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  • An Analysis of the Leisure Preference System of Students with Disabilities in the Light of a Study
    98-115
    Views:
    648

    With the increase in the number of disabled people and people with disabilities, research on the target group of people with disabilities has gained momentum in recent decades. Research is very diverse, looking at the labor market situation of people with disabilities, their leisure-time habits, or the factors that support and inhibit their sport.

    In our questionnaire research, the leisure and sporting habits of children with disabilities aged 8-18 are described and analyzed (N = 639). Data were processed with spss software, where basic statistics and contextual analysis were performed. The results confirm that passive activities (TV, listening to music) dominate the leisure activities of children with disabilities. Sports consumption (active and passive) was more prevalent among male respondents and less prominent among girls. In the motivation of sports, besides improving the state of health, entertainment and company appeared.

  • Studies on Consumer Motivation Among Users Of Fitness Services
    442-453
    Views:
    269

    The rate of inactivity experienced world-wide is the cause of numerous health problems. The sedentary lifestyle of the population represents a great burden to a nation’s economy. The health indicators of Hungary are below the European average, not only those concerning physical activity, but also with respect to  smoking, nutrition, and alcohol consumption [1]. In 2013, only 38% of the Hungarian population exercised regularly, while 62% rarely or never [2]. The diseases associated with inactivity represent a higher burden to the economy than the costs of raising the level of activity would be [3]. Based on previous studies, the motivating factors for leisure athletes in Hungary are the preservation of health, to increase physical strength, relaxation, recreation, the love of exercising, and stress management [4; 5]. The sports facilities available to a wide range of people, the fitness clubs offer the possibility to join regular sports activities, which is why it is necessary to examine the motivation behind the participation of athletes taking part in the trainings provided by fitness facilities. Many previous studies examined the goals of athletes and the motivational factors behind exercising, and came to the conclusion that trainings held in fitness rooms and at home are related to intrinsic motivational factors, while taking part in other sports activities are related to intrinsic motivational factors [6; 7]. The focus of my study are leisure athletes using the services provided by fitness clubs (753 people), of whom I evaluated the motivational factors behind taking part in trainings. The results show that the motivational factors driving consumers of fitness services show a ranking that is identical to those of other leisure athletes, with most of them taking part in fitness trainings in order to preserve their health, to improve physical strength, and for recreational purposes, while the improvement of physical appearance also plays an important role.

  • Survey of the Service Offer of Fitness Clubs for Group Classes in Debrecen
    35-48
    Views:
    264

    The economic and social importance of the fitness sector is steadily increasing. The range of services provided by fitness centers is expanding and the popularity of fitness clubs is constantly growing. Fitness workouts are easily accessible for everyone, and there are numerous types of fitness centers which can play an important role in everyday physical activity. There are many factors that can influence the choice of fitness consumers for the gym, also fitness professionals play a key role in this regard. It is essential for fitness clubs in order to remain competitive on the market, to employ fitness instructors with the optimal personality and expertise, but in many cases, there is a lack of verification of qualifications. In our study, we conducted interviews with 20 fitness instructors who work in a fitness center that offers group lessons to consumers. The questionnaire included questions about consumer preferences, fitness facilities, trainers qualifications, and activities. Our study was made among eleven fitness clubs in Debrecen. The number of fitness clubs is constantly changing, with each year closing, opening or rebuilding fitness centers, which vary widely in size and number of services offered. The majority of respondent trainers are women as are the participants women in group lessons. Most of the interviewed trainers have OKJ qualifications, but the results reflect that fitness providers have not checked their qualifications at all before applying them. Fitness professionals play an extremely important role in leisure sports, contributing in maintainance and development of the fitness consumers’s health. Their work has a particular responsibility, as they can influence the physical and mental health of others in both positive and negative ways. Not only to avoid the risk of injuries, but also to prevent long-term health damage, fitness professionals play an important role. Controlling the qualifications also be in the interest of fitness clubs, not only avoiding accidents, but also increasing attendance at group classes by employing reliable, excellent personal trainers.

