to achieve adequat quality of logs. The practice-oriented model may help the qualitative improvement of white poplar growing technology in Hungary as well as in Serbia.

132
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Some aspects of disease management of cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii) with special reference to pesticide use
45-49.

In this review, some aspects of disease management of cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii) are summarised with special reference to pesticide use. In the first part of the review, we show the non-chemical control approach (e. g. removal of fallen leaves, planting resistant cultivar) against leaf spot. In the second part of the review, the effect of pesticides including fertilizers (urea) and fungicides on cherry leaf spot are discussed. Special attention are given to the fungicides of copper, dodine, captafol, captan, benomil, chlorothalonil, sterol demethylation inhibitors (e.g. fenarimol, fenbuconazole, myclobutanil, tebuconazole), and strobilurins about their effectiveness against cherry leaf spot. In the final part of the review, possibilities of cherry leaf spot control are discussed in integrated and organic cherry orchards.

403
385
In vitro sensitivity of Monilinia laxa to fungicides approved in integrated and organic production systems
59-61.

The aim of this study was to test the in vitro sensitivity of two isolates of Monilinia laxa to fungicides approved in integrated and organic production systems. In vitro efficacy of 7 fungicides (Champion 50 WP, Kocide 2000, Nordox 75 WG, Olajos rézkén, Kumulus S, Rézkén, Rézoxiklorid) and another 6 fungicides (Score 25 EC, Efuzin 500 SC, Systane, Folicur Solo, Zato Plusz, Rovral) approved in organic and integrated production systems, respectively, were tested against brown rot of sour cherry. The three isolates showed differences in sensitivity to fungicides. Fungicides (with active ingredients of copper and sulphur) applied in organic production showed relatively high percent growth capacity of M. laxa. Rézkén and Kocide 2000 showed the highest and Kumilus S the lowest efficacy against brown rot. Fungicides applied in integrated production showed relatively low percent growth capacity of M. laxa. Score 25 EC showed the lowest and Rovral and Folicur solso the highest efficacy against M. laxa.

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Comparative study of the vegetative and generative organs in pear varieties
21-25.

An assortment of 17 pear varieties was examined in 2006 at Keszthely, Department of Horticulture, Georgicon Faculty of Agriculture, Veszprem University. The selected varieties were planted in 1980, grafted on seedling rootstock and represented the majority of existing pear plantations in Hungary. The main objective was the determination of suitability of the most important varieties for the purpose of intensive growing technologies even when grafted on vigorous seedling rootstock. The most important growing and fruiting characteristics of the varieties have been assessed and evaluated from the point of view of productivity. We stated that the relations of the trunk or the main axis to the lateral branches and fruiting structures are all subject to varietal effects and are valuable indices of the growing character. The quotient of the diameters of trunk and branch should be around 0.3-0.4, and the relative frequency of fruiting structures (Dárda, nyárs, vessző) meaning the ability of branching and regeneration associated with accurate pruning policies are decisive from the point of view of promising success.

101
161
Floral biological studies on pear cultivars in relation to fire blight susceptibility
25-30.

Floral biological characteristics that may influence cultivar susceptibility to fire blight were studied in 10 pear cultivars in two Hungarian orchards from 1999 to 2003. The receptaculo-ovarial, automorphic nectary is usually bigger in tolerant cultivars than in susceptible ones. Nectary stomata are meso- or xeromorphic. Susceptible cultivars tend to have more xeromorphic stomata, where guard cells are located 1-3 cell rows below the epidermis. The size of nectar chambers is usually smaller in susceptible cultivars. Floral nectar, consisting mainly of glucose and fructose, is more abundant and less concentrated if the cultivar is susceptible to fire blight. The amount of chlorogenic acid was higher in the flowers of tolerant cultivars than in susceptible ones.

130
176
Isolation of living sperm cells and in vitro fusion of Torenia fournieri gametes
81-85.