  • Roguelike Games: The Way We Play
    80-92
    Views:
    1021

    The spread of the gameable personal computers and game consoles resulted in the diversification of the video game genre, and from the 7th generation of the gaming consoles, the experience support of the games became largely enhanced. These games are now consumable owing to their resolution, the content, the plots are so fascinating so that they tie the gamer to the seat. Gamers seek experiences in the games. Still, such a special genre called roguelike was established, which is characterized by the constant termination of this world of experience in such a way that the gamer, as a results of the high level of difficulty, is obliged to start the game again and again. These new genre games are now leading titles of the new generation consoles, such as Demon’s Souls or the Returnal, gaining huge role in the introduction and sale of the new gaming console PS5. This study aims to reveal specifications of this genre, moreover, aims to describe through empirical research how gamers relate to it, and whether features of these games contribute to the devotion to them or lead to the disappointment from this world of experience. 

  • Investigating the Motivation of Adventure Park Visitors
    106-126
    Views:
    272

    In the world of runaway, “homo-sitting” and mobile telephones, the quality of leisure time is gaining increasing importance, most of which is the experience gained and the characteristics of existing natural factors. A variety of thematic and adventure parks are reported every year, increasing travel and visitors' growth every year, the service offering of which broadly satisfies the needs of modern man and kind. In the focus of our research, we set the link between recreational habits and motivation of adventure park visiting. Use the survey questionnaire to calibrate consumer habits (n = 408). There were significant differences in the number of factors studied, such as those who seek more physical activities in their free time and prefer to respond to the challenge and extravagance motivating motivation in each of the adventure parks, or even for leisure-time enthusiasts. Our research reveals that service providers should consider targeting their leisure time habits, for example, they can benefit from a thorough consumer mapping from the point of view of electoral motivation.

  • Comparative Analysis of Equestrian Facilities in the North Great Plain Region
    79-93
    Views:
    376

    Equestrian services appear in recreation, sports and tourism as well. The favorable natural and cultural values of Hungary and the image of the equestrian nation based on the traditions of the horse provide a favorable background for the development of supply elements. The lowland character and horse culture of the Northern Great Plain region, and the continuous development of horseback riding services here, reinforces the equestrian supply element in the field of sport and leisure. Our in - depth interviews were conducted among service providers with a “horseshoe rating” (N = 11) operating in the Northern Great Plain Region. The results show that all service providers consider and plan the development of equine, infrastructure and human resources, although the source of its financing is different (from state, other successful businesses, realized business results of equestrian enterprises). Equestrian service providers with no horseshoe rating have identified the improvement of quality, the 3, 4, and 5 horseshoe qualified service providers for the expansion of the complex program offering and product diversification.

  • COVID-19 Pandemic Impact on Employees’ Physical Activity
    72-84
    Views:
    755

    Globalization and the recent explosive development of technology have significantly changed people’s lifestyles resulting in an increase in the number of people living a sedentary lifestyle. COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the situation and created an unprecedented situation in the world. In the present study, we investigate changes in the physical activity and sedentary behavior of adult workers caused by the coronavirus epidemic. In our online cross-sectional research, we used snowball methodology. The target group of the survey was adult workers. 108 people filled in the questionnaire, the majority (73.1%) are women, the average age is 37.18 years and most of them have higher degrees (Diploma: 74%, PhD: 14%). The present study revealed a decrease in physical activity and an increase in sedentary time for the employees in our study. Despite respondents detected a decrease in their physical activity, an increase was reported in the proportion of online training participants. The majority of respondents partially, or totally switched to work from home during the pandemic, which may further increase their sedentary lifestyle. We did not find significant differences among the domain of work and leisure time or occupational physical activity patterns. The workplace is a great opportunity for promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary time in the adult working population, therefore it would be important for organizations, decision-makers and health professionals to work on the design of strategies to these goals.

  • Sport Civic Society – Approaches and Facts
    158-166
    Views:
    201

    After the change of regime in Hungary in 1989, the domestic civic sphere started to improve, and after numerous change in the legal regulation, currently the Act on Civic Organizations (Act 174/2011.) rules the operation of the sector before all, supplemented by additional legal background. The vital component of the new regulation is possibility of the appearance of the novel organizational form, the civic society, which is quite odd even considering the past and even on international level. The database enabling the statistical overview of the domestic nonprofits publish the end of 2019 provides no information on the data and operational features for this organizational form, which provides a thorough reason for the researcher to be interested in the topic and the organizations. Through the possible secondary data, a primary database of a lately done sports civic organization related research includes such basic data (even its sample height is small), which may be considered as a starting point at the examination of the specifications of the sports related civic societies.

  • Analysis of the Supply of Sport Services by Organizational Aspects
    465-474
    Views:
    256

    The spread of consumer societies has led to the commercialization, and the emergence of profit-oriented operating frameworks in the fields of sport. The sports enterprises, involved in the operation of competing groups on professional, spectator fields of sport have already been examined from legal, economic, organizational points of view by a number of international and Hungarian researchers. In this article, we attempt to cover and summarize the Hungarian research approaches on this subject. The motive behind our investigation is that we should launch an organizational examination of the Hungarian profit-oriented sports suppliers in the near future. We plan to analyse the property, financial, income, organizational, management and labor management related situation of these sports enterprises. In order to ground the research, the review nature summary of domestic economic, organization science related secondary examinations is essential, which allows the development of the appropriate research methodology and the comparison of our results with the antecedents.

  • Investigation of Parental Roles in Relation to Youth Football
    105-114
    Views:
    126

    My research is based on the fact that, thanks to the development of sports and the capital flowing into the sector, youth sports are no longer just a useful way of spending free time for children and a mean for educating them for a healthy lifestyle, but also an opportunity to lay the foundation for an adult sports career and, with it, secure future existence. In order for the training to be effective and productive, one of the many components is the existence of parental support. Youth competitive sports pose many challenges for a family and influence their lives from several aspects. In my research, I examined how youth sports affects parents in terms of certain demographic variables, what changes it generates in their family life, and I also paid attention to what expectations the family has about sports. The basis of the study is an online questionnaire survey, which was filled out by more than 700 parents of youth football associations. My research revealed that, in accordance with the previous literature related to the topic, their children's sports have a significant impact on the lives of the parents and they set different expectations regarding it, which are also influenced by various social and demographic factors.

  • Sports Civic Organizations-Subsidies and the Subsidy Exposure
    341-347
    Views:
    128

    When we discuss the topic of civic organizations, especially sports profile civic organizations we need to note and comment that issue how these organizational forms are able and capable to accept subsidies. The related data of the Central Statistical Office (KSH) highlight the phenomenon that incomes of the classic civic organizations are mainly composed of state or private source donations. Although there is a really and pretty predictable subsidy system in the field of civic sphere currently, from one hand the distribution of the single subsidy forms considerably vary, on the other hand it result in the considerable amount of available financial resources. The fact whether subsidy forms and subsidy incomes have relationship with the addition alvariables of the organizational operation, such as subsidies provided, employment relationship, and expenditures may acquire special attention at the management of organizational operation together with the planned strategic interventions in the field of the civic sphere. 

  • A Debreceni Egyetem Gazdaságtudományi Karának Controlling és teljesítménymenedzsment szakirány kurzusainak értékelése
    100-107
    Views:
    470

    It is of major importance for the Faculty of Economics and Business of the University of Debrecen to become familiar with the opinion of students about the education carried out at the University, therefore particular attention is given to the feedback of students related to education. Measurement and evaluation/reviews serve multiple purposes. Students may – if explicit written consent of the lecturer is provided – get to know the opinion of their fellow students about each course, lecturers may receive feedback about the reputation of their courses, the University and Faculties may acquire information about the overall opinion of their students about the training. Feedback is basically suitable for supporting the work aimed at the improvement of training quality. In the scope of present study the reviews submitted by the students of the Controlling and performance specialisation within the Management and Organisation course are introduced.

  • Wearable technology usage among students of the University of Debrecen
    33-47
    Views:
    109