In contrast to most angiosperms, Torenia contains a naked embryo sac and therefore has been considered since many years as an exciting model plant to study the double fertilization process of flowering seed plants. It is thus not surprising that the isolation of protoplasts from the female gametophyte has been reported already 20 years ago by Mol, the isolation of megaspores and megagametophytes has been published by the authors of this manuscript in 1996 and in 1999. The isolation of the male gametophyte and of sperm cells was published by the authors in 2004. The isolation of viable Torenia sperm cells is a crucial part of the elaboration of an in vitro fertilization system. Torenia sperm cells were isolated from in vivo — in vitro cultured pollen tubes. In this system pollen tubes first grow inside a cut style then follow their elongation in a solid isolation medium. The medium contained agarose in order to detain pollen tube contents. Released sperm cells and enzymatically isolated egg cells were collected and handled using glass micropipettes and transmitted to an electrofusion apparatus or polyethylene glycol containing media for fusion probes.

91
155
Callus induction on standard type Cymbidium cultivars
108-110.

Tissue cultured Cymbidium PLBs (protocormlike body) were used as starting material to induce embryogenic callus which could serve as objects of genetic transformation. We obtained callus using two methods. The first method was culturing the PLB segments for one month in liquid MS medium in the presence of 0.5 mg/1 benzyladenine and 0.05 mg/1 naphtylacetic acid followed by cultivation on the same composition solid medium with 0.5 g/l activated charcoal for an additional month. Callus formation was observed on 30% of the explants. The second way was to propagate the PLB segments on solid MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/1 thidiazuron. In these cultures we also observed callus formation on 20% of the explants.

99
154
Improved evaluation method for reliable distinction of poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) cultivars
68-73.

Investigating seven Hungarian standard cultivars (i.e. 'A1’, 'Kék Gemona', '13C-2`,'Kék Duna', `Kompolti M’, `Gödi N',

'Kozmosz) it was proved that for the reliable distinction between cultivars a complex analysis is necessitated. Because of the large morpho­phenological and production-biological plasticity of the species qualitative and quantitative features as well as alkaloid accumulation characters have to be evaluated simultaneously applying discriminant analysis.

It was proved by the investigations that some of the qualitative and quantitative characters included into the DUS evaluation procedure have slight importance for reliable distinction. As an example the majority of cultivars show high inhomogentity in such characters like the shape of stigmatic disc, the number of stigmatic lobes etc. Furthermore these characters never had been chosen for the goal of any practical selection and are modified by the weather conditions as well.

In the evaluation process the alkaloid accumulation characteristics (both qualitative and quantitative ones) have to be evaluated on a higher rank. For instance the high accumulation level of morphine in cv. 'A1' (10.5 %o), exceptionally high narcotine accumulation in 'Kék Gemona' (7.8 %o), or the low morphine accumulation level in cv. 'Kozmosz' (1.1 %o) proved to be proper characters for their distinction, alone. However, at the same time the weather conditions existing at the time of experiment have to be taken into consideration. From practical point of view, the years rich in precipitation and poor in sunshine are less suitable for distinction of cultivars selected for higher alkaloid accumulation, especially for production of codeine and thebaine characterized by a higher methylation level. Based on the example of 'Kék Gemona', the accumulation level of morphine decreases from 7.4 %o to 4.1 %o under such conditions, while thebaine and codeine disappear, practically.

 

138
153
Sunburn incidence of apples is affected by rootstocks and fruit position within the canopy but not by fruit position on the cluster
45-51.

Authors investigated sunburn incidence of apples on the combinations of three different growth inducing rootstocks (M.9,MM.106 and seedling) and five varieties (‘Smoothee’, ‘Golden Reinders’, ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Gloster’ and ‘Jonagold Jonica’). Symptoms were classified as sunburn browning, sunburn necrosis and photooxidative sunburn. The frequency of symptoms was recorded at various parts of the canopy (N, E,W, S, and lower canopy, upper canopy) and on the cluster (terminal, lateral). Cultivar susceptibility varied between 0.30 and 5.65% on M.9 rootstock, ‘Granny Smith’ seemed to be the most susceptible cultivar whereas relatively low percentage of damaged fruit was observed for ‘Gloster’. On MM.106 and seedling rootstocks, damage level was significantly lower than on M.9. Remarkable differences were not observed in the share of the three sunburn types between cultivars. The most common symptom observed was sunburn browning. Far less fruit was affected by sunburn necrosis and photooxidative sunburn. Photooxidative sunburn symptoms were not found on ‘Granny Smith’ and ‘Gloster’ fruits on MM.106 rootstock. Latter cultivar did not show sunburn necrosis symptoms either. With increasing growing vigor of the rootstocks the share of sunburn browning increased. Fruits with sunburn symptoms were found in a great majority on theW quadrant of the trees. This was true for all cultivars. Remarkable differences in the location within the canopy of affected fruits between the three types of sunburn were not observed. Specific distribution of sunburned fruit was observed along the vertical axis of the canopy, too. Most of the damaged fruit were found in the upper canopy. This is particularly true for trees on vigorous stocks such as MM.106 and seedling. On M.9 rootstock, depending on cultivars 5.9 to 38.9% of sunburned fruit was located in the lower canopy. Most common symptom in the lower canopy was the sunburn browning, however symptoms of sunburn necrosis were not found at lower canopy level. Low rate of photooxidative sunburn was observed such lower canopy conditions. Sunburn incidence was very similar on king or side fruit. Significant differences were not found in the share of each sunburn types between fruit positions on the cluster. This was not influenced by rootstocks either.

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195
In vitro shoot multiplication of apple: comparative response of three rootstocks to cytokinines and auxin
36-39.

Shoot multiplication responses of rootstocks cvs. M.26, MM.106 and JTE-H to different concentration of BA, BAR and IBA in eight various combinations were tested on MS-medium. The effect of hormones depended on genotype, type of cytokinin and interaction of cytokinin and auxin. Shoot multiplication was significantly enhanced with the use of BAR as cytokinin. High multiplication rate could be achieved in cvs. M.26, MM.106 and JTE-H: 7.7, 6.9 and 9.9 shoots per explant, respectively.

173
207
Some relationships between soil and nutrient requirements and nutrient supply of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) with respect to types grown in Hungary
93-105.

Exports and local marketability of both pepper protected cultivation and open field pepper production depend on whether we succeed in the near future achieving developments capable of bringing about significant improvement of yield and quality, as well as enhanced yield security. Results from experiments and surveys carried out on farms involved in production suggest that nutrient management is one of the factors whose development could considerably improve the marketability of pepper. Technological improvements in the field of nutrient supply are also urged by the more and more demanding environmental regulations, so it is inevitable to introduce a balanced system of nutrient supply system for pepper as well. The article is a collection and summary of the relevant results of 30-year experimental work in Hungary.

139
158
Nectar production of pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars
67-75.

Detailed studies were made on the nectar production of 44, 16 and 18 pear cultivars, respectively, in a cultivar collection of pear during three consecutive years with highly different weather in the blooming. Results clearly show that pear does not necessarily produce small amount of nectar as stated in the world literature. In fact, pear can produce extremely high amount of nectar sometimes much higher than other temperate zone fruit trees species but its nectar production is highly subjected to weather, first of all to air temperature. Low nectar production seems to be more frequent than high one and cold weather can prevent its nectar production at all. On the other hand, results corroborate to the earlier statements on the low sugar concentration of pear nectar. There is a highly significant negative correlation between the amount of nectar produced by pear flowers and its sugar concentration (r = -0.52, n = 291, p< 0.001 for 1996, r = -0.34, n = 197, p< 0.001 for 1998). Sugar concentration in individual flowers may be up, to 40% in exceptional cases but generally it is well below 20%. Very high figures for sugar concentration in pear nectar at the literature seem to be incomprehensible. In contrast of some earlier statement in the literature no real difference could be established in the nectar production of pear cultivars, based on much more measurements than in earlier studies. Very low sugar concentration in pear nectar can explain the fact that the overwhelming majority of honeybees are pollen gatherers at pear trees even in the case of exceptionally high nectar production.

 

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