    The lack of physical activity and the growing prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle are urgent public health problem worldwide. The problem is also typical of the young population, especially university students, who spend most of the day in a sitting position. Technological development is one of the catalysts for the rise of a sedentary lifestyle, nevertheless, thanks to this, many devices have appeared on the market that can be used to encourage physical activity. The widespread of wearable activity tracker devices – wristwatches, wristbands – among the population shows a constantly increasing trend, with a parallel increase in the amount of data collected about ourselves (step count, calories burned, heart rate). The main goal of the present study derives from the recognition of the gap in this field in the domestic sports science literature therefore our focus is on modern information technology tools in the dimension of physical activity. The aim of this study is to assess the attitudes of the university student population towards activity-tracking devices. We conducted a cross-sectional online quantitative survey (questionnaire) among DE GTK students. 340 people filled out the questionnaire correctly. In addition to descriptive statistics, parametric and non-parametric tests (Pearson's chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, t-test, Mann-Whitney test) were used to examine the relationships. The results of the statistical tests were considered significant if p<0.05. We performed the distribution of the variables using the Kolgomorov-Smirnov test. The majority of respondents (55%) have already tried some kind of wearable device that measures physical activity. Every third student (34%) are currently using their device. Those who have not tried these devices so far indicated the price as the primary deterrent. 32% of the students plan to invest in such a device in the future. 39% of device users use an activity tracker bracelet, while 61% use or used a smartwatch. In terms of sex, we did not find any differences in asset ownership. The primary goal of the students (66.8%) was to track their physical activity. The most frequently used function was tracking the number of steps, indicated by 81% of the respondents, followed by heart rate measurement (67%). Most of them (69%) set some kind of goal regarding their number of steps. According to every third student, they moved more as a result of the device and managed to maintain the increased level of physical activity. 44% of the students claimed that their physical activity did not change despite using the device. Students tend to disagree with the positive statements related to the devices in connection with a healthy lifestyle. Although the present study suggests that wearable devices have an impact on students and they track their measured data, it is questionable whether the devices themselves are enough of an incentive for students to develop a healthier lifestyle.

  • Szervezeti struktúra jellemzői spanyol labdarúgó kluboknál
    1-11
    Views:
    332

    In Hungary the developement of sport sector needs to changes in structural scheme of sport organizations. The question is that, in the different sports areasthe association-based sports model, or the buisness-based sports model can operate effectively. Nowadays, in addition to professional successes in sporting activities, Hungarian sports entities and professional sports enterprises do consider options for the most effective operations possible, and gather good international practices in order to establish such business-based sports models in Hungary that are efficiently operable. The business side of sports is particularly apparent in professional football. On a global scale, this sport clearly demonstrates the process of structural transformation that is directed at the realization of the appropriate form of enterprise and structural setup. This article has been written to describe the Spanish model by example of organizational scheme of Real Madrid and Barcelona FC.

  • Sectoral Analysis of Hungarian Professional Football Clubs - Hungarian Football Money League 2014-2016
    284-296
    Views:
    680

    Based on the model of the Deloitte Football Money League we recreated the „Hungarian Football Money League”, which gathers and analyses the most economically powerful Hungarian football enterprises. The model gave us an oppurtunity to analyse and compare the industry to the international level. With the hungarian professional football-enterprises we assume, the most economically powerful teams play in the NB. I. (National Championship). Because of this reason we only analysed NB 1. club teams. From the 12 participating team we selected only those 9 who stayed in the League for three consecutive years. The implications from this study is that the hungarian club teams stays well below the international level, altought top level enterprises' joint economical impact is indeed significant in the hungarian sportsector. 

  • Evaluation Opportunities tor Recreational Sport Services – Adapted to Higher Education Environment
    150-164
    Views:
    198

    In our study, we analyse various researches dealing with quality aspects of sport services, and different quality models related to the interpretation of quality. The results which were obtained in the framework of primary research activity present the opinions of students from five different research universities. Sport services’ operation and sustainability are determined by market regulations, as parts of the service industry. Considering that the university leisure sports services take place in a competitive environment, the universities often have to compete with external sports service providers for achieving confidence of the young generations. For the qualitative tests, we used the QSport-14 measurement scale, which is generally applied by sports centres. This scale investigates the sports services according to three different aspects: (1) instructors, (2) infrastructural facilities and equipment and (3) offered sport programs. We have adapted the measurement scale to the university environment because of the differences and special characteristics of external sports service providers and university sports services. In addition, we analysed the factors influencing recreational sports, and we also examined that what changes would be needed in order to improve the quality of recreational sport activities in higher education.

  • The Relationship Between Sports Civic Organizations and Human Resources
    146-154
    Views:
    203

    Every spring the Hungarian Central Statistical Office records through its ELEKTRA database system the human and economic related operation data of the past year of civic organizations. This data source is usually considered as a standard at the evaluation of the domestic civic sphere. Still, the available handout titled “Most important features of the non-profit sector”, applying mainly descriptive statistics only provides a brief picture of specifications of the sector. Parallel with it, its background database is available yearly, which provides a unique possibility for a researcher to perform secondary analysis aiming to reveal deeper relationship. The objective of our study is purely to reveal a minor part of this considerable field, the relationship between subsidies and human resources mainly due to the fact, that human resource in this sector is composed of employees and volunteers, and it is questionable whether subsidies have an impact on employment.  Results revealed that there is a relationship between human resources and subsidies, where mainly private nature subsidies have a strong impact equally on voluntariness and work related employment

  • Motivational Factors of Choosing BMX and Other Extreme Sports
    426-441.
    Views:
    430

    Extreme sports play an increasingly important role in the supply of recreational activities, as an increased consumer demand has shown a dynamic growth over the past decades. In our research, we investigated motivational factors related to leisure time and in particular BMX sport on a sample of 237 people who do extreme sports. Our results have revealed that BMX is mostly chosen by young men as a leisure time activity. The consumers of extreme sports are characterized by internal motivation, pursuit of their own boundaries, testing of novel and exciting activities and the need for doing joint activities with acquaintances and friends.

  • The characteristics of civil organisations for sports with special regards to employment
    701-711
    Views:
    396

    The aim of our article to compare the characteristics of the civil organisations operating in Hugary and in Romaina with special regards to the employment characteristics of the sport civil associations. We ascertained during our research work that the civil sector of the two investigated countries show several similarities. One of these similarities is the lag from the same sectors operating is Western-European countries. The use of volunteer working is a main characteristic of the employment in the civil sector however the paid work plays an important role too.

  • 3X3 Basketball Tournaments in Debrecen
    231-250
    Views:
    211

    Faster attacks, spin speed, increased adrenaline levels, vehement play. This is all about the 3X3 basketball. In Debrecen, the first 3X3 basketball matches were held in 2015, most of them did not even think that the sport would be popular in Hungary as well. Practically, from the start of the first minute, the games were played with great success. Following the successful settlement, the International Basketball Association immediately offered a 3-year contract to Debrecen. The purpose of our research was to examine the 3X3 basketball tournaments in Debrecen, which was analyzed using a questionnaire and an in-depth interview. 69% of the respondents participated in the 2016 and 2017 events, but only 37% attended the 3X3 basketball tournaments that were held for the first time in 2015. It can be stated that this trend is growing and the event is gaining popularity nationwide. Sponsors and sponsors covered every issue of the event so the event was free of charge over the years. 72% of fillers, however, are willing to spend money on a possible entry fee. In terms of revenue growth, the introduction of admission fees is unlikely to reduce interest. Up to 1200 seats have been filled up for the event every year. Therefore, it is not surprising that a lot of people would like to enjoy a higher auditorium with more space. The introduction of 4-point boundaries (3 points) for 3X3 matches would be a great opportunity to try the "little brother" of basketball in the 4-point so that it can be introduced in traditional basketball. Hungary became the pioneer of the sport due to the results of the Hungarian national team and the successful organization of sporting events.

  • Development Opportunities of Health, Wellness and Sports Services in Medical Tourism Based on a Research Study
    101-114
    Views:
    267

    The quality and quantity of additional services play an increasing role in the competitiveness of service providers in the tourism sector. In our research, our goal was to explore the service development possibilites of two different sites of a Northern Hungarian healthcare institution in the framework of a market research. In the field of services, we focused on different issues of health, wellness and sports services. Our research has shown that the availability of additional services and therapeutic recreational, sport or wellness services are important for patients as they can positively influence their quality of life and health status.

  • Why do not people attend football matches in Hungary?
    11-22
    Views:
    253

    Both international and domestic research on passive sport consumption focuses on the motivations of fans. However in Hungary, unlike the examples of North America and Western Europe, we have to look for answers to the question of why people do not go to football matches. In order to find an answer to this question, we conducted an online survey with a number of items of 347 people. For the latter a scale measuring absence from sport consumption was used and the reliability of the scales was tested by Cronbach's alpha calculation. After our principal component analysis, we developed 5 internal and 5 external factors, on which we conduct hypothesis test along demographic and sports consumption variables. Based on our results, we have established that, contrary to public opinion, the low number of spectators in Hungarian football matches is not only and primarily due to unsucces and the low quality of matches. Our respondents are mostly kept away from stadiums by football-related government measures, as well as by preferring to participate in other recreational program opportunities.

  • Extreme Sports Consumption Implications from a Re-search
    135-145
    Views:
    758

    Nowadays, more and more research focuses on recreational sports consumption, its motivational background, the determination of target group characteristics. Extreme sports are becoming more and more prominent in leisure sports and are increasingly represented in competitive sports. In our research, we are dealing with Extreme Sports Consumption, Questionnaires were collected in the form of a Google Survey, an online questionnaire survey, which was divided into groups of people who focused on individuals with a variety of social media and targeted extreme sport interests. Data was processed using IBM SPSS software, basic statistics and correlation analysis. Our results were also graphically illustrated. After data deletion, we processed 167 questionnaires. The results show that men prefer extreme sports. Our study shows that in Hungary, the most popular recreational extreme sports are cross cycling, rock climbing, mountain bike, paintball and skateboarding. Among young people with higher incomes, there is a significantly higher proportion of extreme sports consumption. Because expensive sport thus assumes higher discrepancies in income and higher spending propensity, which is confirmed by our research. The brand selection of sports equipment for young adults with extreme sports is not characterized by extreme sports-specific brands, but by classic market-leading sports brands (Nike, Adidas).

  • A Case Study on Human Resource Management Practice of a Sport Organization
    410-425
    Views:
    596

    Human resource with the adequate ability and skills is of decisive importance in all organizations, irrespective of the field of activity in which they operate. It is no different with the life of sports organizations. The human resource management of sports organizations is peculiar which is influenced by, on the one hand, the operating form of an organization, on the other hand, the nature of employment. Those well-known jobs can be also found in the sport organizations which are necessary to operate an organization and carry out the general tasks, at the same time, the amateur or professional athletes turn up as specific human resources. Aim of the study is to explore the specific characteristics of the human resource management of a particular organization, namely Debreceni Egyetem Atlétikai Club Sport Nonprofit Közhasznú Kft. (University of Debrecen Athletic Sport Non-profit Public Benefit Purpose Ltd., hereinafter: DEAC Ltd.), primarily focusing on the traditional HR functions. After reviewing the domestic and international specialized literatures, the practice of the examined sport organization will be described by means of case study, document analysis and managerial interview methods. Based on the results, it can be determined that there is no separate HR manager in case of the examined sport organization, due to its size, but the managing director carries out the tasks as an economic and HR manager in one person. From the aspect of organizational operation, the practice of HR functions is similar to the practice of other SME business organizations, at the same time, the management of athletics as human resources means its specific characteristic where the managements of labour supply, career and talent has other interpretation.

  • Volunteering in Sport
    217-230
    Views:
    557

    The subject of our research was the examination of the sports ambition and its motivational background. Our aim was to examine the volunteer experience of young adults in volunteering. Our goal was also to analyze the areas in which sports are chosen most voluntarily and what motivates them in sport. The basis for our questionnaire research was the concept of volunteering "4 W" (who, what, where, why). The questionnaire was designed to answer these questions in relation to sports ambition. The data of the questionnaire completed by 371 young adults (mean age = 23.93, sd = 9.93) were analyzed using SPSS statistical software, where we calculated basic statistics (mean, standard deviation, median, mode) and Chi2 test. More than 75% of the respondents have already worked as volunteers. One of the most popular areas of volunteering was sport. The most frequented volunteering area was among schoolchildren and students as well as university sports among young people, after which the area of competition and recreational sports proved to be the most popular. The main motivation of young volunteer workers was the following, : „I had a good mood”, „I loved sport”, „teamwork”, „work experience”, „learning and skill development” and „career perspective”. Organizations, marketing and communication areas in the field of sporting events and sportsclubs volunteering were the most popular in the area where the respondents had experience. A significant difference was found in the field of organizing and marketing volunteering in sports events, 61% of Hungarians worked, while respondents from other countries were only 34.2% (p <0.05). In the field of communication, higher values of respondents from other countries (45.7%), compared with Hungarians (33.7%) (p <0.05).

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